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cloth, spread it again, and draw it along in all places, by bers the lively birr of the little wheel, and the turns, till the whole work is finished. This last operation soothing, drowsy hum of the great wool-wheel, draws away all the remaining foul water. I have seen cannot help regretting their gradual disappearance this likewise done at my lodgings, within a quarter of a mile of Edinburgh.
from the cot-house, and the farmer's ingle-neuk. “When I first saw it, I ordered a mop to be made, and The in-door picture is incomplete without them, the girls to be shown the use of it; but, as it is said of the especially since nothing has taken their place in Spaniards, there was no persuading them to change their the vacant hours of female employment. A very old method. “I have seen women by the river-side washing parsnips,
clever woman, speaking of the sexes, said, “A turnips, and herbs, in tubs, with their feet; and, since
woman hems a pocket-handkerchief, and so does that, upon inquiry, I have been told it is a common thing. not go mad.” Now the wife and daughters of the a Sunday; and then, being unused to them, when they go spun, and sung,—and so did not weary, and yawn,
They hardly ever wear shoes, as I said before, but on hynd, or small farmer, drew in the wheel, and to church they walk very awkwardly: or, as we say, like and make bad tea, which their husbands and faa cat shod with walnut-shells.
“When they go abroad, they wear a blanket over their thers could not afford. heads, as the poor women do, something like the pictures
( To be continued.) you may have seen of some bare-footed order among the Romish priests.
CANVASSING-AN OLD-FASHIONED MEM“ And the same blanket that serves them for a mantle
BER OF PARLIAMENT, by day, is made a part of their bedding at night, which is generally spread upon the floor; this, I think, they call a Hot work canvassing, especially if it fall upon shakedown."
the tail of the Dog-Days. But nothing can conquer Such was the very worst condition of female ser- the perseverance, good-humour, patience, zeal, and vitude viewed by an Englishman. The maid-ser- forbearance of a thorough-trained parliamentary vants of those times, as least those in rural service, candidate, who must be all things to all men, and had many little advantages not noticed in this moreover to all women; must take rebuffs with cheerstatement, and probably unknown to the author. fulness, and return rudenesses with courtesy. PerThey were often, indeed till very lately, allowed sonal canvassing is new in Scotland, and candidates a certain quantity of fax, and wool, and time for are not likely to be exposed to the gruff incivili. spinning for themselves; and no young woman was ties sometimes offered by honest John Bull. The conceived worthy of the honours of the married danger lies on the other side. No Scottish elector, state, who did not largely contribute to the house. or at least no Scotch elector's wife or daughter, hold gear, in blankets, coarse linen, and things of will ever be able to say No to any smiling, wellthis useful description. Their own home-made dressed gentleman, with a good orthodox family coarse linen shifts, checked aprons, striped petti- name, who takes the trouble to solicit in person coats, and linseywoolsey gowns, were often, con- for such a trifle as a vote. Not that they may ex. sidering the enduring texture of the cloth, in suf-actly approve him, nor even feel the necessity of ficient quantity, when the lass married, to last her keeping the promise made. " But who could turn half her life-time. We have her picture, as she a good-looking, discreet gentleman from the door existed twenty years back, in many of Hogg's with a sore heart?” No one seems yet to have tales, and in the sketches of Allan Cunningham.- imagined, that there can be any thing really wrong When she got
