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Was with his pencil in the open air, and amicist the
More recently, within this same sanctuary of scrupled gracefully and frankly to confer a perpi-ty and peace, was filled up and finished the sonal kindness, if it were only at the expense of design of a dedicated mental labour; * bread cast justice and the nation. The unblushing political
the waters to nourish man's inner life, and profligacy of the Scottish leader, and his open contu be found after many days. Many will place tempt of public morality, were revolting even to these among the feelings and remembrances the better order of Tories in England; and would which give a holiday ramble vitality and abiding have disgusted and alienated them from the interest. They enable one, looking back through bosom friend of Pitt, save that they generally ung, dim, and it may be, troubled years, upon forgot there existed a country called Scotland, he Borthwick water, or the Esk water, or any forming an integral part of the kingdom of Great of the thousand lovely streams of Scotland, ever Britain, and represented in Parliament by the deo say with swelling consciousness
legates of Mr. Dundas. But we have passed tho The eternal spirit of one hapry day,
gates of Arniston,-We are in a new world-step Lingers upon its marge, in vision pure!
into the Waggon.---CA IRA! Descending the bank from the church and tower, di crossing the streamlet, the traveller merrily PRESBYTERIAN NOTION OF A BISIIOP. alls on his way by its side along the church ath-way, (the carriage road, with which we have
A Bishop among us, is generally supposed to be othing to do, is on the opposite side,) to Fushie- and fine linen, and faring sumptuously every day
a 'stately and pompous person, clothed in purple ridze. This point may still be distant three L'es from the rail-way Waggon, to which one has somewhat haughty and imperative to those who
somewhat obsequious to persons in power, and # option of returning either by the post-road, twinz Arniston and Kirkhill gates ; or through and manner, than solidity in his learning ; and
are beneath him—with more authority in his tone je village of Gore Bridge : the distance is much yet, with much more learning, than humility and le same either way, and we rather advise the charity-very fond of being called my Lord, and Her route. It lies higher; and Arniston gate, driving about in a chariot, with mitres on the id grounds may be apt, like those of the “ purple panels'; but little addicted to visiting the sick and ackenzie,” the adjoining Shank, to beget jarring fatherless, or earning for himself the blessing of monkrances of a time worse than even the age of those who are ready to perish e lurus of Crichton and Borthwick, that which
Familiar with a round just received its death-blow, though it is still
Of ladyships—a stranger to the poor; itling—the age of corrupt influence. To give the devil his due, there was in the personal decorous in his manners, but no foe to luxurious aracter of the Great Man of the House of Arnis indulgences,-rigid in maintaining discipline among 2, Henry Dundas, to wit, the first Lord Melville, his immediate dependents, and in exacting the mething so bold-faced, hearty, and genial, that homage due to his dignity, from the undignified : half-pardons his fawning or grateful eulogists, mob of his brethren ; but perfectly willing to leave sl caly wishes them better informed in what love to them the undivided privileges of comforting, feantry really consists. The most corrupt and and of teaching their people, and of soothing the principled of modern Scottish statesmen, the sins and sorrows of their erring flocks,-scornful, aily enemy, and remorseless destroyer of all pub- if not openly hostile, upon all occasions, to the
purit, the hardened disbeliever in all political claims of the people from whom he is generally nue, whose conscience never once rebuked him sprung,—and presuming every thing in favour of bis bad career, is pictured and monumented as
the royal will and prerogative by which he has 18 truest and most patriotic of Countrymen ; be- been exalted ; setting, indeed, in all cases, a much *** -and for this alone—that in the general higher value on the privileges of the few, than stdar he always struggled manfully for a full the rights that are common to all, and exerting are of the spoil to his own immediate tools, of himself strenuously, that the former may ever esseres, and their dependents; and never prevail ; caring more accordingly for the interests
of his order, than the general good of the church "Ras of a LIVING TEMPLE, of which the reverend and far more for the church, than the religion it thaz tus speaks impersonally:-“ No length of days can prizat frożn his mind the remembrance of that bright
was established to teach ; hating dissenters still Home sen, nade more bright, and infinitely more affecting more bitterly than infidels, but combating botlı, ne thought that such brightness might be seen but for rather with obloquy and invocation of civil pe. cle, when, being incapable of more active exertion, he nalties, than with the artillery of a powerful reason on and over shadowing foliage of that “cottag? gar: life ; uttering, now and then, haughty professions
or the reconciling influences of a humble and holy Si riews and principles which, in a more finished of humility, and regularly bewailing; at fit sei
but with no alteration whatever of their original sons, the severity of those episcopal labours
de nos subunits to the public, with the solemn be which sadden, and even threaten to abridge a life, dienst they are in accordance with the purest truth, and which, to all other eyes, appears to flow on in an a Living Temple ;" or, to use thie words of the divine almost unbroken leisure, and continued indulgence, Bon, Tould bring the “ Kinglom of Heaven upon Earth." | --Edinburgh Review,
ON THE MORAL TRAINING OF CHILDREN. greatly to prevent that fretting, crying, importuning dis
position, which we often see in children, who have been To the Editor of the Schoolmaster.
