Vore recently, within this same sanctuary of scrupled gracefully and frankly to confer a per. piaty and peace, was filled up and finished the sonal kindness, if it were only at the expense of design of a dedicated mental labour ;* bread cast justice and the nation. The unblushing political

in the waters to nourish man's inner life, and profligacy of the Scottish leader, and his open con. to be found after many days. Many will place tempt of public morality, were revolting even to these among the feelings and remembrances the better order of Tories in England ; and would which give a holiday ramble vitality and abiding have disgusted and alienated them from the interest. They enable one, looking back through bosom friend of Pitt, save that they generally 494, dim, and it may be, troubled years, upon forgot there existed a country called Scotland, the Borthwick water, or the Esk water, or any forming an integral part of the kingdom of Great of the thousand lovely streams of Scotland, ever Britain, and represented in Parliament by the deo say with swelling consciousness

legates of Mr. Dundas. But we have passed the The eternal spirit of one hapry day,

gates of Arniston,- We are in a new world-step Lingers upon its marge, in vision pure!

| into the Waggon.--C, IRA! Descending the bank from the church and tower, od crossing the streamlet, the traveller merrily | PRESBYTERIAN NOTION OF A BISHOP. alds on his way by its side along the church

A Bishop among us, is generally supposed to be ath-way, (the carriage road, with which we have

a stately and pompous person, clothed in purple othing to do, is on the opposite side,) to Fushie

and fine linen, and faring sumptuously every dayridze. This point may still be distant three Les from the rail-way Waggon, to which one has somewhat haughty and imperative to those who

somewhat obsequious to persons in power, and w option of returning either by the post-road,

are beneath him—with more authority in his tone twinz Arniston and Kirkhill gates; or through

and manner, than solidity in his learning; and de village of Gore Bridge : the distance is much

yet, with much more learning, than humility and Le same either way, and we rather advise the

charity-very fond of being called my Lord, and #ter route. It lies higher; and Arniston gate, drivi

driving about in a chariot, with mitres on the d grounds may be apt, like those of the “ purple ackenzie,” the adjoining Shank, to beget jarring |

panels ; but little addicted to visiting the sick and umbrances of a time worse than even the age of those who are ready to perish

| fatherless, or earning for himself the blessing of e lords of Crichton and Borthwick, that which

Familiar with a round just received its death-blow, though it is still

Of ladyships—a stranger to the poor; ling—the age of corrupt influence, To give the devil his due, there was in the personal

decorous in his manners, but no foe to luxurious aracter of the Great Man of the House of Arnis.

indulgences, rigid in maintaining discipline among 2. Henry Dandas, to wit, the first Lord Melville,

his immediate dependents, and in exacting the mething so bold-faced, hearty, and genial, that

homage due to his dignity, from the undignified half.pardong his fawning or grateful eulogists,

mob of his brethren; but perfectly willing to leave Hoaly wishes them better informed in what love

to them the undivided privileges of comforting, country really consists. The most corrupt and

and of teaching their people, and of soothing the principled of modern Scottish statesmen, the

sins and sorrows of their erring flocks,-scornful, mily enemy, and remorseless destroyer of all pub

if not openly hostile, upon all occasions, to the pirit, the hardened disbeliever in all political

claims of the people from whom he is generally het, whose conscience never once rebuked him

sprung, -and presuming every thing in favour of bis bad career, is pictured and monumented as

the royal will and prerogative by which he has sa triest and most patriotic of Countrymen; be

been exalted ; setting, indeed, in all cases, a much 14_and for this alone that in the general

higher value on the privileges of the few, than Iber he always struggled manfully for a full

the rights that are common to all, and exerting are of the spoil to his own immediate tools, of

himself strenuously, that the former may ever seres, and their dependents; and never

prevail ; caring more accordingly for the interests

of his order, than the general good of the church has OF A LIVING TEMPLE, of which the reverend and far more for the church, than the religion it thus speaks impersonally:-“No length of days can

was established to teach ; hating dissenters still froin his mind the remembrance of that bright TB097, inade more bright, and infinitely more affecting

more bitterly than infidels, but combating both, *trenght that such brightness might be seen but for

rather with obloquy and invocation of civil pe. when, being incapable of more active exertion, henalties, than with the artillery of a powerful reason I with his pencil in the open air, and amidst the or the reconciling influences of a humble and holy

and overshadowing foliage of that “ cottag? gar- l life : uttering. now and then, haughty professions

ich had been dear to him from infancy, the whole *** views and principles which, in a more finished

| of humility, and regularly bewailing, at fit sel. BL with no alteration whatever of their original sons, the severity of those episcopal labours She now subunits to the public, with the solemn be. which sadden, and even threaten to abridge a life,

