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party in the transaction, and is itself bound to see it fulfilled by all the weight of its fanction. · And it is this circumstance in the na. ture of a covenant, which gives it its solemn and reverential stamp.
In matters of a civil nature, the magistrate is appealed to in all lawful contracts, to fee that they are performed according to promise, or to punish the delinquent; and in the nature of the case, he is so bound to do this, that guilt is incurred on his part, if the duty be not faithfully discharged. And in all matters, between party and party, taken in a religious view, the searcher of hearts is appealed to, who, as the final and righteous judge, will not suffer the guilty to go unpunished ; so, also, in the matter of the divine will, the Holy Ghost was the witnels and power engaged to enforce the fulfilment of i he stipulations, by a fanćtion every way equal to the weight of the high obligations, Hence, in that first name of God, which imports the Covenanters by oath, the idea of a curse * is clearly intimated; and this eternal covenant is ever presented in a manner to give us aflurance that it was made, and was accompanied with every poslible circumItance of folemnity.
“ ALEIM: a Noun masc. plur. The denouncers of a con“ ditional curse. A name uíuaily given in the Hebrew scrip
tures to the ever blebed Triniiy, by which they repreient " themselves as under the obligation of an oath to perform “ certain conditions, and as having denounced a curse on all,
men and devils, who do not conform to them.
" What chole iern.s or condicions were to which the Aleim fware, secins evident froin Pf. cx. wainely, that the Mar
To this it may be objected, that God could not fail in his engagement; and, therefore, in this matter, it was not necessary that the
* Chris Jefus, in consequence of his humiliation and jafferi * ings, (ver. 7, comp. Phil. ii. 6-10,) should be exalted to “ the right hand of God till all his enemies were made his foot
frool, (comp. 1 Cor. xv. 25.) that the rod of his strength (his
gospel,) bould be sent out of Sion; and that by this he should “ rule even in the midst of bis enemies; that his people (true
Chrißians,) foould offer themselves willingly in the ornaments “ of holiness; and that those which should be begotten by him "to a refurreétion from fin bere, and from death hereafter, “ should be more numerous than the drops of morning dew.
(comp. Ilaj. xxvi. 19.) All this I take to be briefly com“prehended or summed up in that oath of Jehovah to Chrift, “ ver. 4. Thou art a Prief for ever after the order of Melchr. “ ledec, which, by interpretation, is King of Righteousness, “ Heb. vii. 2. As a Priest, Chrift, through the eternal Spirit, “offered himself without spot to God, Heb. viii. 3.-xi. 14; “ as a Priest for ever, he is able to suve them to the uttermost,
(Marg. evermore,) that come unto God by him, seeing he ever " liveth to make intercession for them; as being after the order “of Melchisedec, be is King as well as Priel, King of Righ
teousnefs, autd King of Peace. Heb. vii. 2. Hence, then, we “ learn, that Jebovah fware to Adoni or Chrift, (See Matth. “ xxii. 43.) and that this oath had reference to the redemption
of man by him.--The Pfalm itself does not indeed determine " the time cyber this oath was pronounced, but other scrip
tares do. For St. Paul says, that Christ was made a Priest, iic. " after the order of Melchisedec by this very oath, Heb. vii.
21. But his inauguration to the Priesthood and Kingdom was prior to the creation of the world, Prov. viii. 23, and feq.“ Therefore this very oath, recorded in Pr. cx. was prior to
cation. Accordingly Jehovah is at the beginning of creation called Aleim, Gen. i. 1, which implies, that the “ divine perions had sworn when they created. It is evident “ also from Gen. iij. 4, 5, that both the serpent and the wo
man knew Jehovah by this name, Aleim, before tbe fall; “and, to cite but two passages out of many that might be " produced from the New Testament to this purpose, St. Peter "is express, Eph. i. 18--10, that Christ was fore-ordained to " redeem us, before the foundation of the world; and St. Paul "affirm's, Eph. 1. 4, that God, even the Father of our Lord Jen "fus Chrijt, bath chofen us in him, before the foundation of the
party of an authority should be concerned; but why then covenant? Why fwear at all? Why any of this formality ? What meaning could there be in the whole business, unless there were a third party engaged thereby, as in the nature of things such a transaction implies, to enforce the solemn obligation ? Were there no magistrate, no God, no party standing by to enforce the engagement, it is plain, that the transaction of covenanting and swearing would be without folemnity and without meaning. And if it be further objected, that it is given in the divine record, that God sware by himself, it may be answered, that by this, we are not to understand that he sware by his own person, but that the authority appealed to, was a party in the Godhead; and so was himself, for this is the evident truth ; and the contrary would imply an absurdity.
