have great influence in overcoming obstinacy; for when be regarded as a dangerous medicine, which, if administerchildren iad that they cannot provoke to anger, nor vex ed without the utmost caution, may prove a deadly poison. the temper, they will generally give up the contest. Some If frightful objects, which have no real existence, be emchildren, who seem to manifest the greatest obstinacy, only ployed to terrify children into restraint of their feelings, or want to be calmly reasoned with, and to hear an adequate submission to authority, they will, in course of time, as cause assigned why they should act in one manner, and not their minds grow enlightened, discover the falsehood which in another; and when that wish is gratified, they will rea- has been used as a means of managing them; and is it not dily submit. Where such is evidently the disposition, it to be feared, that such a discovery may render the youthful deserves to be cherished, and not violently repressed ; be ear deaf to the representations of the beauty and propriety carse, when enlightened and properly directed, it may be and benefit of truth? the parent of unshaken fortitude and virtue.

The first and most important lessons for the human mind A very yonng daughter of a gentleman of high respecta- to learn, are those of self-government, self-denial, and subbility and well-known talents, but who had been mistaken mission to lawful authority. These are lessons which in the mode of managing his child, was committed to the throughout life, they will have to practise. Submission to care of a lady, a valued friend of the writer,—who, by those the will of the Universal Parent,—the righteous and merci. means, has had the satisfaction and happiness of ameliorat- ful Moral Governor; compliance with the precepts of our ing many a sullen and obstinate temper, and even of sub- holy religion ; obedience to the laws of our country ; the stituting gentleness and pliability for obstinacy and irrita- partial sacrifice, at least, of our own individual feelings and bility, with the discouraging declaration, that he feared conveniences to the common good, regulations, and customs the case was hopeless the mental malady incurable. The of society. These are duties, upon the fulfilment of which moral physician, however, after mature examination of depend, in the highest degree, personal comfort and public symptoms, discovered the nature of the disease, and applied welfare. The foundation of such habits and of such prin. the proper remedy. Instead of insisting upon blind com-ciples cannot, therefore, be laid too early. And certainly pliance with commands and rules, she condescended to ex this can be effected without the instrumentality of terror, plain to the thinking, strong-minded girl, the reasons and and without the risk of generating enfeebling timidity in motives upon which compliance was required, and pointed the breasts of our children. ogt its beneficial results. The consequence of which mode With these observations, I take my leave for the present, of treatment was, that the obstinacy which had resisted the and am, &c. reverence of paternal authority, lonely seclusion, being fed

A FRIEND TO EARLY EDUCATION. with bread and water, and bodily pain, gave way; and the Edinburgh, Nov. 7th, 1832. formerly mutinous girl exclaimed, with some apparent vexation, “ I can't think how it is, but Mrs. makes

Letter 1. appeared in No. 8. we do just what she pleases, in spite of myself!". The perrerse child is become an amiable, as well as sensible, well

TO MY CIGAR. informed, and steady woman.

Let others scent the liquid rose, When mild but decided measures are pursued in educa

And perfumes give the pamper d pose,

Be mine, the sweets thy sigh disclose, tion, young children will seldom need greater punishment

My mild cigar! than confinement, or being deprived of some amusement or pleasure, to curb their passions. They will probably cry

When wintry winds the features nip, when they are thus treated, but their tears should be disre

What cheers my purple nose and lip, garded till they are submissive. But they ought never to

While gaily o'er ihe ice 1 skip?

My warm cigar! be confined where there is any danger of their being frightened. Fear, with some children, may be a constitutional

When yellow fogs obscure the day, defect, but it is more probable to be, in most instances, an

And prowling sharpers prowl for prey, aeqnired one, arising solely from the manner in which they

What lights me through the dubious way? have been treated in infancy. Like other things, it may be

My bright cigar! early impressed on the mind, which impressions, for the

When night appears with dusky veil,

And Cynthia shows her visage pale, most part, it is difficult to remove in after life, at least so as to be entirely got rid of. For instance, there are many

How fragrantly thy fumes inhale,

My sweet cigar! sensible persons who have been slaves all their lives to the fear of darkness, from the circumstance of having, when