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al they are in accordance with the purest truth, and which, to all other eyes, appears to flow on in an * adoption, as rules of conduct, would indeed make Living Temple;" or, to use the words of the divine

| almost unbroken leisure, and continued indulgence, ud bring the King lom of Heaven upon Earth, '| -Edinburgh Review,


ON THE MORAL TRAINING OF CHILDREN. greatly to prevent that fretting, crying, importuning dis.

position, which we often see in children, who have been To the Editor of the Schoolmaster.

accustomed in this manner to obtain what they want. But SIR,- The object of these observations is chiefly to con

when they find that tears and murmurs have no effect, they

soon become manageable, and acquire a habitual command vey (through the medium of your instructive miscellany)

over themselves. On the contrary, a child accustomed to some salutary hints to parents; particularly such as are have what he cries for, will sometimes cry for things a desirous to discharge their duty as they ought, but who parent may not choose to give, and persevere in crying till are at a loss to know how, so as to train up their offspring he exhatists the patience of the parent, and then he is in the way they should go. My object also is, to arouse

whipped. Thus people first indulge children, and then

chastise them for the natural consequence of that indul. still more, if possible, the attention of people in general to

gence; and it is perhaps difficult to say which injures the the vast importance of the subject.

temper most. Don't touch this ! don't do that! are fre. Great, indeed, is the responsibility of parents, and not less quent injunctions of a parent, who, nevertheless, permits the vigilance necessary in the management of their chil.

both to be done with impunity, till at length some petty

mischief is done, though the child was not able to make dren. But the lively sensibility of fond parents, whilst it

the distinction ; and then he is again whipped ; and to this awakens many fears of failure on their part, operates also

whipping do parents sometimes appeal as a testimony that as a powerful stimulus, not only to the faithful and diligent they do not spoil their children. By an early babit of im. discharge of their duty to their children, but to be strictly plicit obedience, and a fixed determination not to grant a watchful over themselves, that their own conduct and exam.

child what he cries for to prevent his crying-the occasion

of all this whipping-would not both the parent and child ple should not be at variance with their precepts. Thus they

be much

e firmness begun will endeavour, for their children's sake, to keep themselves in infancy establishes proper discipline, procures respect as much as possible under self-government, from a convic and obedience, and prevents the necessity of almost all pun. tion that every dereliction of duty in that respect, has the ishment; while, on the contrary, by improper indulgence, tendency not only to injure the temper, but also to weaken the will becomes incorrigible, and then the rod is resorted that influence which they ever ought to be careful of main. to as the only means of bringing it into subjection, though taining over the minds of their children.

the effect in general is only to make it still more obdurate. The necessity of early restraint, as well as culture, must By diminishing temptations to do wrong, we act more be evident to every judicious and enlightened parent; but humanely than by multiplying restraints and punishmenta; to obtain that ascendancy over the minds of their children, hence the propriety of but few prohibitions, and these juwhich is so nesessary to keep them under proper restraint, dicious and decisive, such as we can steadily persevere to care must be taken to avoid all fond indulgence on the one enforce. If we are not exact in requiring obedience, we hand, and all harsh severity on the other; both being alike shall never obtain it, either by persuasion or authority. calculated to frustrate their endeavours.

