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in which he performed service twice on the Sabbath, was Dutch republic; the settlement' at Chinsura was capthe only sphere of his exertions. Here be passed several tured, and Kiernander became a prisoner of war; in which years, still endeavouring to render himself useful, for he character he received from the English Government the kept a school during some days of the week, though he re- pittance of fifty rupees a-month, as a subsistence. He lost ceived no salary for it. The people pitied their aged pas his office, and he lost his liberty, even at eighty-six year tor, but, like Dutch traders, their pity did not warm the of age. At last, the English, pitying his age and misfor. heart, for they allowed him a very small income, that tunes, allowed him to go to Calcutta ; he took leave of scarcely raised him above poverty. Their manners were Chinsura with a faltering step, and a heart almost broken ; simple, and their converse, as well as souls, centred wholly he had looked upon it as the last asylum on this side the in their commerce ; he found a welcome in their dwellings grave, a rest from all his troubles, where he would wait whenever he chose to enter ; but he felt that the society of calmly till his hour should come. And now he was the phlegmatic and mindless men of Chinsura was a sad to go again to that city of pride and luxury, and seek contrast to the circles of Calcutta. According to his own friends friends to a poor man bordering on ninety. If confession, he was now brought to a knowledge of him- Calcutta had such within its bosom, their names should self; it was a knowledge darkly and fearfully purchased ! be written in letters of gold. He arrived in the city, and

Chinsura was but thirty miles distant from Calcutta ; it wandered through the streets, and passed by the doors of was a mere excursion, often taken for pleasure, on the river the rich, the high, and the unhappy, where he was once so Hoogly, by the civil as well as military servants of the welcome. 0! when his own home met his eye, what must Company; the route into the interior also lay that way, have been his feelings, where he had lived with the proud yet none came to see him, none sent a friendly greeting, or and beautiful Anne, in his chambers of luxury ? 'The even a message of sympathy to the heart that was bleeding dwelling was still there, but no one, in 'the bowed, the at the unkindness of the world. O, could he have seen humbled, and suffering man, recognized the once admired some well-known footstep draw nigh his door, or hear one and beloved Kiernander. The few who would still have voice of the many that he once loved to hear. He was soothed his desertion, had gone down to the grave; Clive changed only in outward circumstances; his intellect was as had perished by his own hand. At last he found a repowerful as ever, and his fine and sorrow-stricken counte- lative of one of his wives, who opened his door to him. In nance, and his conversation full of various knowledge and the following spring, when in the eighty-eighth year of his learning, were strange to meet with in such a place. But age, rising from his chair too suddenly, he fell, and broke his home, whose latch was seldom lifted, the few volumes his thigh, and lingered long in agony.

If any man had of his beloved Oriental lore, now his only companions, his ever cause to pray to be allowed to depart in peace, it was thrifty meal, prepared by his own hand-told more indel- Kiernander. Did no one remember, of the wealthy and ibly than Persian, Arabian, or even the son of Sirach, could the devout, that the noble church in which they weekly have told, that the human heart is faithless as the wave, worshipped was raised by the man who was lingering, hard even as the passing blast, and that poverty is cruel as the by, in torture and desertion. The dwelling in which he grave.

was received, had few com forts; for the circumstances of His great possessions were pot utterly passed away; a the inmates were narrow, and they had six children : they remnant remained, but it was withheld from him.

Part probably regarded their aged guest as a burden. The Rev. had been laid out in the purchase of houses in Calcutta, in David Brown, the chaplain at Calcutta, and a few others, junction with some of his acquaintance, for rents being visited him at times, in order to comfort him with their very high at this period, it was considered a good specula- counsel. But Kiernander had higher comfort : it was not tion. He had expended many sums on these dwellings; the the will of God to give bitterness of heart in the midst of speculation did not answer, and they fell, on the failure of such exquisite misery-his cup was full--and the hand that his fortunes, into the hands of his associates, who reaped the had so long chastened, now poured into his spirit the richbenefit, while to him it was a total loss. A pittance out of est consolation, the brightest hope. And what counsel this property, or even of its rents, would have made the could his visitors offer to this man of nearly a centary comexile of Chinsura at ease in his circumstances. Though pared to the stores which his strange and chequered life infirmities were gathering on his frame, he was still able to had laid up ? Even now, his mind was in all its vigour ; go forth, at times, into the country around.