a house of her own she entered in canvassing ; or that soliciting a voter, is pre. it fortified by prudence and steady habits of in- cisely the same thing in principle as soliciting a dustry. Her guiding household maxim was "A juryman or a judge. The practice of canvassing woman's work is never done,” and her only variety judges was once as openly carried on as the canvasswas in change of occupation. Her favourite wheel, ing of voters is now. In one of her letters, Madame which stood always ready, was her recreation. She Sevigné mentions, as a matter of course, her forspun by snatches, at odd ends of time ; and hank mal round of solicitation, and of meeting her fair on hank was gathered, till the WEB was prepared litigious rival in the ante-chamber of the Judge for the country weaver, and the burn-side bleach- come on the same errand with herself. So late as green ; where, early as the lark in a cold clear the celebrated Douglas Cause, it was at least said March morning, she might be seen, and late, as that solicitation from certain quarters had weight the corn-craik on the shortening evenings of Sep with the Scotch Judges. Now, any attempt made tember, at her homely industry, spreading, or wat by the parties, even to talk to a judge of a case ering, or lifting “ the bit claith," the in-door glory that is to be decided by him, would be considered of her year. Without entering on the question, an insult; and jurymen are understood to be equal. it may at once be conceded, that prices are much ly scrupulous. With a voter it still is different ; reduced by the employment of machinery. But and indeed the only thing that can be said for canall is not solid gain that so seems. A stout en vassing is the perfect openness and unconsciousness during fabric at 2s. 6d. per ell is, in fact, cheaper of wrong with which it is practised. The ballot, than one at Is 3d. which will not wear half the time, or the progress of public opinion, must, however, the trouble of twice purchasing, and the double soon finish this illegitimate means of obtaining expense of twice making-up, being subtracted votes, Candidates will come to be judged by their from the apparently high first cost. But, laying previous public and private character and conduct; aside the general question, any one who remem- and a mode of procedure will be abandoned, which
gives the bustling, and forward such unfair advan- whom he was to marry in Lincolnshire. The weather tage of modest worth and ability.
was fine when the wedding party entered the boat ; but Cowper, in one of his delightful letters, gives ing his cane ashore, and crying out, “ Ho! for heaven!”
Mr. Marvel expressed a presentiment of danger by throwthe following humorous account of a candidate A storm came on, and the whole company perished. going his rounds :
The father of the unfortunate bride adopted young Mar. "As when the sea is uncommonly agitated, the water vel, who in consequence received a better education than finds its way into creeks and holes of rocks, which in its improvement, he was appointed secretary to the English
his father could have afforded him. After travelling for calmer state it never reaches, in like manner the effect of these turbulent times is felt even at Orchard-side, where in that he found no suitable employment; but he assisted
embassy at Constantinople. On his return it is probable general we live as undisturbed by the political element, as shrimps or cockles that have been accidentally deposited in
Milton for a time as Latin secretary to the Protector. come hollow beyond the water mark, by the usunl dashing
After the Restoration, Marvel was elected one of the of the waves. We were sitting yesterday after dinner, the members of Parliament for his native town of Hull; and he two ladies and myself, very composedly, and without the continued to represent that place till his death, regularly least apprehension of any such intrusion in our snug par receiving the salary allowed to Parliamentary representalour, one lady knitting, the other netting, and the gentle tives. Trained in the school of Milton, he was through man winding worsted, when, to our unspeakable surprise a
life the zealous friend of constitutional freedom, and as mob appeared before the window; a smart rap was heard pure-minded a public man as ever lived. Marvel kept up at the door, the boys halloo'd, and the maid announced an uninterrupted correspondence with his constituents, Mr. G Puss
was unfortunately let out of her box, and daily gave them a faithful and minute account of all so that the candidate, with all his good friends at his heels, public transactions before he either ate or slept. His atwas refused admittance at the grand entry, and referred to tendance in his place was unremitted ; and, though he was the back door, as the only possible way of approach.