The parent's word should be considered a law; and when When a child is capable of being reasoned with, it ought made so from early infancy, it will not often be controcertainly to be treated as a rational being; though it is well verted. The will of the child will be habitually subordi. known that long before a child can be reasoned with, habits nate to the will of the parent, and obedience rendered naof obedience and submission may be formed. The first en- tural and easy. But this requires steadiness and self-comdeavour which it makes is to gratify the impulse of its will, wand, without which there is very little hope that the eduand therefore the first step in the process of education ought cation of a child will ever be conducted upon consistent to be, to bring the will under subjection, at least to a cer principles. tain extent, which is perfectly practicable, even with the in The following anecdote, as related by a female writer on fant at the breast, if it is gone about in a proper manner. education, welt exemplifies the happy effects of early obeFor instance, an infant will stretch out its hand to take dience :-“ One morning," she states, “ as I entered the something improper for it to have; but if its hand is with drawing-room of my friend, I found the little group of held, and the parent, unmoved by its cries or struggles, cherubs at high play around their fond mother, who was shows by his countenance and manner that he refuses the encouraging their sportive vivacity, which was at that indulgence, the child will soon learn to yield; and by uni- time noisy enough ; but which, on my entrance, she hushed tormly experiencing similar treatment whenever its wishes into silence by a single word. No bad humour followed : ought not to be gratified, submission will soon become fa- but as the spirits which had been elevated by the precedmiliar and easy.

ing amusement could not at once sink into a state of acAs children advance in age, parents, by a simple and af- quiescence, the judicious mother did not require what she fectionate manner of conversing with them, acquire almost knew could not without difficulty be complied with; but unbounded influence over their young minds, which being calmly addressing them, gave the choice of remaining in quite in a ductile or pliable state, may be made to receive the room without making any noise, or going to their own almost whatever impressions the parent pleases; and indeed apartment. The eldest and youngest of the four preferred such as will never afterwards be effaced. If, therefore, the former, while the two others went to the nursery. Those parents were only sufficiently careful during this interesting who staid with us, amused themselves by cutting paper in period, to impress the minds of their children with correct a corner, without giving any interruption to our conversaideas of right and wrong, to check their upruly passions, tion. I begged to know by what art she attained such a to keep their wills under proper subjection, but above all, to perfect government of her childrens' wills and actions ? « By set before them a proper example, seeking at the same time no art, returnel this excellent parent, but that of teaching a divine blessing on their humble endeavours, they would from the cradle an implicit obedience. Having never once seldom or ever be disappointed in seeing them grow up all been permitted to disobey me, they have no idea of attempt. that their hearts could desire.

ing it. But you see, I always give them a choice, when it But the great object in the first instance undoubtedly is, can be done with propriety; if it cannot, whatever I say, to secure their implicit obedience and respect, without they know to be a law, like that of the Medes and Persians, which nothing can be done in the way of improvement. which altereth not." As soon, therefore, as a child is capable of comprehending How widely different, and how much more advantageons what is said to him, he should in a mild, gentle, but firm to children, as well as comfortable to parents, is this mode manner, be informed of his duty, and what his parents of treatment from that of rigid strictness, which only proshall expect of him ; and among other things, that he will duces slavish fear; or that unwarrantable indulging the never obtain what he wants by ill-humour or crying ; but humours of children, which deprives parents of all control that if he asks pleasantly for what is suitable it will be over them. Pure and genuine affection is 90 directed to the granted. This method, if steadily pursued, will tend 'real happiness of the child, as to guard against both of these extremes. For while it endeavours by kindness to prevent people evince a power and ingenuity of mind which every any thing like forced obedience, it also guards against that Englishman must admire. *. All persons who come kind of liberty by which it loses its authority.

here with high notions of teaching the Americans, will find By the wise provision of Providence, the fond endear

their mistake by merely making use of their eyes on their ships, ment of parental love produces a reciprocal attachment in

buildings, or manufactories. For example, in the town of the breast of the child. A judicious parent will take ad.

Lowell, Massachusets, there have been built in the last eight vantage of this circumstance, to lay a foundation for that wide, and 5 stories high, where from 3000 to 4000 respectable

| years, 31 woollen and cotton manufactories, 155 feet long, 60 feet entire freedom which ought to exist between parents and females are employed.” We have had most ample opportunities their children. If confidence has been early invited by en of noticing the disposition of the people, which is uniformly Wearing affability, and prudently managed, reserve in chil. dren will seldom have to be complained of in maturer age. but are not disposed to think too highly of 'any, nor the rich And when they are thus accustomed to unbosom them. more than others. In New York men and women dress well, selves to their parental friend, who is most interested in

generally genteelly; but in the country (as well in the State of their welfare, what advantages must result to them. and New York as this the men of all classes dress slovenly. They what pleasure to the parent! Nor is there any fear of

have nurseries in the neighbourhood of New York, but certainly losing respect by such familiarity; on the contrary, as it

with that exception nothing that deserves the name of garden, more firmly establishes the affection of children, it at the

though it must be noticed this is not the time of year to look same time, and in the same degree, secures their respect,

out for them. It is not possible to conceive the existence of a

more easy, contented, and happy people than the Americans. The one being a necessary consequence of the other.