it was sad, yet beautiful, to sit at his bed-side, and hear The town of Serampore, where he had once laboured, was him tell how he had suffered; how he had known all that but a few miles distant, a beautifully clean and quiet little love, or riches, or learning could give to man—and that now town ; and he loved to go there at times, for he found a few he was going home to his rest. to whom he had been useful in his earlier days, who had He spoke also of Akstad, in Sweden, his dear native not forgotten him ; they said that they had once been bles- place! he blessed the hour when he first left it, to labour sed under his ministry, that it had first called them to God. in the cause of heaven. “My heart is full, but my hand is Kiernander was deeply moved at the words that were to him weak," writes the dying man, in one of his last letters to his inexpressibly sweet. It was not the voice of the world; it distant land, “ the world is yet the same; there are many could not be false! There were many lovely spots around cold friends; others like broken reeds : but God makes the the banks of the Hoogly, for they were well cultivated, and heaviest burden light and easy : 1 rejoice to see the poor laid out in fields and plantations, among which were the mission prosper ; this comforts me amidst all.” He then ancient woods, as yet unfelled. át a small distance was goes on, with great clearness, to depict the then state of the French settlement of Chandernagore, to which the vic-India, and predicts, with singular accuracy, the extension tories of Clive had brought decay; all spoke of desolation of the British power through every part of the empire :

- large and lofty houses nearly deserted, and warehouses “ When I first landed, sixty years ago, there was not any half empty. From the forsaken monastery the priests had more than a little territory, or small tract of land, of about taken flight; the scenery around was wild and impressive four or five square English miles, at each settlement of Cal-silent ghauts, deep and lone ravines. The residence of cutta, Madras, and Bombay. The time will come, when the former governors, a superb house, was a lesson to put the whole English nation will unite in a general society to no trust in prosperity ; fragments of doors and windows. send the gospel to the East Indies. This will give the The roof of what was the music-room, and that of the ban- firmest stability to the British possession in the East." queting room beneath, had fallen in; and the sun-light, Such were his last thoughts and words : his remains were falling fiercely on the faded colours on the walls, shewed deposited in the same grave with those of his second wife, that they were once decorated with taste. The venerable Anne : this was strange, for Wendela Fischer had been his missionary, on whose head so many storms had beat, now first and strongest love, and his only child also slept in her turned his thoughts and desires towards that world, where tomb. The funeral procession was slender, that wound its the heartless and the proud can trouble no more, From way through the cemetery; through his own cemetery, his this last resting-place he was rudely thrust forth. In own groves of trees! His name is almost forgotten. This 1795, war was declared by the English against the l is a great and cruel injustice : let his errors, but not his

memory, pass away. High talents and endowments are of receive company ; but, as if spell-bound, she was unable to little avail in a missionary, without consistency of charac- move or speak. The carriage approached, and as it arrived ter. But we should not forget that he lavished his wealth within a few yards of the window, she saw the figures of in the cause, and impoverished himself to rear a beautiful the postilions and the persons inside take the ghastly aptemple for his fellow Christians : for sixty years he sought pearance of skeletons and other hideous figures. The whole the good of others; and founded the mission and the church then vanished entirely, when she uttered the above-menat Calcutta, where they have since known such power and tioned exclamation. splendour. After expending twelve thousand pounds on this object, he left it for ever, and wandered to Chinsura, with a EUROPEAN SHEEP. Nearly every country in Europe has its pittance of forty pounds, supplied by those he had so bene- own race of sheep. Those again are subdivided into peculiar fited.

He went with tears, but without complaining, to varieties, arising from difference of climate, food, treatment, be a pastor to strangers ; It was like the going forth of and intermixture. European sheep vary considerably in size and Lot, when all his possessions had perished ; but by Kier-form; but the most important difference is in the quantity and nander's side was no companion, no comforter.

quality of the wool, it being thin in some, dense in others,

Let it be remembered, how many he called to knowledge and peace sheep there are the following varieties:- The Friesland, about

coarse or fine, more or less elastic, &c. &c. Of the German - from how many hearts he drew the sorrows, that were three feet high and four in length, producing a coarse wool darkly poured into his own !—Abridged from Carne's about four or five inches long. It yields two lambs in the year, Lives of Missionaries.

is strong, and endures winter even in the open air. It is found

in the marshes of Schleswick near Husum, in Friesland, in the SPECTRAL ILLUSION.

environs of Bremen, in Holland, &c. aod if put upon inferior The following is one of the most remarkable of the pasture, soon degenerates and becoines smaller. The Eydern ghost stories in Sir David Brewster's late book :-On the stædt, which is somewhat smaller, having loog wool on the 30th of December, about four o'clock in the afternoon, Mrs. back, and very short hairs ou the belly and thighs. The Suabia, A. came down stairs into the drawing-room, which she also termed Zaubelschaaf, found in different parts of Suabia and had quitted only a few minutes before, and on entering the Franconia. It is small, lambs twice yearly, and produces about room, she saw her husband, as she supposed, standing with two pounds

of fine wool, like flock silk. It is soon affected by his back to the fire. As he had gone out to take a walk the wet. The Heather sheep, also called Heid-chnucke, one of about half an hour before, she was surprised to see him the smallest kinds, found on the heath of Lunebourg, in the there, and asked him why he had returned so soon.