accustomed in this manner to obtain what they want. But SIR,— The object of these observations is chiefly to con- when they find that tears and murmurs have no effect, they
soon become manageable, and acquire a habitual command vey (through the medium of your instructive miscellany)
over themselves. On the contrary, a child accustomed to some salutary hints to parents; particularly such as are have what he cries for, will sometimes cry for things a desirous to discharge their duty as they ought, but who parent may not choose to give, and persevere in crying till are at a loss to know how, so as to train up their offspring he exhatists the patience of the parent, and then he is in the way they should go. My object also is, to arouse
whipped. Thus people first indulge children, and then still more, if possible, the attention of people in general to gence ; and it is perhaps difficult to say which injures the
chastise them for the natural consequence of that indul. the vast importance of the subject.
temper most. Don't touch this ! don't do that! are fre. Great, indeed, is the responsibility of parents, and not less quent injunctions of a parent, who, nevertheless, permits the vigilance necessary in the management of their chil- both to be done with impunity, till at length some petty dren. But the lively sensibility of fond parents, whilst it mischief is done, though the child was not able to make
the distinction ; and then he is again whipped ; and to this awakens many fears of failure on their part, operates also whipping do parents sometimes appeal as a testimony that as a powerful stimulus, not only to the faithful and diligent they do not spoil their children. By an early habit of imdischarge of their duty to their children, but to be strictly plicit obedience, and a fixed determinatiou not to grant a watchful over themselves, that their own conduct and exam-child what he cries for to prevent his crying—the occasion ple should not be at variance with their precepts. Thus they be much happier ! Persevering yet gentle firmness begun
of all this whipping—would not both the parent and child will endeavour, for their children's sake, to keep themselves in infancy establishes proper discipline, procures respect 1 as much as possible under self-government, from a convic. and obedience, and prevents the necessity of almost all purtion that every dereliction of duty in that respect, has the ishment; while, on the contrary, by improper indulgence, tendency not only to injure the temper, but also to weaken the will becomes incorrigible, and then the rod is resorted that influence which they ever ought to be careful of main- to as the only means of bringing it into subjection, though taining over the minds of their children.
the effect in general is only to make it still more obdurate. The necessity of early restraint, as well as culture, must By diminishing temptations to do wrong, we act more be evident to every judicious and enlightened parent; but humanely than by multiplying restraints and punishmenta; to obtain that ascendancy over the minds of their children, hence the propriety of but few prohibitions, and these ju. which is so nesessary to keep them under proper restraint, dicious and decisive, such as we can steadily persevere to care must be taken to avoid all fond indulgence on
enforce. If we are not exact in requiring obedience, we hand, and all harsh severity on the other; both being alike shall never obtain it, either by persuasion or authority. calculated to finstrate their endeavours.