When cares oppress the drooping mind, children, been impressed with it by foolish stories of ghosts

And fickle friends are most unkind,

Who constant still remains behind ?--and apparitions being seen in the dark, and to which they had attached the idea of fear, thus associating in the mind

My true cigar! the idea of tear with that of darkness, so as to make them

Oh! where's the friend who'd cheerfully, quite inseparable; and, notwithstanding reason in riper

To soothe one pensive hour for me, age may bave shown them the absurdity of this, still they

Resign his latest breath like thee? were incapable of totally overcoming the impression. Hence

My kind cigar! the propriety of guarding the minds of children from such

Then come, sweet stranger, come-once more impressions, by preventing their hearing such ridiculous sto

Go seek again thy native shoreries. Another thing which ought to be equally guarded

May soft winds waft thine essence o'er, against in those who have the care of children, is threaten

My poor cigar! ing them, in order to prevent their touching what is impro Thy spirit's gone, poor fragile thing ! per, that it will bite them! Or, when they are behaving

But still thine ashes, mouldering, improperly, to call for the old man to come down the chim

To me a valued lesson bring, ney to take them! They leave impressions on the mind of

My pale cigar! a highly injurious nature. If terror be deemed by any as

Like man's, how soon thy vital spark absolutely necessary for the government of children, let it Expiring, leaves no other mark

But mould'ring ashes, drear and dark, ." A short time ago, in this neighbourhooxt, a young girl about seven

My dead cigar! years of age, whose imagination had been filled with those frightful bunery tales that are conjured up by ignorant servants, and others, to

And when I watch, with curious eyes, frigten children into obedience, was thrust into a dark closet for some

Thy smoke ascend yon azure skies, tale che bad carried to her parents. The poor thing continued to scream with the most violent apprehension, and when the door was opened to

It bids me hope like thee to rise, take her from her abode of terror, she was lying on the ground in strong

My frail cigar! carulsions. The conflict was too powerful for her tender reason, and she now exists one of the most raiserable objects of human sympathy.

And 'twixt his finger and his thumb he held Her parents and friends see their hopes blasted, -their interesting little

A pouncet box, which ever and anon favourite is now an idiot!"-Glasgow Chronicle, March, 1827.

He gave his nose. - Hotspur's top.


a rich reward in a climate improved in salubrity, in an

abundant supply of food, besides much positive enjoyment THE SOURCES OF HUMAN HAPPINESS.

attending the exercise of the powers themselves. Those BY GEORGE COMBE, ESQ.

communities, on the other hand, who neglect to use their Our readers, to go on well, must resume Mr. Combe's mental faculties, and muscular and nervous energies, are thread of reasoning from last number. We repeat the con- punished by ague, fever, rheumatism, and a variety of paine

ful affections, arising from damp air; are stinted in food ; necting sentence :