environs of Bremen, and the Mark It is commonly horned,

The figure looked steadfastly at her, with a serious and thought is clipped twice a-year, yielding each time about a pound and a

with black face and legs, and has a lively, wild disposition. It ful expression of countenance, but did not speak.–Sup- half of long, coarse wool. This method of twice clipping has posing that his mind was absorbed in thought, she sat been generally adopted in large flocks, amongst sheep bearing a down in an arm-chair near the fire, and within two feet at secondary quality of wool. The Spiegelschufe, found in Meck. most of the figure, which she still saw standing before her. linburg, Franconia, &c., with a blue woolly ring round the As its eyes, however, still continued to be fixed upon her, eyes, may be considered a species of Gerinan sheep, produced she said, after the lapse of a few minutes, “Why don't you by intermixture. The Polish sheep resembles the German speak,

5" The figure immediately moved off towards sheep in size and wool. The Danish is distinguished by a the window at the farther end of the room, with its eyes smooth head, erect ears, and will disposition. The wool is still gazing on her, and it passed so very close to her in coarse, mingled with stiff hairs. The Norwegian is said to be doing so, that she was struck by the circumstance of hear- and Spanish. The Swedish, a cross breed of the Spanish, has

a description of it, but improved by a cross with the Englisn ing no step nor sound, nor feeling her clothes brushed lately been much improved. It had originally but little wool, against, nor even any agitation in the air. Although she and that of a coarse quality. The Belgian, Flemish, and Flana was now convinced that the figure was not her husband, ders sheep are nearly five feet in length, and weigh about two Fet she never for a moment supposed that it was any thing cwt. They originally came from the East Indies, and are resupernatural, and was soon convinced that it was a spectral markable for fecundity, producing several lambs in the year. illusion. About a month after this occurrence, Mrs. A., The wool is middling. The Dutch sheep are a species of thein. who had taken a somewhat fatiguing drive during the day, The Huogarian sleep, like the Moldavian, have a very long, was preparing to go to bed, about eleven o'clock at night, coarse and inferior wool, and the flesh is very fat and uopalatand, sitting before the dressing-glass, was occupied in ar

able. ranging her hair. She was in a listless and drowsy state of mind, but fully awake. When her fingers were in active

CAGED RATS. motiou among the papillotes, she was suddenly startled by

By the Author of Corn-Law Rhymes. keing in the mirror, the figure of a near relation, who was YE coop us up, and tax our bread, then in Scotland, and in perfect health. The apparition

And wonder why we pine ; appeared over her left shoulder, and its eyes met hers in the But ye are fat, and round, and red, glass. It was enveloped in grave-clothes, closely pinned,

And filled with tax-bought wine. as is usual with corpses, round the head, and under the Thus twelve rats starve while three rats thrive, chin, and though the eyes were open, the features were (Like you on mine and me,) solemn and rigid. The dress was evidently a shroud, as

When fifteen rats are caged alive, Mrs. A. remarked even the punctured pattern usually

With food for nine and three. worked in a peculiar manner round the edges of that garment. Mrs. A. described herself as at the time sensible of Haste ! havoc's torch begins to glow, a feeling like what we conceive of fascination, compelling

The ending is begun; her for a time to gaze on this melancholy apparition, which Make haste, destruction thinks ye slow; was as distinct and vivid as any reflected reality could be,

Make baste to be undone! the light of the candles upon the dressing-table appearing Why are ye called “My Lord” and “ Squire," to shine full upon its face. After a few minutes, she turned

While fed by mine and me; round to look for the reality of the form over her shoulder; And wringing food, and clothes, and fire, but it was not visible, and it had also disappeared from the

From bread-taxed misery? glass when she looked again in that direction. On the 26th Make haste, slow rogues ! prohibit trade, of the same month, about two P. M., Mrs. A. was sitting

Prohibit honest gain ; in a chair by the window in the same room with her hus Turn all the good that God hath made band. He heard her exclaim, “What have I seen ?” And

To fear, and hate, and pain : ou looking on her, he observed a strange expression in her Till beggars all, assassins all, eyes and countenance. A carriage and four had appeared

All cannibals we be, to ber to be driving up the entrance-road to the house. As And death shall have no funeral it approached, she felt inclined to go up stairs to prepare to

From shipless sea to sea.