no exhibiting orator, the influence which he acquired from Candidates are creatures not very susceptible of affronts, his character, principles, and talents, was very great in and would rather I suppose climb in at a window, than both Houses. Many interesting anecdotes are told of his be absolutely excluded. In a minute, the yard, the simplicity of manners and inflexible integrity. Though conkitchen, and the parlour were filled. Mr. — advancing stantly in Opposition, he was a favourite with the King, toward me shook me by the hand with a degree of cordia who, with all his faults, had nothing of the bitterness of a lity that was extremely seducing. As soon as he and as partisan in his nature. His Majesty had met Marvel in many as could find chairs were seated, he began to open private society, and found him so agreeable that he thought the intent of his visit. I told him I had no vote, for which him worth gaining over. A person, uniting elegant and he readily gave me credit. I assured him I had no influ- complacent manners with incorruptible integrity, was proence, which he was not equally inclined to believe, and the bably a variety of the human species unknown to Charles ; less, no doubt, because Mr. A -, addressing himself to and it is related, that he one day sent his lord-treasurer, me at that moment, informed nie that I had a great deal. Danby, to prove the honesty of the patriot. After groping Sapposing that I could not be possessed of such a treasure his way up several dark staircases to a very mean lodging, without knowing it, I ventured to confirm my first asser- situated in a court in the Strand, Danby found his man, tion, by saying, that if I had any I was utterly at a loss who said, in some surprise, “ He believed his lordship had to imagine where it could be, or wherein it consisted. Thus mistaken' his way.”_" Not if I have found Mr. Marvel,” ended the conference. Mr. G-squeezed me by the
was the courtly reply. “ I come from the king, to know hand again, kissed the ladies, and withdrew. He Kissed what he can do to serve Mr. Marvel.” Marvel told the likewise the maid in the kitchen, and seemed upon the Lord-treasurer that “ he had no need of his Majesty's aswhole a most loving, kissing, kind-hearted gentleman. He
sistance ; ” and good-humouredly put an end to the conis very young, genteel, and handsome. He has a pair of ference by calling his servant to testify that he had for time very good eyes in his head, which not being sufficient as it last three days dined off one shoulder of mutton. Marvel's should seem for the many nice and difficult purposes of a
mutton is quite as admirable in its way as are the turnips senator, he has a third also, which he wore suspended by of Cincinnatus. The patriotic member for Hull then gave a riband from his button-hole. The boys halloo'd, the the king's minister a rational and manly explanation of dogs barked, Puss scampered, the hero with his long train his principles, declined the royal bounty and favour, and of obsequious followers, withdrew. We made ourselves borrowed a guinea from a friend for his immediate exigenvery merry with the adventure, and in a short time settled cies. It is stated that a thousand guineas were proffered to into our former tranquillity, never probably to be thus in. him by Danby at this interview ; but it ought to be recolterrupted more. I thought myself however happy in being lected that Charles the Second seldom had a thousand guiable to affirm truly that I had not that influence for which
neas to send a-begging. It is enough that Marvel would he sued; and for which, had I been possessed of it, with have declined the largess had it been tendered. But the my present views of the dispute between the Crown and Member for Hull was not always thus inflexible: he often the Commons, I must have refused him, for he is on the accepted a barrel of ale as a present from his grateful con. side of the former."
stituents. He died in 1678 ; and the corporation of Hull roted a sum for his funeral expenses. When will there be
such another member of the honourable house? ANDREW MARVEL.
This accomplished man and inflexible patriot was not
less valued for his learning and acuteness in controversial While so much is said about the fortune and writing, than for the warmth and elegance of his poetry. status required for a Parliament man, we take
“ He was,” says Mr. Campbell, “ the champion of Milton's leave to revive the memory of one of the best mem-ciples against Bishop Parker, when that venerable apos.
living reputation, and the victorious supporter of free prinbers that ever appeared in the Honourable House. tate to bigotry, promulgated, in his ecclesiastical polity, that
Andrew Marvel, the knight-errant of British patriots, it is more necessary to set a severe government over men's was born at Hull in 1620. His father, who was a clergy
consciences than over their vices and immoralities. man in that place, he had the misfortune to lose early in the humour and eloquence of Marvel's prose tracts were life in a way of which this singular story is told. The old admired, and probably imitated by Swift
. In playful ex. gentleman embarked on the Humber with a young pair, uberance of thought he sometimes resembles Burke. For
consistency of principles it is not easy to find his paral. lel !”-Johnstone's Specimens and Biographical Noticon of the Poets.