and, in wet seasons, are brought to the very brink of starAccording to the view now advanced, creation, in its vation by total failure of their crops. This punishment is present form, is more wisely and benevolently adapted to a benevolent admonition from the Creator, that they are our constitution than if intuitive instruction had been neglecting a great duty, and omitting to enjoy a great pleashowered on the mind at birth. By the actual arrange- sure ; and it will cease as soon as they have fairly redeemed ment, numerous noble faculties are bestowed ; their objects the blessings lost by their negligence, and obeyed the laws are presented to them; these objects are naturally endowed of their being. with qualities fitted to benefit and delight us, when their The winds and waves appear, at first sight, to present in. uses and proper applications are discovered, and to injure surmountable obstacles to man leaving the island or conti. and punish us for our ignorance, when their properties nent on which he happens to be born, and to his holding are misunderstood or misapplied ; but we are left to find intercourse with his fellows in distant climes: But, by obout all these qualities and relations by the exercise of the serving the relations of water to timber, he is able to confaculties themselves. In this manner, provision is made struct a ship; by observing the influence of the wind ons for ceaseless activity of the mental powers, and this consti- physical body placed in a fluid medium, he discovers the tutes the greatest delight. Wheat, for instance, is produced use of sails; and, finally, by the application of his faculties, by the earth, and admirably adapted to the nutrition of the he has found out the expansive quality of steam, and traced body; but it may be rendered more grateful to the organ its relations until he has produced a machine that enables of taste, more salubrious to the stomach, and more stimu- him almost to set the roaring tempest at defiance, and to lating to the nervous and muscular systems, by being strip- sa il straight to the stormy north, although its loudest and ped of its external skin, ground into flour, and baked by its fiercest blasts oppose. In these instances we perceive fire into bread. Now, the Creator obviously pre-ar- external nature admirably adapted to support the mental ranged all these relations, when he endowed wheat with its faculties in habitual activity, and to reward us for the exproperties, and the human body with qualities and func-ercise of them. tions. In withholding congenial and intuitive knowledge It is objected to this argument, that it involves an incon of these qualities and mutual relations, but in bestowing sistency. "Ignorance, it is said, of the natural laws is nefaculties of individuality, form, colouring, weight, construc- cessary to happiness, in order that the faculties may obtain tiveness, &c. fitted to find them out ; in rendering the exer- exercise in discovering them ;-nevertheless, happiness is cise of these faculties agreeable ; and in leaving man, in impossible till these laws shall have been discovered and this condition, to proceed for himself, he appears to me to obeyed. Here, then, it is said, ignorance is represented as have conferred on him the highest boon. The earth pro. at once essential to, and incompatible with, enjoyment. duces also hemlock and fox-glove; and, by the organic The same objection, however, applies to the case of the bee. law, those substances, if taken in certain moderate quanti- Gathering honey is necessary to its enjoyment; yet it can. ties, remove diseases ; if in excess, they occasion death ; not subsist and be happy till it has gathered honey, and but, again, man's observing faculties are fitted, when ap- therefore that act is both essential to, and incompatible plied, under the guidance of cautiousness and reflection, to with, its gratification. The fallacy lies in losing sight of make this discovery: and he is left to make it in this way, the natural constitution, both of the bee and of man. While or suffer the consequences of neglect.

the bee possesses instinctive tendencies to roam about the Farther, water, when elevated in temperature, becomes fields and flowery meadows, and to exert its energies in la. steam; and steam expands with prodigious power; this bour, it is obviously beneficial to it to be furnished with power, confined by muscular energy, exerted on metal, and motives and opportunities for doing so; and so it is with directed by intellect, is capable of being converted into the man to obtain scope for his bodily and mental powers. steam-engine, the most efficient, yet humble servant of man. Now, gathering knowledge is to the mind of man what gaAll this was clearly pre-arranged by the Creator ; and thering honey is to the bee. Apparently with the view of man's faculties were adapted to it: but still we see him effectually prompting the bee to seek this pleasure; honey left to observe and discover the qualities and relations of is made essential to its subsistence. In like manner, and water for himself. This duty, however, must be acknow- probably with a similar design, knowledge is made indisledged as benevolently imposed; the moment we discover pensable to human enjoy nient. Communicating intuitive that the Creator has made the very exercise of the faculties knowledge of the natural laws to man, while his present pleasurable, and arranged external qualities and relations constitution continues, would be the exact parallel of gorgso beneficially, that, when known, they carry a double re. ing the bee with honey in midsummer, when its energies ward in adding by their positive influence to human grati- are at their height. When the bee has completed its store, fication.

winter benumbs its powers, which resume their vigour only The knowing faculties, as we have seen, observe the mere when its stock is exhausted, and spring returns to afford external qualities of bodies, and their simpler relations. them scope. No torpor resembling that of winter seals up The reflecting faculties observe relations also, but of a high- the faculties of the human race; but their ceaseless activi. er order. The former, for example, discover that the soil ty is amply provided for. Ist, The laws of nature, com. is clay or gravel; that it is tough or friable ; that it is pared with the mind of any individual, are of boundless wet, and that excess of water impedes vegetation ; that in extent, so that every one may learn something new to the one season the crop is large, and in the next deficient. The end of the longest life. 2dly, By the actual constitution reflecting faculties take cognizance of the causes of these of man, he must make use of his acquirements habitually, phenomena. They discover the means by which wet soil otherwise he will lose them. 3dly, Every individual of the may be rendered dry; clay may be pulverised; light soil race is born in utter ignorance, and starts from Zero in the may be invigorated, and all of them made more productive; scale of knowledge, so that he has the laws to learn for also the relationship of particular soils to particular kinds himself. of grain. The inhabitants of a country who exert their These circumstances remove the apparent inconsistency. knowing faculties in observing the qualities of their soil, If man had possessed intuitive knowledge of all nature, he their reflecting faculties in discovering its capabilities and could have no scope for exerting his faculties in acquiring relations to water, lime, manures, and the various species of knowledge, in preserving it, or in communicating it. "The grain, and who put forth their muscular and nervous ener- infant would have been as wise as the most reverend sage, gies in accordance with the dictates of these powers, receive and forgetfulness would have been necessarily excluded.