But, «

PRESENT STATE OF THE SCOTCH TENANTRY. riage, or of testaments, has become rare. Exhilarating social (Continued from No. 11.)

amusements are dispensed with. The occupation of the disFrom the facts we have previously stated in our two trict fiddler or piper is nearly gone." former numbers, the inference is obvious, that the great The next communication is from Perthshire, and applies to est distress must necessarily exist among the tenantry, and a large proportion of that county, including great part of the among those proprietors who have been accustomed to live to Carse of Gowrie. “ The condition of farms, both of grain and the full extent of their incomes during the war. From all the stock farms, is in general very bad. The farms are in most information we can obtain, after extensive inquiries and person instances rack rented, and as the greater part of the landlords, al observation, we are convinced we do not exaggerate when we are, from poverty, unable to give permanent abatements, one set say that two-thirds of the farming capital of Scotland has been of tenants is generally rouped off, and the land taken by another lost within the last fifteen years. So little attention has been set, at as high reats." The soil is certainly deteriorating by paid to statistics in this country, that any estimate of the capi- severe cropping, the best farmers generally agreeing that tal, in any employment, must necessarily be vague ; but after grain of the weight which formerly grew, is not now proexamining such data as can be easily procured, we think the farm. duced. The rents are paid with the utmost difficulty, ing capital of Scotland, in 1813, may be moderately taken at and in all estates of any size, the arrears are heavy. The 60 millions sterling, 40 millions of which we conceive has since condition of the landed proprietors, is in general far from been lost. To those who have not paid much attention to such good, their estates being in most instances heavily bursubjects, so great a loss inay appear incredible ; but when it is dened. The condition of proprietors under L.3000 per anconsidered that upwards of 11 years ago, it is proved by the aum, especially when their estates are entailed, is miserable."evidence of the numerous witnesses examined before the com The prospects of landlords and tenants are far from being flatmittee of the House of Commons, that great part of the agricul- tering. In stock farms, the tenants cannot make a living from tural capital had then been lost, that the soil was rapidly dete- the very inadequate prices, received from cattle, sheep, and riorating from the dimioution of the stock of cattle kept on the wool. In grain farms, matters are as bad. In 1831, the crop farms, and that after that period, the value of agricultural pro- of wheat was barely an average one. In 1827, 28, 29, 30, duce sunk very considerably, and that there has hardly been a the wheat crop was a complete failure, chiefly occasioned by single year in which any profit could have been made, it will ap- the ravages of a grub or worm, and in each of these years, the pear that the present depression of agriculture has not been exag: produce did not exceed 35 or 4 bolls per acre. In 1930, potagerated. The same causes which affect agriculture in England, toes were a most abundant crop, and sold from 1ls, to lds, per must affect it in Scotland. Mr. John Ellman, junior, a very intel- boll

. The consequence of this was, that in 1831, a much ligent witness, who possessed extensive farms near Lewes, stated, larger quantity was planted, and they are now selling at from " I am sure, taking the county of Sussex through, one half of 4s. to 58. a boll. the farming capital is lost, and this is the case in the majority From Roxburghslrire it is stated, rents are paid with difficulof counties.” A writer in the Quarterly Review in 1829, (vol. ty. No one is saving money, and the style of living has become 37. p. 426,) asserts, “ from personal experience, that within 10 very economical ? « Abatements have not been given generally years one-fourth of the occupiers of the land in England have within the last five years, though one great proprietor, and one been completely ruined, and the remainder have lost a moiety or two smaller proprietors have given abateinents. la the for. of their property. In Essex, lands which formerly brought mer case, 20 per cent. was given on arable farms, 25 on stock." three guineas an acre, a very high rent in England, have been In Fife, the tenantry have been much benefited of late years offered on a lease of five years without rent, ander a restricted by the great quantities of potatoes they have sold for the Loosystem of cultivation, as they have been completely exhausted don Market.

generally speaking, the tenants are in by letting them for high rents on short leases. From extensive arrear of rent, and these arrears are in many instances coninquiries which we have made in Scotland, we may venture to siderable."." The present prices of agricultural produce do say, that agriculture has not at any time been in a more depress- not permit the farmers to expend money in improvements, and ed state, nor the prospects of land holders and tenants more therefore the soil must be deteriorating." gloomy. We shall subjoin a few extracts from the communi.

In East-Lothian we have the authority of a gentleman who cations we have received, and we regret our limits do not per- possesses an extensive farın, who has been engaged in agriculmit as to give them at greater length. The first relates to an

ture in that county for the last thirty years, and who has paid, extensive district in the north, comprehending a large tract of during that period, the utrnost attention to every thing connectfarms, occupied in the rearing of sheep and cattle, as well as ed with rural affairs, for saying "that agricultural distress exists some of the best soil in Scotland for the production of wheat in that county to an extent never before known.” In all cases “ The state of the tenantry is extremely unprosperous both in corn where the rents of farms let during the war has not been abated and pasture farms. Their credit is much lower than at any