The parent's word should be considered a law; and when When a child is capable of being reasoned with, it ought made so from early infancy, it will not often be controcertainly to be treated as a rational being; though it is well verted. The will of the child will be habitually subordi. known that long before a child can be reasoned with, habits nate to the will of the parent, and obedience rendered naof obedience and submission may be formed. The first en- tural and easy. But this requires steadiness and self-comdeavour which it makes is to gratify the impulse of its will, wand, without which there is very little hope that the eduand therefore the first step in the process of education ought cation of a child will ever be conducted upon consistent to be, to bring the will under subjection, at least to a cer- principles. tain extent, which is perfectly practicable, even with the in The following anecdote, as related by a female writer on fant at the breast, if it is gone about in a proper manner. education, welt exemplifies the happy effects of early obeFor instance, an infant will stretch out its hand to take dience :-“ One morning," she states, “ as I entered the something improper for it to have; but if its hand is with drawing-room of my friend, I found the little group of held, and the parent, unmoved by its cries or struggles, cherubs at high play around their fond mother, who was shows by his countenance and manner that he refuses the encouraging their sportive vivacity, which was at that indulgence, the child will soon learn to yield; and by uni- time noisy enough ; but which, on my entrance, she hushed formly experiencing similar treatment whenever its wishes into silence by a single word. No bad humour followed ; onght not to be gratified, submission will soon become fa- but as the spirits which had been elevated by the preced. miliar and easy.
ing amusement could not at once sink into a state of acAs children advance in age, parents, by a simple and af. quiescence, the judicious mother did not require what she fectionate manner of conversing with them, acquire almost knew could not without difficulty be complied with; but unbounded influence over their young minds, which being calmly addressing them, gave the choice of remaining in quite in a ductile or pliable state, may be made to receive the room without making any noise, or going to their own almost whatever impressions the parent pleases; and indeed apartment. The eldest and youngest of the four preferred such as will never afterwards be effaced. If, therefore, the former, while the two others went to the nursery. Those parents were only sufficiently careful during this interesting who staid with us, amused themselves by cutting paper in period, to impress the minds of their children with correct a corner, without giving any interruption to our conversaideas of right and wrong, to check their upruly passions, tion. I begged to know by what art she attained such a to keep their wills under proper subjection, but above all, to perfect government of her childrens' wills and actions ? " By set before them a proper example, seeking at the same time no art, returnel this excellent parent, but that of teaching a divine blessing on their humble endeavours, they would from the cradle an implicit obedience. Having never once seldom or ever be disappointed in seeing them grow up all been permitted to disobey me, they have no idea of attempt. that their hearts could desire.
ing it. But you see, I always give them a choice, when it -But the great object in the first instance undoubtedly is, can be done with propriety; if it cannot, whatever I say, to secure their implicit obedience and respect, without they know to be a law, like that of the Medes and Persians, which nothing can be done in the way of improvement. which altereth not." As soon, therefore, as a child is capable of comprehending How widely different, and how much more advantageons what is said to him, he should in a mild, gentle, but firm to children, as well as comfortable to parents, is this mode manner, be informed of his duty, and what his parents of treatment from that of rigid strictness, which only pro. shall expect of him ; and among other things, that he will duces slavish fear; or that unwarrantable indulging the never obtain what he wants by ill-humour or crying ; but humours of children, which deprives parents of all control that if he asks pleasantly for what is suitable it will be over them. Pure and genuine affection is go directed to the granted. This method, if steadily pursued, will tend ' real happiness of the child, as to guard against both of these
extremes. For while it endeavours by kindness to prevent people evince a power and ingenuity of mind which every any thing like forced obedience, it also guards against that Englishman must admire.
All persons who come kind of liberty by which it loses its authority.
here with high notions of teaching the Americans, will find By the wise provision of Providence, the fond endear their mistake by merely making use of their eyes on their ships, ment of parental love produces a reciprocal attachment in Lowell, Massachusets, there have been built in the last eight
buildings, or manufactories. For example, in the town of the breast of the child. A judicious parent will take ad-years, 31 woollen and cotton manufactories, 155 feet long, 69 feet vantage of this circumstance, to lay a foundation for that wide, and 5 stories high, where from 3000 to 4000 respectable
entire freedom which ought to exist between parents and females are employed." We have had most ample opportunities their children. If confidence has been early invited by en- of noticing the disposition of the people, which is uniformly
Wearing affability, and prudently managed, reserve in chil- easy, kind, and affable ; they evidently respect the English, dren will seldom have to be complained of in maturer age. but are not disposed to think too highly of any, nor the rich And when they are thus accustomed to unbosom them more than others. In New York men and women dress well, selves to their parental friend, who is most interested in generally genteelly ; but in the country (as well in the State of their welfare, what advantages must result to them, and New York as this) the men of all classes dress slovenly.