They all speak well of their Government; any thing like grumHe Young people who have been thus treated by judicious bling about hard times, or the difficulty of getting a living, we

and communicative parents, are seldom addicted to degrad. have not heard of; on the contrary, every one says, any man Slag practices. They will even forego many indulgences to may support himself a week by two days' labour-genteelly by u void displeasing them, or giving them pain. And as they three days. The land yields its increase, and farmers rarely uan freely open their minds and tell their schemes to their

work more than two or three days in a week. Thoso who are liberal-minded parents, how often must these have it in

industrious always get wealthy ; any industrious man who rents their power to caution them against indiscretions, and thus

a farm could buy that farm in three years. This State (Ohio) is be the means of saving them from much harm! And there

no doubt, the best for farmers; the canals being now open they are few young people so void of gratitude or sense, as not

have a better price for their produce. I wish I could present

America to your view, you would be surprised to find everything to avail theinselves of parental advice and experience when | so much like dear England—the soil, the weeds, the grass, the Thus proffered them. But let it be remembered, that if clover, the trees, the rivers, the rocks, the canals, the houses, we would have our children make us their confidents, and with some additional varieties. We have passed through tens freely unbosom their thoughts to us, they must not be dis of thousands of acres of woods. The trees in general are not inaraged by the coldness or distance of our deportment to

large-few so large as those in the grove of Sir R, Vaughan, wards them, but rather be studiously invited by kindness

near Bristol. Except on the Hudson, the prospects are greatly and condescension.

confined by woods ; though you are surprised to find so much The subject, Mr. Editor, on which this letter treats, I

land cleared, and towns springing up every where, so I at the doubt not, you will agree with me, is one of the very high

idea of living in the woods seems to vanish. I was greatly

pleased with the county of Coshocton; it is, as brother Powell *st importance, as it respects the future welfare not only of savs, more like Herefordshire than any other part we have yet the rising generation, but of society at large, and is one on been through. The English I have met with in the United States which volumes may be written without exhausting the do well, and are fully satisfied with the change. The most dis

thject; wherefore you will not be surprised when I inform agreeable thing is, at first, to get a bouse, a home, or even Till that I have still something farther to say,--Mean. apartments, nothing scarcely to be let, though it is easy to buy chile, I am, &c.

a house any where, as the Americans are fond of selling and A FRIEND TO EARLY EDUCATION. beginning again." Edinburgh, Sept. 1, 1832.

* WORTHington, State of Ohio, 26th Dec. 1831.–We

are all very comfortable, and often meet together, and discuss, EMIGRATION,

contrast, and compare things in America with those in Eng

land : on some points we agree, in our likes and dislikes, and on THE UNITED STATES-CANADA.

some differ very widely. On all material points, however, ne The following extracts from letters written by a gentleman, who in

fully agree, that this is the best poor man's country; the best September last emigrated from Bristol to America with his family,

in which to bring up and launch out a family; the best for perwill doubtless pruve interesting to many of our readers. The letters sons of small incomes, (if they can accommodate themselves to are addressed to his sister.