30 per cent, te is of opinion, the rents could only have been former period of my recollection ; and gloom, anxiety, and dis- paid from the tenant's capital.' I have a list of several farmi content, seem to pervade the whole body of the agricultural po- let lately in East Lothian, most of them for rents payable in pulation.". "On pasture lands the arrears are of a very great grain, and converting their grain-rends into money, at the extent, indeed, amounting in some instances to more than one average fiar prices, for the last 10 years; the result is as folyear's rent, and in other instances, even where abatements have lows:-A. B. M. let in 1810, and rent converted into grain been allowed, to more than two years' rent. This statement ap in 1822. Present rent 44 per cent under that of 1910, plies to the higher, as well as to the lower class of tenants. and 21 per cent under that of 1822. J. C. let in 1811, * Abatements of rent have been very generally, and indeed it at L. 1100; now, at 1.750; fall, 32 per cent. S. D. let may be said, universally demanded, but on corn farms, it is but in 1811 at 1.6,'Ils. per acre ; now, at L.A, 11. B, Fall in few instances they bave been allowed.” “ Most of the land. lords are in difficulties and embarrassments.” In sheep farms, | K, fall since 1821, 30 per cent.

on present rent, compared with that of 1814, 33 per cent.

R, fall in same period, 12 per “ abatements have been almost universally granted to the extent cent, though the last tenant laid out L. 1500. immediately beof 25 or 30 per cent. of the rents paid five or six years ago, but fore his reinoval. We are in possession of a detailed statement, the tenants are still unable to pay their rents." “Some pasture made out by a practical farmer, on whose accuracy we have the farms have been let at a reduction of 40 per cent.

There is a

utinost reliance, in order to show the value of land in this more than usual number of farms in the market, especially of county, from 1822 to 1832, compared with the value from pasture farms.". The ordinary rent of corn land in the district, | 1805 to 1815, being the last 10 years of the war. The average is 40s. an acre, but the general opinion of intelligent farmers is, value of the grain is taken from the second fiars of the county, that it cannot be cultivated with ordinary profit, if more than for the respective periods, and that of other produce at the ordi 30s. be paid for it. Farms let lately upon a grain rent, have nary prices. A farm is taken, of 360 Scotch acres, of good only brought about 30s. “ It is only in very few instances ex- land, 'fully improved, and consisting of equal proportions of tensive improvements are now made by tenants.” It is under clay and turnip soil. The former is supposed to be cropped in stood that the landlords in general are in difficulties, and some a six, and the latter in a four course rotation. The quantity of of them under trust. This remark applies to the higher, as produce is assumed to have been equal at both periods, and the well as lower class of proprietors. “ The number of youths, following are the results:children of tacksmen, attending the superior seminaries of edu Value of produce deducting seed

Peace. . cation, bas greatly diminished, --some boarding schools have Expense of Cultivation

L.3285 L. 2297 ceased to exist. The difficulty of obtaining payment of shop Rent one quarter of Wheat

1498 accounts and professional charges has greatly increased. The laterest of money and profit on consumption among the tenantry of tea, sugar, and of all arti tenants. Capitalsay L. 8600,

360 cles which may be deemed luxuries, is falling off. There being and for superintending farm. 1 ttle property to dispose of, the drawing of contracts of mar It thus appears that even when the rent is paid in grain, and

War.