They what pleasure to the parent! Nor is there any fear of have nurseries in the neighbourhood of New York, but certainly losing respect by such familiarity; on the contrary, as it though it must be noticed this is not the time of year to look
with that exception nothing that deserves the name of garden, more firmly establishes the affection of children, it at the out for them. It is not possible to conceive the existence of a Fame time, and in the same degree, secures their respect, more easy, contented, and happy people than the Americans. the one being a necessary consequence of the other. They all speak well of their Government; any thing like grum
Young people who have been thus treated by judicious bling about hard times, or the difficulty of getting a living, we and communicative parents, are seldom addicted to degrad. have not heard of; on the contrary, every one says, any man faz practices. They will even forego many indulgences to may support himself a week by two days' labour-genteelly by tavoid displeasing them, or giving them pain. And as they three days. The land yields its increase, and farmers rarely uan freely open their minds and tell their schemes to their work more than two or three days in a week. Thoso who are liberal-minded parents, how often must these have it in industrious always get wealthy; any industrious man who rents their power to caution them against indiscretions, and thus a farm could buy that farm in three years. This State (Ohio) is be the means of saving them from much harm! And there have a better price for their produce. I wish I could present
no doubt, tbc best for farmers; the canals being now open they are few young people so void of gratitude or sense, as not America to your view, you would be surprised to find everything to avail themselves of parental advice and experience when so much like dear England—the soil, the weeds, the grass, the thus proffered them. But let it be remembered, that if clover, the trees, the rivers, the rocks, the canals, the bouses, We would have our children make us their confidents, and with some additional varieties. We have passed through tens freely unbosom their thoughts to us, they must not be dis- of thousands of acres of woods. The trees in general are not twaraged by the coldness or distance of our deportment to- large--few so large as those in the grove of Sir R. Vaughan, wards them, but rather be studiously invited by kindness near Bristol. Except on the Hudson, the prospects are greatly and condescension.
confined by woods ; though you are surprised to find so much The subject, Mr. Editor, on which this letter treats, I idea of living in the woods seems to vanish. I was greatly
land cleared, and towns springing up every where, so that the algubt not, you will agree with me, is one of the very high- pleased with the county of Coshocton; it is, as brother
Powell *st importance, as it respects the future welfare not only of says, more like Herefordshire than any other part we have yet the rising generation, but of society at large, and is one on been through. The English I have met with in the United States which volumes may be written without exhausting the do well, and are fully satisfied with the change. The most dis»thject ; wherefore you will not be surprised when I inform agreeable thing is, at first, to get a bouse, a home, or even you that I have still something farther to say.- Mean- apartments, nothing scarcely to be let, though it is easy to buy chile, I am, &c.
a house any where, as the Americans are fond of selling and A FRIEND TO EARLY EDUCATION. beginning again.” Edinburgh, Sept. 1, 1832.
* Worthington, State of Ohio, 26th Dec. 1931.-We
are all very comfortable, and often meet together, and discuss, EMIGRATION,
contrast, and compare things in America with those in Eng
land : THE UNITED STATES-CANADA.
