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έρατεινά, lovely streams (II. Xxi. 218), Ημαθίην έρατεινήν, the Iovely country of Emathia, (xiv. 226.) Orpheus speaks of lovely health, and the lovely harmony of hymns. Pindar of lovely water and the lovely light of the beautiful-eyed moon.' (Olymp. vi. 146, x. 90.) Virgil, describing the dark and gloomy waters of Acheron, calls it palus inamabilis, “the unlovely lake.' (Æn. vi. 438.) Milton has ' amiable' fruit, reminding us of the Scriptural How amiable are thy tabernacles !' (Psalm lxxxiv. 1.)

304. The qualities of anger, envy, charity, &c., are ascribed to nature in precisely the same manner, as alluded to in 299, but far less frequently in colloquial than in the poet's language. Milton's 'envious darkness,' courteous echo,' and kind hospitable woods,' alluding to their wild fruits and nuts) are remarkably beautiful instances. That also is fine in Ovid, when, describing a terrible tumult produced by the sudden incursion of enemies, he says it is like the sea

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Quod sæva quietum Ventorum rabies motis exasperat undis. Which when smooth, an impetuous storm of winds exasperates by the commotion of its waves.' (Met. v. 6, 7.)


The finest piece of sustained personification in any language, ancient or modern, is the following passage in Shelley's Cenci :

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"Two miles on this side of the fort, the road
Crosses a deep ravine; 'tis rough and narrow,
And winds with short turns down the precipice;
And in its depth there is a mighty rock
Which has, from unimaginable years,
Sustained itself with terror and with toil
Over the gulph, and with the agony
With which it clings, seems slowly coming down;
Even as a wretched soul, hour after hour,
Clings to the mass of life, and clinging, leans,
And leaning, makes more dark the dread abyss
In which it fears to fall;-beneath this crag,
Huge as despair, as if in weariness
The melancholy mountain yawns; below
You hear but see not an impetuous torrent
Raging among the caverns; and a bridge
Crosses the chasm; and high above there grow
With intersecting trunks, from crag to crag,
Cedars, and yews, and pines, whose tangled hair
Is matted in one solid roof of shade
By the dark ivy's twine. At noonday here
"Tis twilight, and at sunset, blackest night.'

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305. The ancients personifications of the powers and energies of nature as gods and goddesses rested on the same general principles. This, however, is a subject distinct from language, except as regards the epithets which were applied to the various deities, and which largely enter into classic poetry. Until we obtain a clue therefore to the principles of their application, half the charm of ancient verse is veiled. Thetis, for instance, the goddess of the sea, is styled the 'blue-robed' and the silver-footed.' The former epithet refers to the colour of the sea, which is the mantle of the goddess; the latter is an exquisite allusion to the white foam and spray produced by the dashing of the waves upon the beach, the sea being here at its extreme border, and thus equivalent to her feet.

306. There is yet another department of personification, namely, that which comprises the appeals which men address to the objects of nature, speaking to them as if they were listening and sentient beings like themselves. Such appeals are extremely frequent in the ancient Greek poetry, which they strikingly embellish. They are not infrequent like

, wise in the compositions of many of the most tasteful English poets. Scripture also gives examples, as in the 148th Psalm, and in the Canticle of the Three Children extracted into the Church of England Liturgy, and beginning “O all ye works of the Lord, bless ye the Lord !” In this there is nothing whimsical. As with every other procedure of the human mind in reference to the external world, there lies at the bottom of it a profound and elegant philosophy. Men at all periods of life, and under all circumstances, find in nature friendship, sympathy and welcome. When wearied with cares, or preyed upon by melancholy; when whispered to by the mild encouraging voice of hope, or animated by unexpected happiness and good fortune, they still spontaneously go out to the sweet sceneries and influences of nature ; finding in the woods, and green fields, on the slopes of the sunny hills, or beside the shining river, balm for their wounds, or delicious though silent congenialities with their gladness. However listless, either in mind or body, in the presence of nature all again becomes buoyant and refreshed. Even if sullen and discontented, the blue sky looks down reprovingly, and drives away the tempter. How sublime from its infinite truthfulness and simplicity is Homer's picture of Achilles, when aggrieved by the injustice of Agamemnon, going down to the sea shore, and there playing on his harp to the waves, so that their united voices might give him rest! (Il. ix. 182.) Feeling therefore in the recesses of their being, how wonderful, intense and lovely is the sympathy of nature, the minds of men accustomed to seek her for her own sweet sake,

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become insensibly attuned to gratitude, expressing it either in the eloquence of oft-repeated visits, or if gifted with the poet's tongue, in the utterance of spoken thanks and invocations. If troubled, they speak to nature as they would to the amiable and generous of their own species : if animated by a lively piety, they spontaneously call on her to join in praising God. Hence the sublime orisons ascribed by Milton to Adam and Eve in Eden, and the beautiful burst of feeling in Thomson's hymn at the end of the “Seasons,” together with the Psalmist's above noticed. So long however as the material world endures, so long will it be unnecessary for man to call upon nature to lift up her voice to God, for it is she who sets him the example. When the wind, and the sea, and the waterfalls become silent, when the sweet solitudes of the country forget to utter their incomparable melodies, then first will it be needful for man to invite them to their duty.