1011

160

the produce has in every respect been the same, at the two Yet we believe that the tenantry in these counties do not generperiods, the profits of the tenant have diminished no less than ally expend in living, in addition to the pigs, poultry, &c., pro55 per cent, while the rent has only fallen 31 per cent. It is duced on their farms, more than a sum equal to half the interest evident that the cultivation of ground cannot long be carried of the capital employed in their cultivation.” on with such proîts, for they do not amount to the ordinary There is another part of Scotland, into the agricultural state interest of the capital required. No allowance for the expense of which it is proper to inquire. We have laid before our reaof living of the tenant and his family, is made in the statement, ders extracts from communications from the north, east, south, at either of the periods. But unfavourable as this view is, the and central parts of the kingdom, let us now turn to the southreal state of matters is much worse. The rents were not stipu- west. The following excerpts are from answers to our queries, lated for in grain during the war, but in money, and no material furnished by a gentleman who has the management of a very abatements were given till 1820 or 1822, so that during the extensive district in the stewarty of Kirkcudbright :--" The period which elapsed from 1814, when the value of agricultural tenantry both upon tillage and stock farms are struggling with produce fell, till 1820, the tenant was paying the high rent, difficulties. Capital is dwindling away, and the tenantry in vhile receiving the dimiaished price of produce. After reats many instances are not in a situation to do justice to the tillage were generally reduced, another evil of a most serious nature lands. The rents in 1832 may be considered a third less than afected this county, as well as Fife and the Carse of Gowrie, 1813. Draining is very much neglected-lime as a manure is though in these districts not to so great an extent. All the wheat used very sparingly; the capital of the tenantry being so much crops from 1825 to 1831, both inclusive, were attacked by a fly exhausted they have little spare money to expend on manuring which occasioned a decrease in the produce to the extent of with lime, and the land is becoming poorer 'every repeated rothirty-three per cent, and the loss from this cause in a farm of tation. The landed proprietors are in many instances strugthe above description, exceeds L.250 per annum. Thus there gling with difficulties.” kas not only been a total loss of the copital expended on the From all the communications we have received it appears that sil, amounting to L.3000, but besides an annual loss of L.90. expensive improvements, or indeed improvements of any kind In these circumstances it is not wonderful that the most gloomy are not undertaken by the tenantry as formerly. Wedge or despondency has seized the tenantry. Many have lost all hope tile draining is practised in some districts on wet alluvial soils, of liviog by their profession, several have emigrated to the con but often the tiles are paid for by the landlord. These cost tiseat and to America, and many are preparing to follow them. three-fourths of the whole expense. The introduction of bone We believe the emigration would be very general, if the tenan manure has also a wonderful effect on light soils, and has enatry could get quit of their leases, and recover the capital they bled farmers, having farins of that quality of soil, to pay higher have expended on the soil. Improvements by the tenantry are rents than they could otherwise have done. But it has, on the in a great measure at an eni. 'The quantity of lime manufac- other hand, diminished the value of fine turnip land, and by tured in the county, is little more than one-third of what it was means of this manure, turnips can be grown on many soils 12 years ago. A great number of bankruptcies have taken which formerly would not produce them. place, some of them of tenants, who were possessed of inany ibousand pounds at the end of the war. On one estate purchased

SCRAPS.

ORIGINAL AND SELECTED. 12 or 15 years ago, only one tenant out of 11 who were upon it at the time of the purchase, now remains. All the rest have

JONATHAN'S DESCRIPTION OF A STEAM-BOAT.-It's become bankrupt. The soil is deteriorating froin severe erop got a saw-mill on one side, and a grist-mill on t'other, and ping, and want of capital, and in many districts of the county,

a blacksmith's shop in the middle, and down cellar there's the high farming, for which the county was formerly distinguish- a tarnation pot boiling all the time. ed, is no longer to be seen.

Ricaut, in his History of the Turks, says, “ that they so We are well aware that the distress in this part of Scotland, confound chronology and history, as to assert that Job bat more especially in this county, has been attributed, in some was a judge in the court of King Solomon, and Alexander measure, to what has been called the expensive mode of living the Great one of his generals.” of the tenantry, and since the high rents formerly given, could INFANT LABOUR.-A certain eccentric Tory member, who, not be obtained from the farmers of East Lothian, those from til he obtained a seat in the present Parliament, had never other parts of Scotland have been induced to pay high rents for made his appearance in society, dined, last year, in company lands in this county, on the representation or assumption, that with Sadler, and several other political personages, at the manby their more economical style of living, they could afford to sion of Sir Robert Peel. After dinner, as the gentlemen were pay higher repts. But, I believe, the expectations formed on drinking coffee in the fine picture gallery of the ex-minister, a this ground bave been completely disappointed. There is no conversation took place between Sadler and Sir Robert on the ease of the community, who in proportion to their capital, live subject of the Bill for the Regulation of Infant Labour. Mr. a small an expense as the tenantry; and the farmers of East s who was standing near, occasionally joining in the Lothia, Berwickshire, and Roxburghshire, are not an excep. discussion, while he contemplated Lawrence's exquisite picture tion from this remark. When a person acquainted only with of the infant daughter of his host, (considering, perhaps, that the joferior districts of Scotland, first goes into those counties, the baronet was lukewarm to vards the interesis of the manu. Le is no doubt surprised at the appearance of the houses of the facturing classes,) suddenly slapped him on the back, and extesastry, as well as to observe that they do not themselves per- claimed, while he pointed to the portrait of little Miss Peel, sually engage in the labours of the field. But such persous “ Ah! Sir Robert ! that little darling might have been slaving da mot consider the very different state of agriculture in these in the factory you know; 'twas a narrow escape.” The amazeerentia from what they have been accustomed to. We have ment of his disconcerted auditors may be easily conjectured. Before me the reat roll of an estate in the North of L. 25,000 | Tait's Magasine. 3-yer, and there are upwards of six hundred tenants, thus BARBARISM OF THE CRIMINAL CODE.-I have much to say Peragiog a rent payable, by each, of only L.40. In East upon the subject of the recovery of debts in this country-on Lubias, the land rental of which, in 1811, was L. 180,000, imprisonment in general; but more particularly on the penal there are certainly not 400 tenants, and we have heard them es. code of Britain. Draco and Co. must have presided when mated at a much smaller number. Then as to capital, it is held such sanguinary laws were established. Blood, nothing but Past an arable farm cannot be well cultivated unless the tenant blood, or “ pounds of flesh," are required by this humane hus capital to the amount of L. 10 an acre, and as the farms in people for every offence. Should Hardy (a servant who had East Lothian, as well as in Berwickshire and Roxburghshire, stolen some of Mirabeau's linen) be found guilty, he will suffer consist of from 300 to 500 acres each, many of the tenants death-the punishment awarded to the man who has butchered Láding two and three farms, they ought to possess, and indeed his own mother. Such laws ought to be revised ; they are a at the end of the war didl possess, very large capitals. On farms disgrace to a civilized nation. I have before me a list of crimes of such extent it would be absurd for the tenant to engage in -about forty in number-all punishable with death.