: on some points we agree, in our likes and dislikes, and on
some differ very widely. On all material points, however, re The following extracts from letters written by a gentleman, who in fully agree, that this is the best poor man's country; the best
September last emigrated from Bristol to America with his family, in which to bring up and launch out a family; the best for perwi doubtless prove interesting to many of our readers. The letters sons of small incomes, (if they can accommodate themselves to
circumstances, and depend upon their own resources). Servants "NEWABE, STATE OF Ohio, Nov. 30th, 1831.—The (" Helps”) may be had here, board and wages both considered, English appearance of every thing at New York exceedingly de- at an expense but little more than in England ; but then the Lghted us, and, though we have journeyed many hundred miles maid is about as good as her mistress, the man as bis master, sce, we can even now scarcely believe we are in America ; all though in respectable families they rarely take their meals togewe want to make this England to us, is the presence of our ther, except in farm houses. *** Though, to parents English friends, and some trifling alteration in the Americans. coming out here, if they bave the common feelings of our na: la New York, and through all the country we have passed, we ture, it must be a sacrifice of the pleasures of friendship, and Lave had a settled conviction that the standard of morals in at first an endurance of several inconveniences, yet their chil. Azerica is much above that of England. This opinion is dren will bless them for their self-denial, and I believe, in frated from a thousand little incidents which must strike an ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, parents will feel thankLaglishman. In walking the streets of New York, we see ful they had sufficient nerve to come to this country: Parents Bonds are left about the shop doors to a late hour, and such have no difficulty in bringing up their children, and placing them pada as may be easily removed, and would be removed very out in business; por need they fear their future prosperity. piekly in Bristol, by some of the hundreds of thieves who are Here, also, there is far less temptation to vice of every kind always og the look out. I was full a week, or nearly so, in get- sobriety and good order prevail in a way unknown in England.
clear of the Custom House, which was a very toilsome The direct and indirect effects of Temperance Societies are truly lineas indeed, chiefly from my kaving so many packages, and astonishing. It is true happiness may be found in England; arranged with too much order, so as to give them the appearance and so the Christian may find it everywhere; for wherever he merchandise. But the toil was rendered not merely bearable goes, his God is with him ; but I believe the sum of happiness bet even agreeable, by the kind and gentlemanly conduct of all is infinitely greater here than in England. The chief cause of the tyficers, whether at the ship, the public store, or the Cus- sorrow and distress in England is unknown here! Here there am House ; nothing like rapacity on the one hand, or obae- is not the garb of poverty nor the look of distress. Į knew, a Heizessess or insolence on the other. The churches in New farmer, an industrious and honest man, not far from West Park, Park, and throughout all that state, are very numerous and Bristol
, who has walked his fields in distress for hours together,
li was a uts of parliament, but that it prospers most when lett to its beautiful morning ; I walked five miles before breakfast, on a wa resources. The steam packets are splendid indeed. The very good tow path, with the canal on my right and the Mohawk
river on my left, with a pretty fertile country, and varied sce-them! But, leaving both Roman and English epicures, se pery. It reminded me strongly of the Hay, my native place. approach the fourth, the last, and not the least interesting er We met a very agreeable English gentleman on the aqueduct Mr. Thackrab's divisions-professional men, and persons etover the Mohawk. He had travelled extensively through the gaged in literature: those who work by mind more than by States, and was then on his return to England, with a view of body. Some have mental application conjoined or alternating, bringing his family over. He was highly pleased with the with considerable exercise in the open air. Civil engineers, country and the people, and said, “ The English will never be- surveyors, and architects, belong to this division. Thoogh cosLIEVE America to be so happy and prosperous a country, unless fined to the desk occasionally, yet they travel frequently through they see for themselves.” This reminded me of what an English the country, and thus enjoy fresh air and muscular exertion. gentleman at New York said to me. He inquired if I intended | They are, indeed, occasionally exposed to wet and cold; but to send a full account home of what I saw. Certainly,' was these agents seldom injure persons in motion. Few individcah my reply. "And do you,' lie said, 'expect they will believe in this department are unhealthy, except those who are irit you??Surely they will . Take my word for it,' be said, they gular in their habits, and adulicted to high living.
Minister will pot believe the one half of what even you say.'
of religion have a similar alternation of study and exercise We arrived at Shenectady about two o'clock. It is a pretty The latter, however, is too gentle or restricted for musulir good town. Here we laid in more provisions. There is a rail- men. Their situation, and the ideas attached to it, unfortaroad from Albany to this place, for steam coaches, which go nately prevent their joining iu spor: or amusements which fourteen miles an hour. Wednesday morning, at daylight, we produce a full circulation of the blood, and a full action of the came in sight of Utica. This is a very handsome town,
Hence, congestion of the venous system of the bowe abounding with well-built churches, of the various denominations is a frequent occurrence. The individuals of thás class wbo are with spires. I do not know in England so regular and so good hard students may be referred to the section of literary men. a town—not the semblance of poverty or poor houses. The oxen Clergymen who preach long, frequently, or with vebemence, are fine large beasts for labour. Self-supporting, or manual la- as well as orators, actors, public singers, and persons who play bour schools, are already established in many parts of the much on wind instruments, are subject to pains in the chest Union.