« lviii. 12.
“ By virtue of this antemundane oath, the Man Christ Jefus « was enabled to overcome the Devil and all the enemies of “ man, and perfect his redemption, and from this oarh it was “ that the ever-blessed THREE were pleased to take that glo“rious and fearful name, (Deut. xxviii. 58.) Jehovah Aleim ;
glorious, in as much as the tranfaction, to which it refers, “ displays, in the most glorious manner, the attributes of God “ to men and angels; and fearful, in as much as, by one part “ of the cath, eternal and infinite power, Jehovah himself, is
engaged to make the enemies of Christ his foot fool, Pf. cx. l.
“ Let those who, in these days of Ariun, Socinian and Raba “ binical blasphemy, have any doubt whether Aleim, when
meaning the true God, Jehovah, is plural or not, consult the
following passages, where they will find it j cined with ad. “jectives, pronouns and verbs plural. Gen. i. 26.-ji, 22.“ xi. 7-XX. 13.-xxxi. 53.--xxxv. 7. Deut. iv. 7:--V. 23. “ or 26. Josh. xxiv. 19. 1 Sam. iv, 8. 2 Sam. vii.
Pf. lfa, vi. 8. Jer. x, 10. Dan. iv. 5, 6, 15, or “ 8, 9, 18. See also Prov. ix. 10.--xxx. 3.
Psal. cxlix. 2. Eccles. v. 7.—xii. 1. Job v. 1. lsa. vi. 3.-iv. 5.
Hof. « xi. 12, or xij. i. Mal. i. 6. Dan. vii, 18, 22, 25.
“O that the children of Abraham, according to the flesh, “ would attentively consider and compare the texts above cit“ed from their own fcriptures! Could they then help owning "a plurality of Aleim in Jehovah?-When they read, for in“ ftance, Gen. i. 26, that the Aleim said, Let us, or we will
, " make man in our image, according to our likeness—and ver. “ 27.--So the Aleim created man, &c. and compared these “ words with Ecclef. xii. 1. And remember thy Creators, could
they doubt whether Aleim, as applied by Moses, in the his“tory of the creation, denoted a plurality of agents? And yet “ surely, as faith the prophet Isaiah. chap. xliv. 24, Jehovah "Atretched forth the heavens alone, and spread abroad the earth
by himlelf, without the aid or concurrence of any creature, “ how exalted foever. Comp. chap. xlii. 5.-xlv. 12.".
Parkhurf's Hebrew Lexicor.
But it is not proper to say, in every point of view, that there could be no failure in this case; for, on the part of Christ, the engagement was not merely personal, but as a surety for a fallible creature; and, on the part of the father, that was engaged which, of all things, was the most improbable to take place, viz. That death should yield life; and that a people, whose name was The Rebellious, should be willing; and the truth of this màtter was proved in the fact; for a failure did so take place that, by the party of the suretyship, the forfeiture was incurred, and the dreadful stroke was inflicted by the sword of the Lord, which was that power, or third party, appealed to in this most folemn contract.
Again, a question may arise respecting the Holy Ghost being considered as the great interest respected in this covenant, from the circumstance that the scriptures often allude to the church, or the redeemed people of Christ, as being the interest contemplated in
this divine transaction? The answer to this question, is found in the confideration that the church is the vehicle or temple of the Holy Ghost; and therefore is, properly and necessarily, considered in the fame view ; hence this great interest of the glory of God is so often exhibited in the name of The Bride, The Lamb's Wije;--and the Lord calls Israel his Glory. And when we reflect, that the church, first, by the fpirit of obedience; and ficondly, by the spirit of glory, shall be filled with all the fullness of God; completely filled both with the spirit of the Father and of the Son, we perceive that this elect body cannot be separated from a view of this eter. nally desired interest; and that, as it respects the manifestation, it will be in the church, that the Holy Ghost, which is the object and end of all, will be fully embraced, both by the Father and the Son.
The interest in a covenant may, or may not, be a person ; but, in the case before us, it being of the nature stated, as that of mara rying and giving in marriage, in which the interest is the Bride, it is necessary so to confider it. Also, in the view we have taken of covenant transactions, as in their nature requiring a third party as the witness and authority, the Holy Ghost muft of necessity be considered a person; and indeed, for the fame reason that the first and second parties are called persons, the third party must be considered also as being a person; for, in this relation, all that is meant by the term, who is concerned, and is acting a part, im