Those who object to these views, imagine that after the , that we can be happy here only by becoming acquainted human race has acquired knowledge of all the natural with the qualities and modes of action of our own minds laws, if such a result be possible, they will be in the same and bodies, with the qualities and modes of action of extercondition as if they had been created with intuitive know- nal objects, and with the relations established between ledge ; but this does not follow. Although the race should them; in short, by becoming thoroughly conversant with acquire the knowledge supposed, it is not an inevitable con- those natural laws, which, when observed, are pre-arranged quence that each individual will necessarily enjoy it all : to contribute to our enjoyment, and which, when violated, which, however, would follow from intuition. The entire visit us with suffering, we may safely conclude that our soil of Britain belongs the landed proprietors as a class ; mental capacities are wisely adapted to the attainment of but each does not possess it all; and hence every one has these objects, whenever we shall do our own duty in bringa scope for adding to his territories; with this advantage, ing them to their highest condition of perfection, and in aphowever, in favour of knowledge, that the acquisitions of plying them in the best manner. one do not impoverish another. Farther, although the race If we advert for a moment to what we already know, we should have learned all the natural laws, their children shall see that this conclusion is supported by high probabiwould not intuitively inherit their ideas, and hence the ac- lities. Before the mariner's compass and astronomy were tivity of every one, as he appears on the stage, would be discovered, nothing would seem more utterly beyond the provided for ; whereas, by intuition, every child would be reach of the human faculties than traversing the enormous as wise as his grandfather, and parental protection, filial Atlantic or Pacific Oceans; but the moment these discoveries piety, and all the delights that spring from difference in were made, how simple did this feat appear, and how com. knowledge between youth and age, would be excluded. ist, pletely within the scope of human ability!' But it became Using of acquirements is, by the actual state of man, essen- so, not by any addition to man's mental capacities, nor by tial to the preservation as well as the enjoyment of them. any change in the physical world; but by the easy process By intuition all knowledge would be habitually present to of applying individuality, and the other knowing faculties, the mind without effort or consideration. On the whole, to observe, causality to reflect, and constructiveness to therefore, it appears that man’s nature being what it is, the build; in short, to perform their natural functions. Who arrangement by which he is endowed with powers to ac- that, forty years ago, regarded the small-pox as a scourge, quire knowledge, but left to find it out for himself, is both devastating Europe, Asia, Africa, and America, would not wise and benevolent,

have despaired of the human faculties ever discovering an It has been asked, “ But is there no pleasure in science antidote against it? and yet we have lived to see this end but that of discovery? Is there none in using the knows accomplished by the simple exercise of Individuality and Reledge we have attained ? Is there no pleasure in playing flection, in observing the effects of, and applying, vaccine at chess after we know the moves ?" In answer, 1 ob- inoculation. Nothing appears more completely beyond serve, that if we know beforehand all the moves that our an- the reach of the human intellect, than the cause of volcanoes tagonist intends to make, and all our own, which must be and earthquakes; and yet some approach towards its disthe case if we know every thing by intuition, we shall have covery has recently been made.* no pleasure. The pleasure really consists in discovering Sir Isaac Newton observed, that all bodies which rethe intentions of our antagonist, and in calculating the ef- fractèd the rays of light were combustible, except one, the fects of our own play ; a certain degree of ignorance of both diamond, which he found to possess this quality, but of which is indispensable to gratification. In the like man- which he was not able, by any powers he possessed, to ner, it is agreeable first to discover the natural laws, and burn. He did not conclude, however, from this, that the then to study “ the moves” that we ought to make, in con- diamond was an exception to the uniformity of nature. sequence of knowing them. So much, then, for the sources He inferred, that, as the same Creator made the refracting of human happiness.