* His tame hare.
FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF THE BRITISH members of Parliament to act for the general good of the
country. Their principal duties are to check and reform CONSTITUTION.
abuses of the Administration—to redress public and private In Britain the supreme government that is the power grievances to watch over the public expenditure—to en. of making and enforcing laws,-is divided into two force by their power of inquiry and impeachment a pure branches, the one LEGISLATIVE, consisting of King, Lords, administration of justice in all departments—to assist and Commons; the other Executive, consisting of the in framing wise laws--and, finally, to preserve and proKing alone.
mote, by every constitutional means, the freedom and For the maintenance and security of the rights of the prosperity of the great body of the people. people, and the preservation and enforcement of the laws, The powers and privileges of this part of the Legislature, the King is invested with certain Prerogatives; and the are commensurate to its great importance in the govern. Legislature as a collective body, and also in its separate ment. The Commons hold the sinews of war, for they estates, possesses various privileges :—for the Prerogatives are the keepers of the public purse ; all grants, subsidies, of the Crown, and the Privileges of Parliament, are, in and taxes must originate with them; for it is a constitusubstance and effect, The Rights of the People.
tional maxim, that taxation and representation go hand in In England the Executive or Regal office is hereditary hand, and that the people only have a right to tax themon certain conditions ; but the right of inheritance may be selves. By the power of with holding supplies, they have a changed or limited by act of Parliament. The principal strong control over the Executive ; and, by the Constitu. duty of the King is, to govern the people according to the tion, they enjoy all the privileges necessary to their dignity laws : “ but although the King is the fountain of Justice, and independence, and the unbiassed discharge of their and is intrusted with the whole executive power of the law, high functions. yet he hath no power to change or alter the laws which Though new laws may be proposed by any member of have been received and established in these Kingdoms, and either House, the consent of all the three constituent parts are the birthright of every subject; for it is by those very of the Legislature is necessary to make them binding on laws that he is to govern. The King owns no superior the subject ; and though any part of the Legislature may, but God and the Laws.
by withholding its consent, prevent the enactment of a It is a maxim of the Constitution, that the King in his law, it requires the agreement of all the three to repeal an political capacity can do no WRONG, because he acts only existing statute, by officers responsible to the law, called the Ministry or “ Thus the true excellence of the British Government CABINET. The King NEVER DIES; that is, the Exe. consists in all its parts forming a mutual check upon each cutive authority never ceases to exist. The King is head other. The Legislature cannot abridge the Executive power of the Church; but he cannot alter the established religion. of any rights which it now has by law, without its own conHe is also Generalissimo of all the Forces; but he cannot sent. The People are a check upon the Nobility; and the raise an army without the consent of Parliament, nor can Nobility are a check upon the people, by the mutual privi. he maintain it without that consent being renewed from lege of rejecting what the other has resolved : while the year to year. He has the power of coining money ; but King is a check upon both; which preserves the Execu. he cannot alter the standard. He is the sole representative tive power from encroachment. And this very Executive of his people with foreign States, having the power of power is again checked, and kept within due bounds, by sending Ambassadors, concluding treaties of alliance, and the two Houses, through the privilege they have of inquir. making peace or war. The King has the power of sum- ing into, impeaching, and punishing the conduct, not in. moning, proroguing, or dissolving the Parliament; but he deed of the King, (which would destroy his constitutional is bound to summon a new Parliament at least every seven independence,) but which is more beneficial to the public, years. He is also bound to administer justice in the esta- of his evil and pernicious counsellors.”'S blished course in his Courts of Law, not as a free gift