The bear himself. His time is much more profitably employed in laws of the most despotic countries of Europe are merciful if fuperintending the labour of others. Men with capitals of compared with those which are in force here. Every sensible from L.2,000 to L: 10,000 are entitled to live in a decent style, man to whom I have spoken upon this subject entertains a sieste especially as all of them have received liberal educations, milar opinion ; yet no one comes forward to abrogate the oband many of them have been educated, as well as the greater noxious laws. My excellent friend Romilly tells me, that he Sunber of those who practise the learned professions. In the has been carefully studying the criminal codes of every nation

above counties, we could point out inany tenants paying L.2000 | in Europe. “ Ours," he observes, “is the very worst ; and, Is-year of rent, and a few who pay as much as L.5000. Ac. when the plau I have in view is sufficiently matured, I intend

turday to the data on which the property tax was levied, these not to rest upon iny pillow until these laws, worthy of anties's profits ought to amount to L. 1000 or L. 2500 2-year. thropophagi, are for ever abolished.”—Mirabeau's Letters.

name.

Royal APPRECIATION OF GENIUS. The Globe says GOLD.-In Ireland, county of Wicklow, seven miles west of “ Sir Walter Scott obtained his baronetcy shortly after Arklow, about the year 1770, there was an old schoolmaster, the accession of George IV., who paid literature the who used frequently to entertaia his neighbours with accounts

of the richness of their valley in gold;

and his practice was ta high compliment of bestowing upon one of its principal living ornaments the first creation of title by the mo- generally accounted insane. But in some years astero

go out in the night to search for the treasure. For this he was narch.”—That is, George IV. paid literature the high gold were found in a mountain stream, by various persons; compliment of bestowing upon one of its principal orna. in 1796, a piece weigbing about half an ounce. The ness of menis, the title which is the lowest but one in the scale. this having circulated amongst the peasantry, such an infatuiHe might, to be sure, have made him a knight—that tion took possession of the minds of the people, that every other would have been lower yet, and lowest ; but he was gra- sort of employment, save that of acquiring wealth by the short ciously pleased to think the highest genius deserving of a process of picking it up out of the streams, was abandoned ; and trumpery baronetcy. It is not thus that they honour hundreds of human figures were to be seen bending over the their tools and panders. The successful direction of force waters, and scrutinizing every object there to be seen. In this in human butchery, no matter how doubtful or bad the way, during six weeks, no less than 800 ounces of gold were

found, which sold for L. 3, 159. per ounce, or L.3000. Most cause, is rewarded with a peerage. The man who has of the gold was found in grains ; many pieces weighed betwera delighted millions existing, and will delight millions yet two and three oudres ; there tvas one of 5 ouoces, and one of 22. to be, has the same guerdon as the king's purveyor of It contained about 6 per cent of silver. Government soon uogossip, or which any vain booby may purchase for a few dertook the works; but the amount of gold found, while superhundreds. Jeuner, who has prevented more mischief intended by the appointed directors, was only L.3671. le ikea than any king or lord in history over perpetrated, goes appeared that there was no regular vein in the mountain, and down to a grateful posterity without an addition to his

that these fragments had probably existed in a part of the It is well that it should be so-royalty has no

inountain which time had mouldered away, and which left thing to do with the real services to mankind—let it keep existence. The works were at a length discontinued.—Lardo

its more permanent treasure as the only monument of its ancient to the rewards of the coarse arts of force, and court pa- ner's Cabinet Cyclopædia. rasites, and political prostitutes ;—but it is significant A Vulgar Fellow WHO HAS ACQUIRED GREAT WEALTH to remark how princes do rate the claims of the orna BY THE ACCIDENT OF Birth or SITUATION. We mean coments or benefactors of the world, when they give them a mercial accidents of situation, as well as others. In Lancashire, place in the scale of honours. We have their standard of as in other manufacturing districts, men of great wealth, by the desert. There is, however, a consistency in it. Kings, possession of a place which, by mere accident, is in the way of who find themselves kings without desert, bestow titles