spitting of blood, and diseases of the larynx. Practitioners of (To be continued occasionally. )
medicine and surgery. “ Night calls,” says Mr. T., “ are geMEDICAL SELECTIONS. NO. II.
nerally thought to be very injurious. I think the evil lesa
than the public and the profession suppose ; for, if we obserre EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PROFESSIONS
those who have for thirty or forty years been much engaged as AND TRADES ON HEALTH.
accoucheurs, we shall find them as robust as others. Assiety of
micd does more, I conceive, to impair health, tban breach of The Literary Gazette lately gave an analysis of Mr. Thack-sleep, nocturnal exposure, or irregularity in meals.” As a prorah's volume on health ; his second division treats of Dealers. fession, the medical is by no means healthy; and there is an ex. Shopkeepers suffer from want of air and exercise.
traordinary mortality among the students. We have next to
They are pale, dyspeptic, and subject to affections of the head. They refer to persons who have much mental application, without drag on a sickly existence, die before the proper end of human adequate exercise of the body: Clerks, Bool-keepers, Accoun. life, and leave a progeny like themselves." Commercial Tra- tants, &c. suffer from contined atmosphere and a fixed position, vellers are compelled to take more liquor daily than nature re- Though urgent disease is not generally produced, yet a continue quires; and the consequence is, in spite of tbeir active employ
ance of the employment in its full extent never fails to impair mente, that few of them bear the wear and tear for thirty years; the constitution, and render the individual sickly for life. The the majority not twenty. For the drinker, if be“ be not sud profession of the law, in most of its branches, is sedentary. So denly taken off by apoplexy, or other affection of the brain, he licitors' and other clerks are kept, from morning to nigbt, in a merges into dropsy, and the bloated mass sinks into an early bad position, with the limbs fixed, and the truok bent forward. grave.” The third division of the work before us refers to mer But, leaving the lawyers to take care of themselves, which they chants and master.manufacturers : These are affected by the very well know how to do in this world, we have now arrived á general principles applicable to other classes. If not too much the last class of society, persons who live in a bad atinosphere, confined, or exposed to injurious dusts, or elluvia froin manu maintain one position most of the day, take little exercise, and factures, or so hurried as to swallow their meals in a hasty are frequently under the excitement of ambition. This class manner, their lives are of a fair proportion. But, truly adds the includes individuals from the several professions, as well as the author, “ of all agents of disease and decay, the most important men devoted to science and literature. And on this subject me is anxiety of wind. When we walk the streets of large com cannot but quote the first observation feelingly:-" The posimercial towns, we must be struck with the hurried gait and tion of the studeut is obviously bad. Leaning forward, be keeps care-worn features of the well-dressed passengers. Some young often irregularly, and tukes a full inspiration only when he
most of the muscles wholly inactive, breathes imperfectly, and tural cheerfulness and colour, but these appearances rarely sur sighs!" vive the age of manhood.
The physical evils of commercial life would be considerably reduced, CONTAGIOUS AND EPIDEMIC DISEASES. it men reflected, that the success of business may be prevented by the very means used to promote it. Excessive application How much crude nonseuse, and scarcely intelligible jargos und auziety, by disordering the animal economy, weaken the has lately been spoken by professional and non-professional pere inental powers. Our opinions are affected by states of the body, sons on this subject of contagioa. As soon as sume new disease and our judgment often perverted. If a clear head be required is imported from abroad, or arises in some spot at home, from in commercial transactions, a healthy state of the body is of the which it sprends through the community, discussions and confirst importance; and a healthy state of the body is incompa- tentions arise on all sides as to its having simply an epidemical tible with excessive application of mind, the want of exercise character, or one that is contagious, or both. 'These discussions and fresh air. But subjects like these tind no entry in the books are important, and the contention of men and discrepancy of of our merchants.