but The same laws that secure to the King his crown and as the right of the people. The King is the fountain of prerogative, secure to the meanest subjects those rights, Mercy,—he alone can pardon all public offences, either ab- which are emphatically styled the birthright of Britons. solutely or conditionally; and of Honour, as the Consti- These are principally, the right of personal SecuRITY, of tution has intrusted him with the sole power of conferring personal LIBERTY, and of private PROPERTY. They are titles, dignities and honours. He is also intrusted with asserted, first by the GREAT CHARTER obtained, sword the immense patronage of the Church, the Army, the Navy, in hand, from King John, and afterwards confirmed in the Excise, and the Colonies. He has the power of erecting Parliament by Henry III. ' Next, by a multitude of cor. and disposing of new offices, and in short, the entire dis- roborating statutes; and, after a long interval, by the posal of an enormous public revenue. As first Magistrate PetitION OF Right, the HABEAS CORPUs act, and the of a great and free people he is invested with many other Bill of Rights. And lastly, these liberties were again splendid marks of regal dignity and pre-eminence, “all asserted in the same act (the Act of Settlement) that limits intended by the Constitution to be employed for the good the crown to the present royal family. The Great Charter of the People, none to their detriment, nor can any prero- declaratory of these rights, states, “ That no freeman shall gative be legally so employed."'+
be taken or imprisoned but by the lawful judgment of The LEGISLATIVE authority is vested in a Parliament his equals, or the law of the land :" and the Petition of consisting of the King, the Lords Spiritual and Temporal, Kights, “ That no person shall be imprisoned or detained and the Commons.
without cause shewn, to which he may answer according The House of Lords consists of the two Archbishops and to law.” What has just passed under our own eyes, I twenty-four Bishops, and of all the Peers of the realm who am not yet at liberty to describe. are entitled to a seat either by inheritance, creation, or The Constitution has established certain other auxiliary election. Since the union with Ireland, an Archbishop and subordinate rights of the subject, which serve principally three Bishops represent the Irish Church in Parliament. as outworks or barriers, to protect and maintain inviolate
The House of Commons consists at present of six hun. the three great primary rights of personal security, perdred and fifty-eight persons, who are returned by the coun- sonal liberty, and personal property. One of these is, ties, cities, and boroughs, possessing the right of election, that of applying to courts of Justice for redress of injuries. Of these, five hundred and thirteen are returned by Eng. Since the law is in England the supreme Arbiter of every land, a hundred by Ireland, and forty-five by Scotland. I man's life, liberty and property, Courts of justice must at Thougn delegated by particular places, they are bound as all times be open to the subject, and the law duly admin
As the sole executive power is vested in the King, all * Bacon
not now notice.
WHAT MEN HAVE DONE.
Courts are derived from the crown; and justice is admin- or attacked, the subjects of England are entitled, in the istered by judges of its appointment. The principal judi- first place, to the regular administration, and free course catures are,
of justice in the Courts of Law; next, to the right of petiThe COURT OF COMMON PLEAS, which takes cognizance tioning the King, and Parliament for redress of grievances; of all civil suits between subject and subject. It is com- and lastly, to the right of having and using arms for selfposed of the Lord Chief Justice of the Common Pleas and preservation and defence.”'t three other judges. From its judgment appeal may be
Such is a brief exposition of the fundamental principles made to the Court of King's Bench.
of the British Constitution, as it theoretically exists : it The COURT OF King's Bench determines in criminal would take a volume to point out the abuses that have causes; and also in many merely civil. In it four judges crept into it; and the many insidious ways in which its preside; the first of whom is called the Lord Chief Justice best constituents have been corrupted and warped. J. J. of England, in consequence of the jurisdiction of his court over all subordinate tribunals and civil corporations.
COLUMN FOR YOUTH. Appeals from the decisions of the King's Bench are made to the Court of Exchequer Chamber, or to the House of Peers.