à commercial current or demand. These men are generally aras they bave received the power of conferring them. It rogant and purse. proud in proportion to their ignorance. At

a dinner where one of these worthies, an aspirant to public honwere a reflection on their own state to distribute titles

ours, and the holder of an office under the appointment of Lord according to merit , for men's minds would thus be led

up Melbourne, was present, some one mentioned the names of How to examine the pretensions of the prime pageant. Po.

mer and Virgil. licy, therefore, directs that the toys should continue to be and Virgil! I never heard the name of that firm before. It given to those who could not obtain distinction of any their credit good ?" -Examiner. but an infamous kind without them : they are unworthy STEAM ENGINE FOR AGRICULTURAL Purroses.- At a of men of letters and science, whose honours are in the meeting of the Manchester Agricultural Society, held lately, reverence of mankind, and celebrity in after ages.-Era- the model of a steam engine, recently invented by Mr. Gough, miner.

of Manchester, applicable to agricultural purposes, was extibitROOKS AND CHOLERA- A curious circumstance is men.

ed upon the table. At the close of the proceedings Mr. Gougla tioned connected with the appearance of the cholera at explained the nature of it, and the objects for which it was ia: Sligo. " In the demesne of the Marquis of Sligo, near of men, but to assist and relieve them in the drudgery of their

tended. The engine was not projected to supersede the labeur Westport House, there is one of the largest rookeries in the occupation. It was capable of raising water, draining land

, west of Ireland. On the first or second day of the appear-washing roots and preparing them for cattle, cleaning of vessels ance of cholera in this place, I was astonished to observe &c. He had spent much time in attempting to accomplish his that all the rooks had disappeared ; and for three weeks, object, and after 20 years' trial, had succeeded. It was intended during which the disease raged violently, those noisy ten not to exceed five horses' power, and the price would be depende ants of the trees completely deserted their lofty habitations. ant on the amount of power. In the mean time, the revenue police found immense num

ON LYNDHURST. _" Point d'argent,—point de Suisse."bers of them lying dead upon the shore, near Erris, about No lucre-nLyndhurst (free translation.)

Lyndhurst will never use his tongue ten miles distant. Upon the decline of the malady, within

Unless with eash the Tories deck him ; the last few days, several of the old birds have again ap So, if they wish him to go on, peared in the neighbourhood of the rookery ; but some of Their only method is to cheque bim. them seemed unable, from exhaustion, to reach their nests." A similar departure of the crows and other birds has been Part III. of the SCHOOLMASTER, containing the four October Non

bers, with JOHSTONE'S POLITICAL REGISTER, may now 12 observed at the town of Kampen in Holland, and their re

had of all the Booksellers and Venders of Cheap Periodicals, price turn when the discase began to abate. If this be not a

Eightpence. merely accidental coincidence, it would seem to put the theory of atmospherical influence beyond dispute.

CONTENTS OF NO. XIV. CHRONOMETERS.-Lately terminated the ninth annual

Places of Public Worship in Edinburgh,.

NOTES OF THE MONTH,... trial of skill of the numerous artists employed in the con BOOKS OF THE MONTH,....... struction of chronometers. The prizes were awarded to

SCIENTIFIC Notices, ...... three makers in London. The actual error on any of their rates during the year did not amount to one second of time, ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT,.......... - a degree of accuracy unprecedented in three chronometers

MEDICAL SELECTIONS,...

Useful NOTICES......... in former trials. So perfectly were they adjusted, that

Evening Wind,... either would have enabled a mariner to navigate a vessel The Story. T'ELLER—John Kiernander ; or, the Deceitfulness round the world with less than one mile of error in longi

of Hiches......

Spectral Illusion,......... tude at the close of such voyage.

Caged Rats,...
In the time of the consulate in France, Napoleon, by a Present State of the Scottish Tenantry..

SCRAPS-Original and Selected,...
word, described the characters of the three consuls. Do
you wish to dine badly, go to Le Brun ; do you wish to

EDINBURGH: Printed by and for Jous JOHNSTONE, 19, St. James dine well, go to Cambaceres ; do you wish to dine rapidly, Square. -Published by JOIN ANDERSON, Jun., Bookseller, 55, Nort come to me. Le Brun was a miser, Cambaceres a glutton ; Bridge Street, Edinburgh ; by John MACLEOD, and ATKINSON & Ca and what Bonaparte was all the world knows.-Le Cercle.

Booksellers, Glasgow ; and sold by all Booksellers and Venderse
Cheap Periodicals

909

Dr. Chalmers,...

To the Neutrals,.....

ib. 212 214 215 216 ib. ib ib.

219

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