bodies which he was able to consume, and the diamond, and In the second place, To reap enjoyment in the greatest proceeded by uniform laws, the diamond, would, in all quantity, and to maintain it most permanently, the facul- probability, be found to be combustible, and that the reaties must be gratified harmoniously: In other words, if, son of its resisting his power, was ignorance on his part of among the various powers, the supremacy belongs to the the proper way to produce its conflagration. A century moral sentiments, then the aim of our habitual conduct afterwards, chemists made the diamond blaze with as much must be the attainment of objects suited to gratify them. vivacity as Sir Isaac Newton had done a wax-candle. Let For example, in pursuing wealth or fante as the leading ob- us proceed, then, on an analogous principle. If the intenjects of existence, full gratification is not afforded to Bene- tion of our Creator was, that we should enjoy existence volence, Veneration, and Conscientiousness, and, conse- while in this world, then He knew what was necessary to quently, complete satisfaction cannot be enjoyed; whereas, enable us to do so; and He will not be found to have failby seeking knowledge, and dedicating life to the welfare of ed in conferring on us powers fitted to accomplish His de. mankind, and obedience to God, in our several vocations, sign, provided we do our duty in developing and applying these faculties will be gratified, and wealth, fame, health, and them. The great motive to exertion is the conviction, that other advantages, will flow in their train, so that the whole increased knowledge will furnish us with increased means mind will rejoice, and its delights will remain permanent as of doing goods_with new proofs of benevolence and wislong as the conduct continues to be in accordance with the dom in the Great Architect of the Universe. supremacy of the moral powers, and laws of external creation. The human race may be regarded as only in the begin

Thirdly, To place human happiness on a secure basis, ning of its existence. The art of printing is an invention the laws of external creation themselves must accord with comparatively but of yesterday, and no imagination can the dictates of the moral sentiments, and intellect must be yet conceive the effects which it is destined to produce. fitted to discover the nature and relations of both, and to Phrenology was wanting to give it full efficacy, especially direct the conduct in coincidence with them.

in moral science, in which little progress has been made Much has been written about the extent of human ignor- for centuries. Now that this desideratum is supplied, may ance ; but we should discriminate between absolute incapa- we not hope that the march of improvement will proceed city to know, and mere want of information, arising from in a rapidly accelerating ratio ? not having used this capacity to its full extent. In regard

* Vide Cordier, in Edin. New Phil. Journ. No. VIII. page 279. to the first, or our capacity to know, it appears probable that, in this world, we shall never know the essence, begin

The following striking lines form the epitaph of a miller ing, or end of things; because these are points which in Richmond churchyard. They are traditionally said we have no faculties calculated to reach. But the same to have been dreamed by him the night preceding his Creator who made the external world constituted our faculdeath :ties; and if we have sufficient data for inferring that His in

Earth walks upon earth, glittering like gold,

Earth turns to earth, sooner than it would; tention is that we shall enjoy existence here while prepar

Earth builds upon earth, cities and towers; ing for the ulterior ends of our being; and if it be true

Earth ways to earth, all this shall be ours.


me. All men are well acquainted with my wonderful ca“

pacity to labour, and the still more wonderful extent and COBBETT'S RECOLLECTIONS.

variety of my knowledge; and there is this further singuForty years ago the education-classes took to the affairs larity, which, I believe, was never before the lot of man, of the nation. We had then a revenne of L.13,000,000 that, somehow or other, by means of my travelling all over a-year; and I am sure that we do not need more than that to England, by the means of those prosecutions which I have carry on affairs in a tinre of peace. We had then been at had to undergo--and which I have undergone with such sig. peace about eight years; row we have been so eighteen nal fortitude--by one means or other, it has become written years, and during all that time, twice every year, either the down upon the heart of every working man in England king or the prince regent has told us there was no prospect and Scotland, and Ireland too, that I am his sincere, zeal. of war; and yet we have a standing army of 100,000 men, ous, kind, and compassionate friend. A long undeviating which, with the dead-weight and all, annually costs more course, a course of thirty-two long years, unbroken by one than all the costs of the government at the last peace. moment of relaxation in my efforts in behalf of the workGentlemen, that is one part of the management of this ing-people, has produced this belief, which it is no more country by the education-classes. Here is another:-Dur- possible to root from the minds of the people, than it is ing the last forty years they have had our purses at their possible to root out natural affection from their hearts. command; and what with the income-tax, the propertytax, the window.tax, the soap-tax, the malt-tax, the hop