The COURT OF EXCHEQUER was originally established to manage the revenues of the Crown. It is inferior to the schools ; and last week William Martin and his little sis
The school of got its summer holydays before our two former Courts in its jurisdiction, though it has the power ter came by the steam-boat to Edinburgh, for the first time, of determining causes, either according to law or equity. Flere preside the Chief Baron of the Exchequer, and three to spend a fortnight with their aunt. Every day after inferior Barons.
breakfast was over, either their aunt or uncle, or some The Court of CHANCERY is so called from the Lord kind friend, took them to see sights, which might amuse Chancellor, who presides there as sole judge.
and instruct them. They were taken to the University
In this Court are two tribunals ; the one determining causes by Museum, where they saw what to them seemed an infi
And where the existing laws do not meet; to moderate, in peculiar have liked much to have some. the Common law, the other in Equity, to provide for cases nity of beautiful birds, shells, and minerals.
were they to be got ? for both William and Anne would circumstances, the rigour of strict law; to defend the un
Their aunt could not tell. protected from oppression ; and to extend relief in cases
“ It was men-men who sent, or brought them, from all of accident, fraud, and breach of trust. To the Lord
corners of the earth; who had searched land and sea for Chancellor belongs the appointment of all the Justices of them.". They visited the Botanic Garden. What a vathe peace ; he is the general guardian of infants, idiots, riety of beautiful plants ! Where were they brought from ?
“ Men-men," was ever the answer-men had disand lunatics; and has also a general superintendence of all public charities. Appeals from his decisions lie to the covered and selected them, in India, Japan, America— House of Peers.
throughout the whole world, civilized or barbarous-men The COURT OF ExchEQUER CHAMBER has no original had sailed over the widest seas and brought them to Scotjurisdiction, but is only a Court of Appeal to correct the land ;—men were rearing and tending them; investigating errors of other Courts. In appealed cases, this Court their properties and healing uses.” They visited the Adconsists of all the judges except those of the court from yocates' Library one morning—Whence had come all these whence the appeal is made. Into it also, are sometimes books?—The aunt's answer was ever the same-Men-adjourned from the other Courts, such causes as the
judges bound, arranged them ; made the shelves, and placed the
men—these wonderful creatures, had written, printed, find upon argument, to be of great weight and difficulty: volumes upon them. 'On their walks they saw some of It then consists of all the judges of the King's Bench, the finest of the new churches and chapels, and the New Common Pleas, and Court of Exchequer; and sometimes also the Lord Chancellor. The judgments then pronounced High School. Who had planned these fine edifices ? There are those of the TWELVE JUDGES of England. But even certainly never was any lady so much at fault in her profrom their decision a writ of error lies to,
per names - for men was still the answer of the kind aunt ; The House of PEERS, which is the supreme Court of she did not even say gentlemen.“ Men,” she said, “ who Judicature in this United Kingdom. From it there can
had spent years in studying architecture, or the art of be no appeal ; and to its judgment every subordinate tri- chiselled by men—who have made their names famous in
building. “ You will yet see beautiful statues, exquisitely bunal must conform.
These Courts are all held in Westminster ; but for the sculpture, and painting, engraving, mechanical contriv. expeditious and due administration of justice, the judges ances, the printing press, the steam-engine, and many more hold Assizes in most county towns twice a-year, and in beautiful and useful things than I can even name; and every county once a-year.
for all of them we are indebted to men—to human genius, Such are the principal Courts, “ where every subject, for
and human industry. A little boy who is capable of reinjury done to him in goods, person, or estate, by any other Alection, will think when he sees the productions of genius, subject without exception, may take his remedy in course
or of industry-of the Fine or the Useful Arts-“ Like the of law; and have justice and right, for the injury done to makers of these, I am the beginning of a man ; they have him, freely, without fail; fully, without any denial ; and, got before me, but like them, I may be able to do somespeedily, without any delay.”+” And such in substance are thing, for which I shall be honourably remembered among the rights of British Subjects ; maintained against the en
men ;-once they were all little boys, the smallest becroachments of power by a Free Press, Freedom of Speech, walks and plays may be useful to you ; you may learn
ginnings of men. Thus, William, even your holyday and the Trial by Jury; an institution which is justly that Men, to which class you belong, are more wonderful venerated as the chief guardian of the lives, liberties, and properties of the people, since it provides, That no man
creatures than either ants, or bees, or any other living shall answer to the King for any criminal offence, unless
thing.” upon the preparatory accusation of at least twelve of his fellow-subjects, (called the Grand Jury) and, that the truth From remote antiquity the GIRAFFE has excited wonder of every accusation shall afterwards be confirmed by the and curiosity, and been the subject of many marvellous unanimous suffrages of twelve of his equals and neighbours, tales. The form and habits of this remarkable animal are indifferently chosen, and superior to all suspicion.
