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ance of friends eminently useful. To Messrs. Thomas JONES

. (the courteous and wealthy-minded librarian of the Chetham College), Octavius Allen Ferris, and Samuel Ogden, the thanks of the author are proffered accordingly, in sincere gratitude for their many valuable suggestions. The same to Mr. Chas. Sever, for his kind attention to the minute accuracy required in the printing.

Manchester, Dec., 1850.

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5 from bottom.-For “ if an emotion of his own being, such as sorrow,"

read “ if an act of his own, such as crying."
23.—The name rossignol is by permutation from the Latin lusciniola.
26.-Closer examination into the etymology of surgo shews that the popular

opinion is the right one, the steps being sub rego, surrigo, surgo.
" 52.-In the quotation from Homer, the noun has been accidentally put in

capitals, instead of the verb.
“ 79, line 19.-For “ Anglo-Saxon” read “Saxon-English.”

81, 23.-After“ from the Latin” insertostium, a word synonymous with.”
155. - In the quotation from Horace, for “ secret” read “sacred.”

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FIGURATIVE LANGUAGE.

Felix qui potuit rerum cognoscere causas !

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1. In its ordinary acceptation, the word Figurative, when applied to written or spoken language, refers merely to certain picturesque modes of expressing our ideas, as when David says that they who sow in tears shall reap in joy ;' or Milton,

He that has light within his own clear breast,
May sit in the centre, and enjoy bright day;
But he that hides a dark soul and foul thoughts,
Benighted walks, under the mid-day sun,

Himself his own dungeon.' But it would not be going too far to assert that the bulk of all language is figurative in essence, and that although we may appear to ourselves to use the simplest words and phrases, in reality we speak in perpetual metaphor, or what is the same thing, in correspondences. Like M. Jourdain in Moliere, who had spoken prose all his life without knowing it,'

Our mouths we cannot ope,

But out there falls a trope !' The fact is, mankind has become so habituated to the use of terms metaphorically applied, that their real nature is seldom or never sus pected by the generality of persons. Let us, however, reflect but for a moment on the multitude of common words which possess several distinct meanings, and it becomes manifest that as every meaning cannot be the primary one, all but that one must of necessity be figura.

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tive. The word to see, for example, is applied both to the observation
of material objects by the bodily eye, and to the comprehension of things
which address themselves exclusively to the understanding, such as the
meaning of a person's remarks, the force of an argument, or the
, tendency of particular events. Thus I see your drift,' 'I see how it
will end.' In these two expressions the meaping of see is essentially
figurative, the original or primitive signification being that which relates
simply to corporeal vision, and to express which optical power the word
was primarily contrived. It is known to be the original meaning
because the physical signification of a word is invariably the eldest.
Thoughts and feelings are always named from material things, or from
other external circumstances, as we shall presently shew. There is no
other
way

in which it can be done. Such words as see are thus both physical and metaphysical, corporeal and spiritual, possessed of two natures, but only one person. Every one of them forms a beautiful emblem of man himself, who is a word of the Creator.

2. Inquiries in etymology, and into the philosophy of language in general, shew that not only are vast numbers of words used like the above, in two senses, one literal, the other figurative, but that very many have actually lost their primary meaning, and retained only the metaphorical or extended one. Such, for instance, is the word calculation. This word we now understand as denoting an arithmetical process, no matter how performed; we also speak of our calculations as to future events : originally the term referred simply to the mechanical contrivance used for counting by the Romans, of which pebbles or calculi formed a chief part. Ambition is derived from ambo ire, and in its primary sense meant a going ubout ; thence it came to mean a going about to solicit votes, and now it signifies a desire of honour and prefer ment, such as resulted from procuring the votes. The old meaning is retained, however, in the word ambient, as when the poets speak of the ambient air.' Stylus, again, was the name of the instrument with which the ancients wrote upon their waxen tablets; shortened into style the word is now used to denote the character of literary composition. A fanatic or religious enthusiast, literally, is one who frequents temples. Churches and other edifices raised for religious purposes, are still called fanes, notwithstanding the name belonged originally to the temples of heathen deities; thus

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