THE IRISH POTATOE. tax, and other taxes almost innumerable, they have taken

Next to really good poetry, the execrably bad is to as from us whatever, and as much as they pleased. We are the most acceptable; and the following piece comes quite like a parcel of bees; they have left us the hive and the down to our standard. The author is an Irish gentleman combs, and just honey cnough to live through the winter, of county Antrim. By an extraordinary anachronism, the 80 that we might work again through the summer and verses are said to have been composed while Mr. Cobbett produce just so much more for them. And then they have was a corporal in the English militia, and subsequent to done what they pleased with our persons-at one time they his attacks on the potatoes, in his Register :put red coats upon us, and then they put blue; and they There's not in the wide world a race that can beat us, gave us pigtails, and then cut them off; then they put From Canada's cold hills to sultry Japan, spurs upon us, and ordered mustaches to grow, which While we fatten and feast on the smiling potatoes, they afterwards had shaved off; and then they gave us Of Erin's green valleys, so friendly to man. whiskers, and now they are shaved off. In fact, they have It's not an abundance alone, and a plenty, done what they liked with our very souls. And in what Of plain simple fare the potatoe supplies, condition are we at last ? About thirty years ago they But milk, beef, and butter, and bacon so dainty; changed the currency, which for twelve hundred years had Hens, ducks, geese, and turkeys, and fine mutton pies. * becn gold and silver; every man knew the real value of Sweet roots of Erin, we can't live without them; money then, and there was no doubt about it.

A man

No tongue can express their importance to man; knew that one pound or one shilling was one pound or one Poor Corporal Cobbett knows nothing about them shilling; but the education-gentlemen changed it into paper, We'll boil them and eat them, as long as we can. which they made a legal tender. These wise men, these

On the skirts of our bogs that are covered with rushes education-men, have passed no less than sixteen acts to re

On the dales that we till with the sweat of our bros, gulate the currency, which before was fixed as the sun or the moon, or as the earth itself. In 1819 they passed an

On the wild mountain's side, cleared of rocks, heath, and

bushes, act, which they said was to be the last; the vote was unanimous, and they all shouted and huzzaed, because they

We plant the kind root with the spade or the plough. said they had set the matter at rest for ever.

Then comes the south breezes, with soft vernal showers, after they changed it again, and in two years and a-half

To finish the process that man had begun, they made another change; and even now they don't know

With a brilliant succession of sweet-smelling flowers, what to do, and actually at this moment, they have a com

Reflecting bright radiance in the rays of the sun, mittee sitting upon the question. Some talk of a contrac

Sweet roots of Erin, &c. tion, and some of an extension of the paper system. The The land, too, that's broke, and bro't in by potatoes, House of Commons consists of 658 of the education of the Produces the cream of our northern cheer, couutry. Of these, 31, selected for their double-distilled In crops of rich barley, that comfort and cheer us, wisdom, have been sitting for two months to inquire what With Innishown whisky, and Maghera beer. can be done with the currency. They are like an old tur Success to the brave boys that plant them and raise them, key hen sitting on addled eggs. They dare not hatch, and To cherish their children, and nourish their wives; they dare not come off their eggs, and so there they sit, but May none of the Corporal's humours e'er seize then,can't hatch.

To shorten their days or embitter their lives.