now, however, well ascertained, principally from the ob. “ To preserve these rights from violation, it is necessary servations of the enthusiastic and indefatigable naturalist that the constitution of Parliament be supported in its full Le Vaillant. Travelling in Great Mamaqua-land, he saw vigour, and limits certainly known be set to the royal pre- a hut entirely covered with what he knew to be the skin of rogative. And to vindicate them when actually violated a cameleopard, as the giraffe is often termed. Hebad soon
THE GIRAFFE-THE GAZELLE.
after the satisfaction of seeing a living specimen. One of change of situation. The same philosophers enumerate the guides made this discovery so welcome to Le Vaillant; the pangs of the rich, and expatiate on the vanity of their the animal was standing under a mimosa tree, on the leaves pleasures. Was there ever so palpable a sophism. The of which it was browsing ; by the time he reached the spot pangs of a rich man are not essential to riches, but to the on horseback, the animal was trotting away across the plain. abuse of them. If he were even more wretched than the
After a pursuit of giraffes, continued for days under poor, he would deserve no compassion, because he is the many difficulties and hardships, his hopes were at last creator of his own misery, and happiness was in his power. realized. Specimens have since been seen in France; and But the sufferings of the indigent are the natural consea female lived for some time, about three years ago, at quences of his state; he feels the weight of his hard lot ; Windsor, where it increased in size to thirteen feet from no length of time nor habit, can ever render him insen. the hoof to the top of the head. After this the animal sible to fatigue and hunger. Neither wisdom, nor good. gradualiy pined and died.
humour, can annihilate the evils which are inseparable There is a fine specimen, in excellent preservation, in from his situation. What avails it in Epictetus to foresee the museum of the Edinburgh University. The giraffe, that his master is going to break his leg? Doth that prethough a beautiful and graceful animal, is no favourite vent the evil ? On the contrary, his foreknowledge added with the Bedonin Arabs, who in this case prefer utility to greatly to his misfortune. If the populace were really as beauty. They say it can neither carry like a horse, give wise as we suppose them stupid, how could they act othertiesh and milk like a goat, nor hair for spinning like a camel. wise than as they do?—Rousseart. The GAZELLE is the most elegant and beautiful of the
EQUALITY OF CONDITIONS. antelope tribe. One in the menagerie at Windsor, which died It is one of the most important objects of government, in 1827, was only twenty inches in height, and in length to prevent an extreme inequality of fortunes ; not by tak. twenty-two. Its skin was beautifully soft and sleek, its ing away the wealth of the possessors, but in depriving body extremely graceful, its head peculiarly light, its ears them of the means to accumulate them; not by building tiexible, its eyes, which have afforded the Arabian poets hospitals for the poor, but by preventing the citizens from their finest comparisons for the eyes of beautiful women, becoming poor. The term equality, does not mean that most brilliant and glancing, its legs as slender as a reed. individuals should all absolutely possess the same degree of
The SPRINGBOK, so frequently seen near the Cape of wealth and power; but only that, with respect to the lat. Good Hope, in the Bushman territory, is another interest- ter, it should never be exercised contrary to good order and ing species of antelope. They are scattered in herds over the laws; and with respect to the former, that no citizen gr.at part of Southern Africa. They receive their name should be rich enough to buy another, and that none from the extraordinary springs or leaps they make. Though should be so poor as to be obliged to sell himself. This looking like other deer when at feed, they will, if pursued, supposes a moderation of possessions and credit on the side bound into the air to the height of eight feet, as if they of the great; and a moderation of desires and covetousness were about to fly. Sometimes when driven from the wilder on the part of the small. Would you give consistency and ness by Jong-continued droughts, they pour upon the set- strength to a