circumstances, and depend upon their own resources). Servants "NEWABE, STATE OF Ohio, Nov. 30th, 1831.—The (** Helps") may be had here, board and wages both considered, English appearance of every thing at New York exceedingly de at an expense but little more than in England; but then the Lighted as, and, though we bave journeyed many hundred miles maid is about as good as her mistress, the man as bis master, sance, we can even now scarcely believe we are in America ; all though in respectable families they rarely take their meals togewe want to make this England to us, is the presence of our ther, except in farm houses. ***** Though, to parents English friends, and some trilling alteration in the Americans. coming out here, if they bave the common feelings of our na. Ia New York, and through all the country we have passed, we ture, it must be a sacrifice of the pleasures of friendship, and Lave had a settled conviction that the standard of morals in at first an endurance of several inconveniences, yet their chil. America is much above that of England. This opinion is dren will bless them for their self-denial, and I believe, in Erned from a thousand little incidents which must strike an ninety-nine cases out of a hundred, parents will feel thanks Laclbuwan. In walking the streets of New York, we see ful they had sufficient nerve to come to this country. Parents Frods are left about the shop doors to a late hour, and such | have no difficulty in bringing up their children, and placing them

da as may be easily removed, and would be removed very out in business ; nor need they fear their future prosperity. quickly in Bristol, by some of the hundreds of thieves who are Here, also, there is far less temptation to vice of every kind Buays ea the look out. I was full a week, or nearly so, in get- sobriety and good order prevail in a way unknown in England. Bung clear of the Custom House, which was a very toilsome The direct and indirect effects of Temperance Societies are truly Buaimers indeed, chiefly from my having so many packages, and astonishing. It is true happiness may be found in England ; ranged with too much order, so as to give them the appearance and so the Christian may find it everywhere ; for wherever he

merchandise. But the toil was rendered not merely bearable goes, his God is with bim ; but I believe the sum of happiness Det even agreeable, by the kind and gentlemanly conduct of all is infinitely greater here than in England. The chief cause of the Officers, whether at the ship, the public store, or the Cus- sorrow and distress in England is unknown here! Here there Beim House ; nothing like rapacity on the one hand, or obie- is not the garb of poverty nor the look of distress. I knew all finesness or insolence on the other. The churches in New farmer, an industrious and honest man, not far froin West Park, York, and througbout all that state, are very numerous and Bristol, who has walked his fields in distress for hours together, wandsome: which proves there is no need of supporting religion, not having wherewith to pay his taxes !! "

was a act of parliament, but that it prospers most when lett to its beautiful morning ; I walked five miles before breakfast, on a www resources. The steam packets are splendid indeed. The very good tow path, with the canal on my right and tbe Mobawk

river on my left, with a pretty fertile country, and varied sce-them! But, leaving both Roman and English epicures, we pery. It reminded me strongly of the Hay, my native place. approach the fourth, the last, and not the least interesting of We met a very agreeable English gentleman on the aqueduct Mr. Thackrab's divisions--professional men, and persons enover the Mohawk. He had travelled extensively through the gaged in literature: those who work by mind more than by States, and was then on his return to England, with a view of body. Some have mental application conjoined or alternating, bringing his family over. He was highly pleased with the with considerable exercise in the open air. Civil engincers, country and the people, and said, “ The English will never BE-surveyors, and arcbitects, belong to this division. Though cos. Lieve America to be so happy and prosperous a country, unless tined to the desk occasionally, yet they travel frequently through they see for themselves.” This reminded me of what an English the country, and thus enjoy fresh air and muscular exertion. gentleman at New York said to me. He inquired if I intended They are, indeeri, occasionally exposed to wet and cold; but to send a full account home of wliat I saw. Certainly,' was these agents seldom injure persons in motion. Fev individual my reply. And do you,' he said, 'expect they will believe in this department are unhealthy, except those who are irisyou?'. Surely they will.'. Take my word for it,' he said, they gular in their habits, and addicted to higb living. Ministers will not believe the one half of what even you say.' . of religion have a similar alternation of study and exercise. We arrived at Shenectady about two o'clock. It is a pretty The latter, however, is too gentle or restricted for muxula: good town. Here we laid in more provisions. There is a rail. men. Their situation, and the ideas attached to it, unfurtë. road from Albany to this place, for steam coaches, which go nately prevent their joining iu spor or amusements which fourteen miles an hour. Wednesday morning, at daylight, we produce a full circulation of the blood, and a full action of the came in sight of Utica. This is a very handsome town, / viscera. Hence, congestion of the venous system of the boxes abounding with well-built churches, of the various denominations is a frequent occurrence. The individuals of this class wboare with spires. I do not know in England so regular and so good hard students may be referred to the section of literary mede a town—not the semblance of poverty or poor houses. The oxen Clergymen who preach long, frequently, or with vebemence, are fine large beasts for labour. Self-supporting, or manual la as well as orators, actors, public singers, and persons who play

much on wind instruments, are subject to pains in the chest, Union.