Intent on their avocations, ihey strangely facts are so great, that we should be perplexed indeed, did not a overlook the means necessary for pursuiug them with successo simple reflection occur to solve the difficulty. "I he contagious, 'I hey find, too late, that they have sacrificed the body tu the as well as the malignant character of diseases, depends mostly, wind.” Mr. Thuckrah allows for the pleasures of the table; if not entirely, upon the degree of vital energy, and the narrowbut goes into details, enough to frighiep the most resolute bon ness of the space, &c. within which those who suffer from it Tirants, who exceed, and make a god of their belly. The wor are confined. At Madeira, in the south of France and elseshippers of venter Deus, who build houses as if ihey were im- where, consumption is deemed contagious, on account of the aneriul, and feast as if they meant to live only for a very short number of sufferers that resort to those parts. Authors have time, are denounced as the sure consummaters of the latter pur- enumerated many other complaints which we deem non-conprese. But we need not insist on the evils which attend those tagious, as contagious under similar circumstances. For inwho will indulge their appetites; all that we can do is to sug- stance, Dr. Cleghorn and Dr. Fordyce, both physicians of high gest the use of an improvement of our own day for their bepetit; authority in medical science, have considered the ague as conwe allude to the stomach-pump! The Romans, we know, bad tagious, &c. &c. Therefore it would appear that epidemics, sume not very delicate inodes of prolonging and repeating gas- like the cholera, may be conditionally contagious. In the partronomic enjoyments; had they been enlightened with the row streets, in the dark blind alleys, and small rooms, where knowledge of this machine, how happy it must have made human beings are found, of immoral and filthy habits, ground
* Jir. 'l hackrah's work has just an caid in a sicured cditionale down, moreover, by poverty, labour, and inisfortune--by every are glad to see it so well aj preciated.
thing, in a word, ibit affects vitality-in such places it is that
epidemics first appear, and then grow into contagion. If persons moral sense differs from a natural one, as much as the effect who can command comforts and conveniences are attacked by of reflection differs from simple feeling. But the conformathe invading disease, its contagious character disappears, or notion given by nature and education may be so exquisitely longer betrays itself, and then it is rashly pronounced only an epidemic, or disease from local miasmata, or influences.
just in some men, that they may be said to judge of actions Woaus IN SPRING WATER.-The common opinion of medi- and principles by a kind of instantaneous sensation, which cal men that the worms found in the stomach and human in- may be very properly termed a moral sense. The eyo, as a testines are introduced by drinking water containing such sense, is formed by the experience of many years; but when worms, and the vulgar opinion that they are introduced by eat it is formed, it judges of distances and magnitude, of beauty ing fruit, are both easily refuted by the simple experiment of and deformity, apparently by an immediate sensation ; but exposing the worms found in water or fruits to a heat equal to in fact by a process which is the effect of experience. The tbat of the human bowels; namely, 98° fahr., when it will be mind is in the same state as to moral: it has judged of causcs found (as was shown by experiment) that such worms will in- by effects on all natural occasions. It has so associated virstantly die. The knowledge of this simple experiment may tue with pleasure, and vice with pain, that when actions often prevent unfounded alarms-such as when a family are induced to abandon a country house, from their physiciau finding and principles under these denominations present themselves, Sana!l worms in the spring water of their well, and which he they seem to act on the mere sense, not as virtues or vices, erroneously concludes to be ascarides.
but as pleasure or pain.
STRENGTH OF MIND.
ELEMENTS OF THOUGHT.