state, prevent the two extremes as much as tlements in vast herds, and with all the destructive conse- possible ; let there be no rich persons, nor beggars. These quences of the locusts, devouring every thing they can find. two conditions, naturally inseparable, are equally destrucWhen the rains fall they immediately retire. Herds of tive to the commonwealth. The one furnishes tyrants, nearly thirty thousand have been seen scattered over one the other the supporters of tyranny. It is by such the vast plain. When taken young, the springbok, like other traffic of public liberty is carried on; the one buying, the species of deer, is easily tamed; and it is often seen, as deer other selling it. This equality, they tell us, is a mere are in America, and even in the Highlands of Scotland, as speculative chimera, which cannot exist in practice. But a pet about farm-houses, and a playmate of the children; though abuses are inevitable, does it thence follow they are living in peace and amity among dogs, goats, and poultry not to be corrected ? It is for the very reason that things The writer of this sketch remembers a tame deer, that always tend to destroy this equality, that the laws should had been brought when newly dropt, from the hills to a be calculated to preserve it.-Rousseau. farm-house near Inverness, which grew up in such perfect
EQUALITY AMONG CITIZENS. familiarity with the house dog, that the latter constituted A too great disproportion of wealth among citizens itself its protector, and not only defended it from all at. weakens any state. Every person, if possible, ought to tacks, but would at night-fall go to the neighbouring enjoy the fruits of his labour, in a full possession of all the brushwood to seek out its friend and bring it home. C.I.J. necessaries, and many of the conveniences of life. No one
can doubt but such equality is most suitable to human na. ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT.
ture, and diminishes much less from the happiness of the
rich, than it adds to that of the poor. It also augments THE PEOPLE.
the power of the state, and makes very extraordinary
taxes, or impositions, be paid with more cheerfulness. It is the populace which compose the bulk of mankind : Where the riches are engrossed by a few, these must (ought those which are not in this class are so few in number, to] contribute very largely to supplying public necessities, that they are hardly worth notice. Man is the same crea- But when the riches are dispersed among multitudes, the ture in every state ; therefore that which is the most nu. burden feels light on every shoulder; and the taxes make merous ought to be the most respected. To a man capable not a sensible difference on any one's mode of living. of reflection, all civil distinctions are nothing. He ob- Add to this, that where the riches are in few hands, these serves the same passions, the same feelings, in the clown must enjoy all th power, and will readily conspire to lay and the man of quality. The principal distinction between all the burden on the poor, and oppress them still farther, them consists in the language they speak; in a little re to the discouragement of all industry.--Hume. finement of expression. But if there be any distinction, it is certainly to the disadvantage of the least sincere. The HUNTING, OR WINTER SHOES.-A pound of boiled common people appear as they really are, and they are of- linseed oil, two ounces of coarse bees wax, two of spirit of ten not amiable. If those in high life were equally undis. turpentine, and one of Burgundy pitch ; melt slowly, and guised, their appearance would make us shudder with hor- rub into the leather before the fire with sponge, again and ror. There is, say our philosophers, an equal allotment of again giving a fresh layer, till the leather will absorb no happiness and misery to every rank of men; a maxim as more. The shoes or boots are not only impervious to wet, dangerous as it is absurd. If all mankind are equally but will wear much longer. N. B.-In America, Indian happy, it would be ridiculous to give ourselves any trouble rubber is now used for clogs, an effectual preventive of to promote their felicity. Let each remain in his situation. inoisture. Let the slave endure the lash, the lame his infirmity, and let the bergar perish, since they would gain nothing by a * Written half a еentury ago.- What follows looks like prophecy,