spitting of blood, and diseases of the larynx. Practitioners of (To be continued occasionally.)

medicine and surgery. “ Night calls," says Mr. T., * are gener MEDICAL SELECTIONS. NO. II.

nerally thought to be very injurious. I think the evil lest

than the public and the profession suppose ; for, if we aberre EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT PROFESSIONS those who have for thirty or forty years been much engaged as AND TRADES ON HEALTH.

accoucheurs, we shall find them as robust as others. Anxiety of

mind does more, I conceive, to impair health, tban breach of The Literary Gasette lately gave an analysis of Mr. Thack sleep, nocturnal exposure, or irregularity in meals." As a prorah's volume on health ; his second division treats of Dealers.

fession, the medical is by no means healthy; and there is an elShopkeepers suffer from want of air and exercise. They are

traordinary mortality among the students. We have next to “ pale, dyspeptic, and subject to affections of the head. They refer to persons who have much mental application, without drug on a sickly existence, die before the proper end of human

adequate exercise of the body: Clerls, Boole-keepers, Account life, and leave a progeny like themselves." Commercial Tra

tants, &c. suffer from contined atmosphere and a fixed positive. vellers are compelled to take more liquor daily than nature re

Though urgent disease is not generally produced, yet a continu quires; and the consequence is, in spite of their active employ ance of the employment in its full extent never fails to impair menta, that few of the bear the wear and tear for thirty years;

the constitution, and render the individual sickly for life. The the majority not twenty. For the drinker, if be“ be not sud

profession of the law, in most of its branches, is sedentary. S. denly taken off by apoplexy, or other affection of the brain, he

licitors' and other clerks are kept, from morning to night, in merges into dropsy, and the bloated mass sinks into an early

| bad position, with the limbs fixed, and the trunk bent forward grave." The third division of the work before us refers to mer

But, leaving the lawyers to take care of themselves, which they chants and master-manufacturers : These are affected by the very well know how to do in this world, we have now arrived at general principles applicable to other classes. If not too much

the last class of society, persons who live in a bad atmosphere, confined, or exposed to injurious dusts, or effluvia froin manu maintain one position inost of the day, take little exercise, and factures, or so hurried as to swallow their meals in a hasty are frequently under the excitement of ambition. This is manner, their lives are of a fair proportion. But, truly adds the

includes individuals from the several professions, as well as the author, “ of all agents of disease and decay, the most important

men devoted to science and literature.' And on this subject se is anxiety of mind. When we walk the streets of large com cannot but quote the first observation feelingly :-" The posimercial towns, we must be struck with the hurried gait and tion of the student is obviously bad. Leading forward, he keep care-worn features of the well-dressed passengers. Some young

most of the muscles wholly inactive, breathes imperfectly, and men, indeed, we may remark, with countenances possessiog na- often irregularly, and tukes a full inspiration only when be tural cheerfulness and colour, but these appearances rarely sur sighs!" vive the age of manhood.