Sweet roots of Erin, we can't live without them; I am satisfied in my own mind that the regeneration of No tongue can express their importance to man; the political state of the country would not take place, and Poor Corporal Cobbett knows nothing about them that instead of regeneration, anarchy and confusion would

We'll boil them and cat them, as long as we can. come, were I not to be in the first reformed Parliament; • If the poet can assure Mr. Cobbelt of this new fact, we could al. there being no man in whom the people have that confi- mos undertake that he will give up his hostility to the root of Erin. dence in his judgment that they have in mine, in the pro- (One day at dinner, in Edinburgh, a gentleman, who helped Mr. Colbett portion of a thousand to one in my favour; that is to say,

to a quantity of mashed potatoes to his mutton, smiled as he did so; that there are a thousand men who have great confidence said a word against potatoes when there is meat along with them.”

when Cobbett exclaimed, " That's another of their calumnies, I never in my judgment, where there is one man who has the same confidence in any body else. I am not pretending that I

Epitaph in French-English for Shenstone, erected at possess this superiority of judgment to this degree, or in Ermenonvile. any degree at all. In a case like this, your capacity to do

This plainstone good depends almost entirely in the belief of your having

To William Shenstone. that capacity. I have named no man as fit to be a mem.

In his writings he displayed ber of Parliament, who has not great capacity of that kind;

A mind natural; and I could name others nearer to myself; but here is the

At Leasowes he laid singular thing belonging to me, that I am known, more or

Arcadian's Greens rural. less, to every rational creature in the kingdom; my ene This absurdity is reprinted in the Schoolmaster, because mies are the trumpeters of my talents. All men know that we see it ascribed to Rousseau. The author was M. Girar. I want nothing for myself or for any body belonging to din.

Three years


however, the poor fellow is at times an amusing companion ;

he is simple-minded, and of infinite good-humour, with the Why do we never give a story told by the most grace- loquacity and gossip of a village barber, and knows all the ful, and, to use a lady's word, fascinating of all living small-talk of the place and its environs ; but what he story-tellers, Mr. Washington Irving ? We shall do so chiefly values himself on, is his stock of local information, soon; but, prelusire to The Rose of the Alhambra, who having the most marvellous stories to relate of every tower, must tarry one more week, we must give the author's and vault, and gateway of the fortress, in all of which he

places the most implicit faith. charming description of the scene of his late tales, lis Most of these he has derived, according to his own ac

count, from his grandfather, a little legendary tailor, who RESIDENCE IN THE ALHAMBRA.

lived to the age of nearly a hundred years, during which It is time, he says, that I give some idea of my domestic he made but two migrations beyond the precincts of the arrangements in this singular residence. The Royal Palace fortresz. His shop, for the greater part of a century, was of the Alhambra is intrusted to the care of a good old

the resort of a knot of venerable gossips, where they would

pass half the night talking about old times, and the wonmaiden dame, called Dona Antonia Molina ; but who, ac

derful events and hidden secrets of the place. The whole cording to Spanish custom, goes by the more neighbourly living, moving, thinking, and acting of this historical appellation of Tia Antonia (Aunt Antonia.) She main- little tailor, liad thus been bounded by the walls of the tains the Moorish balls and gardens in order, and shews Alhambra ; within them he had been born, within them them to strangers ; in consideration of which she is allowed he lived, breathed, and had his being; within them he

died, and was buried. Fortunately for posterity, his traall the perquisites received from visitors, and all the pro- ditionary lore died with him. The authentic Mateo, duce of the gardens, excepting, that she is expected to pay when an urchin, ased to be an attentive listener to the naran occasional tribute of fruits and fiowers to the Governor. ratives of his grandfather, and of the gossiping group asHer residence is in a corner of the palace; and her family sembled round the shop-board ; and is thus possessed of a consists of a nephew and niece, the children of two dif- stock of valuable knowledge concerning the Alhambra, not

to be found in the books, and well worthy the attention of firent brothers. The nephew, Manuel Molina, is a young every curious traveller. Lan of sterling worth, and Spanish gravity. He has served Such are the personages that contribute to my domestic in the armies both in Spain and the West Indies; but is comforts in the Alhambra ; and I question whether any of now studying medicine, in hopes of one day or other be the potentates, Moslem or Christian, who have preceded

me in the palace, have been waited upon with greater fidecoming physician to the fortress, a post worth at least a lity, or enjoyed a serener sway. lismdred and forty dollars a-year. As to the niece, she is