A.S. Anglo-Saxon
Barb. Barbarous
Celt. Celtic
Fr. French
Germ. German

Goth. Gothic
Haw. Hawaiian
Heb. Hebrew
Icel. Icelandic
It. Italian

Lat. Latin
Pers. Persian
Sansc. Sanscrit
Sp. Spanish

afore 79
after 78
agacer, Fr. 29

age 167

ab, Lat. 173
ab, Heb. 33, 172, 173
Abba 172
abbot 172
abhra, Sansc. 88
abide 174
able 173
aboculus, Lat. 36
above 146, 173
abundant 72
accomplish 67
accord 160
achieve 162
achoppement, Fr. 29
acid 91, 92
acknowledge 175
acme 146
acquaint 175
acrimony 131
act 167
active 99
Adam 12
adder 154
advise 90, 159
ægir, Icel. 109
æquor, Lat. 109
æquus. Lat. 109
ærlic, A.S. 106
æsthetic 68
afflict 125
affluence 65

amicable 127
amity 127
amnis, Lat. 109
amo, Lat. 127
amor, Lat. 127
amour, Fr. 127
ample 67
amplify 101
amuse 122
an, Sansc. 128
anima, Lat. 128
animal 129
animate 128
animus, Lat. 128
aom, Heb. 172
ap, Sanso. 108, 109, 172
aperio, Lat. 79
aperture 79
apprehend 79
après, Fr. 89
April 79
aqua, Lat. 146
ardeo, Lat. 126
ardour 126
arise 106
arista, Lat. 148
asinine 152
ask 37
aspen 37
asper, Lat. 129
asperity 129

aghast 128
aggravate 150
aggregate 152
aggrieve 150
ago, Lat. 167
agree 152
aid 89
aig, Celt. 109
akhal, Heb. 89
alas 32
all 167
alleviate 150
almighty 145
alms 37
aloes 157
aloft 150
alter, Lat. 102
altus, Lat. 147
am, Heb. 33, 127, 172
amarus, Lat. 143
amateur, Fr. 127
amative 127
amatory 127
ambient 2, 104
ambition 2, 104
amenity 127
amiable 127, 178

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assiduous 165

bosom 161
assiduus, Lat. 165

bounce 27
assuage 141

bourse, Fr. 35
asto, Lat. 55

bow-wow 23
ateeshah, Heb. 34

brag 148
ater, Lat. 123

bramble 157
attend, 97

branch 157
atrocious 123

brawl 18
aur, Heb. 105, 123, 126, 127 break 27
auris, Lat. 148

breath 75, 127
Aurora, Lat. 106

brevis, Lat. 35
aurum, Lat. 107

brief 35
aveugle, Fr. 36

bright 113–115
avoir, Fr. 172

brighter 104
Avon 109

brilliant 117
axiom 145

brother 172

brouhaha, Fr. 29
ba 32

brow 148
baa-lamb 23

brown 35
bab, Pehl. 33

brunt 126
bak-buk, Heb. 28

bryony 71
bark, 22, 23

bubble 18, 29
base, 146, 163

bud 156
be 174

bump 27
bear 151

burden 151
beauty 138

burn 35, 126
because 174

buzz 23
becoming 138

by 174
bee 151
before 79

cachinnor, Lat. 33
begin 175

calculation 2
beneath 146

candeo, Lat. 123
benighted 121

can 175
benign 175

candid 91, 92, 123
Beritania, Haw. 38

candor, Lat. 92, 123
beseech 165

canis, Lat. 160
beset 165

capital 162
beside 174

captain 162
besiege 165, 174

caput. Lat. 36, 162
better 105

caress 160
bid 174

caritas, Lat. 160
bide 174

carus, Lat. 160
biography 129

caryophyllus, Lat. 37
biology 129

casa, Lat. 160
bird 37

caseus, Lat. 160
bitter 142–144

cassia 157
black 122, 123

castanea, Lat. 160
blade 71

castus, Lat. 160
bland 74

cataract 26
bless 74, 147

cavallus, Lat. 160
bliss 74

cavalry 160
blithe 75

caw 23
bloom 71, 73, 156

cedar 157
blossom 71, 73

cennan, A.S. 175
blow 64

ceremonia, Lat. 103
blubber 30

cerno, Lat. 153
blue-bell 88

ceterus, Lat. 103
bona, Lat. 173

chaff 157
bootless 105

chant 160
booty 105

charity 160
bos, Lat. 23

charivari, Fr. 29

chasotzzah, Heb. 28
chaste 160
châtaigne, Fr. 160
chayah, Heb. 33, 129
cheese 160
chef, Fr. 162
chesnut 160
chevalier 160
chief 162
chiff-chaff 23
children 172, 174
chimæra, Lat. 156
chiucchiurlaia, It. 29
chivalry 160
choak 34
cinq, Fr. 36
circuit 104
clang 27
clank 27
clap 27
clareo, Lat. 117
clarify 117
claritas, Lat. 117
claro, Lat. 117
clarus, Lat. 117
claudo, Lat. 141
clavis, Lat. 141
clear 117
clemency 177
clemens, Lat. 177
cliquetis, Fr. 29
clink 27
clothes 84-87
cloudy 121
clove 37
cnawan A.S. 175
coarse 130
cognate 175
cognosco, Lat. 175
cold 125, 129
collect 153
college 153
colligo, Lat. 153
collis, Lat. 160
comeliness 138
commit 90
committee 90
complain 71
complaisant 74
complement 67
complete 67
comprehend 98
compunction 125
con 175
conceive 98
conception 98, 175
concord 160
concur 98
condemn 122
conduct 164
confluence 66

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