The physical evils of commercial life would be considerably reduced,

CONTAGIOUS AND EPIDEMIC DISEASES. if men reflected, that the success of business may be prevented by the very means used to promote it. Excessive application How much crude nonsense, and scarcely intelligible jargon und aoxiety, by disordering the upimal economy, weaken the has lately been spoken by professiunal and non-professional per* mental powers. Our opinions are affected by states of the body, sons on this subject of contagioo. As soon as some new disease aud our judgment often perverted. If a clear head be required is imported from abroad, or arises in some spot at home, trom in commercial transactions, a healthy state of the body is of the which it spreads obrough the cominunity, discussions and con, first importance; and a healthy state of the body is incompa- tentions arise on all sides as to its baving simply an epidemio tible with excessive application of mind, the want of exercise character, or one that is contagious, or both. These discussio and fresh air. But subjects like these fiud no entry in the books are important, and the contention of men and discrepancy of of our merchants. Intent on their avocations, they strangely facts are so great, that we should be perplexed indeed, did not a overlook the means necessary for pursuing them with success. simple retlection occur to solve the difficulty. 'l he contagnes, They find, too late, that they have sacrificed the body to the as well as the malignant character of diseases, depends mostly, wind." Mr. Tbackrah allows for the pleasures of the table : Lif not entirely, upon the degree of vital energy, and the narrow but goes into details, enough to frighten the most resolute bon ness of the space, &c. within which those who suffer from " rirants, who exceed, and make a god of their belly. The wors are confined. At Madeira, in the south of France and els slippers of venter Deus, who build houses as if they were im- where, consumption is deemed contagious, on account of avertal, and feast as if they meaut to live only for a very short number of sufferers that resort to those parts. Authors ba time, are denounced as the sure consummaters of the latter pur- enumerated many other complaints which we deem pop.com vose. But we need not insist on the evils which attend thore | tagious, as contagious under similar cir who will indulge their appetites; all that we can do is to sug. | stance, Dr. Cleghorn and Dr. Fordyce, both physicians of higa ges: the use of an improvement of our own day for their benefit ; / authority in medical science, have considered the ague as con We allude to the stomach-pump! The Romans, tre know, bad tagious, &c. &c. Therefore it would appear that epidemics, sune not very delicate modes of prolonging and repeating gas like the cholera, may be conditionally contagious. In the par tronomic enjoyments; had they been enlightened with the row streets, in the dark Wind alleis, and small rooms, where knowledge of the machine, how happy it must have made human beings are found, of immoral and filthy habits, ground

dir, 'Thackrah's work has just al calcd in a sicurd certiun-We down, moreover, by poverty, labour, acd inisfortunes-by events are glad to occ it so well apriccialec,

thing, in a word, that aflucts vitalitv-in such places it is bad


For in

epidemics first appear, and then grow into contagion. If persons moral sense differs from a natural one, as much as the effect who can command comforts and conveniences are attacked by of reflection differs from simple feeling. the invading disease, its contagious character disappears, or notion given by

But the conforunalonger betrays itself, and then it is rashly pronounced only an

Or notion given by nature and education may be so exquisitely epidemic, or disease from local miasmata, or influences.

just in some men, that they may be said to judge of actions WORMS IN SPRING WATER. The common opinion of medic and principles by a kind of instantaneous sensation, which eal men that the worms found in the stomach and human in

may be very properly termed a moral sense. The eye, as a testines are introduced by drinking water containing such sense, is formed by the experience of many years; but when worms, and the vulgar opinion that they are introduced by eat it is formed, it judges of distances and magnitude, of beauty ing fruit, are both easily refuted by the simple experiment of and deformity, apparently by an immediate sensation ; but exposing the worms found in water or fruits to a heat equal to in fact by a process which is the effect of experience. The tbat of the human bowels; namely, 99° fahr., when it will be mind is in the same state as to moral: it has judged of causes found (as was shown by experiment) that such worms will instantly die. The knowledge of this simple experiment may

| by effects on all natural occasions. It has so associated viroften prevent unfounded alarms-such as when a family are in

tue with pleasure, and vice with pain, that when actions duced to abaodon a country house, from their physiciau finding

and principles under these denominations present themselves, snall worms in the spriog water of their well, and which he

they seem to act on the mere sense, not as virtues or vices, erroneously concludes to be ascarides.

but as pleasure or pain.


All men are equally desirous of happiness, but few are DISTINCTION OF CLASSES INJURIOUS TO VIRTUE. successful in the pursuit. One chief cause is the want of

Virtue and wisdom may have an inspired prophet or two strength of mind, which might enable them to resist the always upon earth. But, for the body of mankind, a cer- temptation of present ease or pleasure, and carry them fortain approach to a recognized equality seems requisite as a ward in the desire of more distant profit and enjoyment guarantee for virtues which are to be as extensive as mankind, * ***. However poets may employ their wit and eloinstead of virtues limited to, and estimated by, their effect quence in celebrating present pleasure, and rejecting all dis. upon a particular class or order. The barons of Magna tant views to fame, health, or fortune, it is obvious that Charta stipulated only for the liber homo, and thought as this practice is the source of all dissoluteness and disorder, little about the rights of a villien, as a Jamaica planter repentance, and misery. A man of strong determined teniabout codifying for negroes...... There is little check upon per, adheres tenaciously to his general resolutions, and is ordinary consciences, wherever the want of a social feeling, neither seduced by the allurements of pleasure, nor terrified and a common interest between the parties, fails to bring by the menaces of pain; but keeps still in view those dishome to the bosoms of the principal in the transaction its tant pursuits, by which he at once ensures his happiness general consequences to society. England continues to be, and his honour. s sense, much more aristocratical, than many Euro