When I rise in the morning, Pepe, the stuttering lad a plump little back-eyed Andalusian damsel, named Do from the gardens, brings me a tribute of fresh-culled flowers, lunes ; but who, from her bright looks and cheerful dispo- which are afterwards arranged in vases, by the skilful sition, merits a merrier name. She is the declared heiress hand of Dolorcs, who takes a female pride in the decoraof all her aunt's possessions, consisting of certain ruinous tions of my chamber. My meals are made wherever catenements in the fortress, yielding a revenue of about one price dictates; sometimes in one of the Moorish halls, hundred and fifty dollars. I had not been long in the Al- sometimes under the arcades of the Court of Lions, surlambra, before I discovered that a quiet courtship was go; rounded by flowers and fountains ; and when I walk out, jag on between the discreet Manuel and his bright-eyed I am conducted by the assiduous Mateo, to the most rocousin, and that nothing was wanting to enable them to mantic retreats of the mountains, and delicious haunts of join their hands and expectations, but that he should re- the adjacent valleys, not one of which but is the scene of ieire his doctor's diploma, and purchase a dispensation some wonderful tale. from the Pope, on account of their consanguinity.

Though fond of passing the greater part of my day With the good dame Antonia I have made a treaty, &C- alone, yet I occasionally repair in the evenings to the little cording to which, she furnishes me with board and lodg- domestic circle of Dona Antonia. This is generally held ing; while the merry-hearted little Dolores keeps my in an old Moorish chamber, that serves for kitchen as well a'artment in order, and officiates as handmaid at meal.

as hall, a rude fire-place having been made in one corner, times I have also at my command a tall, stuttering, yel- the smoke from which has discoloured the walls, and allow-haired lad, named Pepe, who works in the gardens, most obliterated the ancient arabesques. A window, with and would fain have acted as valet; but, in this, he was a balcony overhanging the valley of the Douro, lets in the furestalled by Mateo Ximenes, “ the son of the Alhambra'!" cool evening breeze ; and here I take my frugal supper of This alert and officious wight has managed, somehow or fruit and milk, and mingle with the conversation of the other, to stick by me ever since I first encountered him at family. There is a natural talent of mother wit, as it is the cater gate of the fortress, and to weave himself into all called, about the Spaniards, which renders them intellectual Ly plans, until he has fairly appointed and installed him- and agreeable companions, whatever may be their condition alf my valet, cicerone, guide, guard, and historiographic in life, or however imperfect may have been their education ; squire ; and I have been obliged to improve the state of his add to this, they are never vulgar; nature has endowed Fardrobe, that he may not disgrace his various functions; them with an inherent dignity of spirit. The good Tia

that he has east his old brown mantle, as a snake does Antonia is a woman of strong and intelligent, though unle skin, and now appears about the fortress with a smart cultivated mind; and the bright-eyed Dolores, though she Aulalusian hat and jacket, to his infinite satisfaction, and has read but three or four books in the whole course of her, La great astonislıment of his comrades. The chief fault of life, has an engaging mixture of naïveté and good senso, i mest Mateo is an over anxiety to be useful Conscious and often surprises me by the pungency of her artless of having foisted himself into my employ, and that my sallies. Sometimes the nephew entertains us by reading seuple and quiet habits render his situation a sinecure, he some old comedy of Calderon or Lope de Vega, to which i-at his wit's end to devise modes of making himself im- he is evidently prompted by a desire to improve, as well as I tant to my welfare. I am, in a manner, the victim of amuse, his cousin Dolores ; though, to his great mortificahis officiousness; I cannot put my foot over the threshold tion, the little damsel generally falls asleep before the first of the palace, to stroll about the fortress, but he is at my act is completed. Sometimes Tia Antonia has a little leveo pi'ow, to explain every thing I see; and if I venture to of humble friends and dependents, the inhabitants of the ramble among the surrounding hills, he insists upon at- adjacent hamlets, or the wives of the invalid soldiers. These tending ine as a guard, though I vehemently suspect he look up to her with great deference, as the custodian of the veuld be more apt to trust to the length of his legs than palace, and pay their court to her by bringing the news of the strength of his arms, in case of an attack. After all, the place, or the rumours that may have struggled up from

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