All men are equally desirous of happiness, but few are DISTINCTION OF CLASSES INJURIOUS TO VIRTUE. successful in the pursuit. One chief cause is the want of Virtue and wisdom may have an inspired prophet or two strength of mind, which might enable them to resist the always upon earth. But, for the body of mankind, a cer- temptation of present ease or pleasure, and carry them fortain approach to a recognized equality seems requisite as a ward in the desire of more distant profit and enjoyment guarantee for virtues which are to be as extensive as mankind, **. However poets may employ their wit and cloinstead of virtues limited to, and estimated by, their effect quence in celebrating present pleasure, and rejecting all disupon a particular class or order. The barons of Magna tant views to fame, health, or fortune, it is obvious that Charta stipulated only for the liber homo, and thought as this practice is the source of all dissoluteness and disorder, little about the rights of a villien, as a Jamaica planter repentance, and misery. A man of strong determined teniu about codifying for negroes...... There is little check upon per, adheres tenaciously to his general resolutions, and is ordinary consciences, wherever the want of a social feeling, neither seduced by the allurements of pleasure, nor terrified and a common interest between the parties, fails to bring by the menaces of pain ; but keeps still in view those dishome to the bosoms of the principal in the transaction its tant pursuits, by which he at once ensures his happiness general consequences to society. England continues to be, and his honour. in this sense, much more aristocratical, than many Euro
IIUME. pean nations, far behind it in general spirit and refinement. Only our line of aristocracy, and consequently of demarcation, falls far lower than the House of Peers; and thus, If we must pray for special favour, let it be for a sound from want of being embodied in one uniform set of facts, mind, in a sound body. Let us pray for fortitude, that we or denounceable in one short denomination, it attracts less may ihink the labours of Hercules, and all his sufferings invidious attention. But the actual separation produces preferable to a life of luxury, and the soft repose of Sardaits natural effects. As strong instances as any in modern napalus; this is a blessing within the reach of every man. civilization, of the perilous length to which exemption This we can give ourselves. It is virtue, and virtue only from the cause may run, when once administered into that can make us happy. practice, exist in some anomalous proceedings long made
JUVENAL. compatible with the political morality of the gentlemen of
TESTIMONY OF ROUSSEAU TO THE DIVINE PERFECEngland. Purchasers of game in London, they have had
TION OF THE CHARACTER OF THE SAVIOUR. no remorse, in what goes by the name of their justice-room in the country, to send to jail their unknown accomplice The Majesty of the Scriptures strikes me with admirathe wretched poacher, whom, perhaps, their own money tion, as the purity of the gospel has its influence on my may have bribed_certainly their own participation had heart. Peruse the works of our philosophers, with all seduced-into the commission of the offence. A member their pomp of diction; how mean, how contemptible are of Parliament, sitting there by no title but that of corrup- they, compared with the Scriptures! Is it possible a book at tion, does not feel the least scruple in joining the recom once so simple and so sublime should merely be the work mendation of a committee, that the uttermost pennyworth of of man? What prepossession, what blindness, it must be penalty under the bribery acts should be enforced against to compare the son of Sophroniscus to the Son of Mary! some insignificant freeman, not a hundredth part as guilty What an infinite disproportion is there between them ! as himself. The proceedings on committees for private Socrates, dying without pain) r ignominy, easily supported bills, we will not enlarge on. Our observations might be his character to the last ; and if his death, however easy, a breach of the privileges of that honourable house. But had not crowned his life, it might be doubted if Socrates, we have beard a lawyer, as much employed in this line of with all his wisdom, was any thing more than a vain practice as any man of his time, and afterwards upon the sophist. He invented, it is the theory of morals. bench, describe these committees as tribunals, where gen- Others, however, had before put them in practice ; he had tlemen of the same rank of life met to compliment cach therefore only to say what they had done, and to reduce other at the expense of the property of strangers. His pic-their examples to precept. But where could Jesus learn ture was that of dens of injustice, where men—who, in among his contemporaries that pure and sublime morality, Cases not under the protection of one of those artificial ex- of which he only has given us both precept and example ? ceptions, would shrink from the suspicion of wrong-are The death of Socrates peacefully philosophizing with his parties to transactions for which juries would have been friends, appears the most agreeable that could be wished attainted, their houses ploughed into the ground, and salt for: that of Jesus expiring in the midst of agonizing pains, sown on the foundations, in ancient times."-Édinburgh abused, insulted, and accused by a whole nation is the most Revicu.
horrible that could be found. Socrates, in receiving the THE MONAL SENSE.
cup of poison, blessed the weeping executioner who admi. The moral sense is formed by time, and experience. So nistered it; but Jesus, in the midst of excruciating tortures, are all the natural senses, not one of which is born with prayed for his merciless tormentors. Yes! if the life and 123 : they are all created, some instantancously, others in a deaih of Socrates were those of a philosopher, be life and little time, scme in a long time, but all by experience. The death of Jesus were those of a God.Emilius.