Ilume. pean nations, far behind it in general spirit and refinement. Only our line of aristocracy, and consequently of demarcation, falls far lower than the House of Peers; and thus, If we must pray for special favour, let it be for a sound from want of being embodied in one uniform set of facts, mind, in a sound body. Let us pray for fortitude, that we or denounceable in one short denomination, it attracts less may think the labours of Hercules, and all his sufferings invidious attention. But the actual separation produces preferable to a life of luxury, and the soft repose of Sardaits natural effects. As strong instances as any in modern napalus; this is a blessing within the reach of every man. civilization, of the perilous length to which exemption This we can give ourselves. It is virtue, and virtue only from the cause may run, when once administered into that can make us happy. practice, exist in some anomalous proceedings long made

JUVENAL, compatible with the political morality of the gentlemen of

TESTIMONY OF ROUSSEAU TO THE DIVINE PERFECEngland, Purchasers of game in London, they have had

TION OF THE CHARACTER OF THE SAVIOUR. * no remorse, in what goes by the name of their justice-room in the country, to send to jail their unknown accomplice The Majesty of the Scriptures strikes me with admirathe wretched poacher, whom, perhaps, their own money tion, as the purity of the gospel has its influence on my may have bribed certainly their own participation had heart. Peruse the works of our philosophers, with all seduced_into the commission of the offence. A member their pomp of diction; how mean, how contemptible are of Parliament, sitting there by no title but that of corrup they, compared with the Scriptures! Is it possible a book at tion, does not feel the least scruple in joining the recom once so simple and so sublime should merely be the work mendation of a committee, that the uttermost pennyworth of of man? What prepossession, what blindness, it must be penalty under the bribery acts should be enforced against to compare the son of Sophroniscus to the Son of Mary! some insignificant freeman, not a hundredth part as guilty | What an infinite disproportion is there between them ! as himself. The proceedings on committees for private Socratcs, dying without pain rignominy, easily supported bills, we will not enlarge on. Our observations might be his character to the last ; and if his death, however easy, a breach of the privileges of that honourable house. But had not crowned his life, it might be doubted if Socrates, we have heard a lawyer, as much employed in this line of with all his wisdom, was any thing more than a vain practice as any man of his time, and afterwards upon the sophist. He invented, it is said, the theory of morals. bench, describe these committees as tribunals, where gen- Others, however, had before put them in practice ; he had tlemen of the same rank of life met to compliment each therefore only to say what they had done, and to reduce other at the expense of the property of strangers. His pice their examples to precept. But where could Jesus learn ture was that of dens of injustice, where men—who, in among his contemporaries that pure and sublime morality, cases not under the protection of one of those artificial ex- / of which he only has given us both precept and example ? ceptions, would shrink from the suspicion of wrong-are | The death of Socrates peacefully philosophizing with his parties to transactions for which juries would have been friends, appears the most agreeable that could be wished attainted, their houses ploughed into the ground, and salt for: that of Jesus expiring in the midst of agonizing pains, sown on the foundations, in ancient times."-Edinburgh abused, insulted, and accused by a whole nation is the most Revicu.

horrible that could be found. Socrates, in receiving the THE MORAL SENSE.

cup of poison, blessed the weeping executioner who admi. The moral sense is formed by time, and experience. So nistered it; but Jesus, in the midst of excruciating tortures, are all the natural senses, not one of which is born with prayed for his merciless tormentors. Yes! if the life and

3 : they are all created, some instantancously, others in a death of Socrates were those of a philosopher, be life and little time, some in a long time, but all by experience. The death of Jesus were those of a God.Emilius,

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