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CHA PTER IX.
Accepts the appointment of Minister to Europe—Sails--Arrival in France.

Curiosity excited in the Diplomatic corps at Paris, by the instructions given to

our negotiators. Authorship of these instructions--His letter on the subject.

Mr. Adams joins his colleagues at Paris. General form of treaty. Result of

the conference with the French Minister. Final result of their propositions to

the several Powers of Europe. Dignified conduct of the American negotiators,

pp. 240:243. Appointed Resident Minister at the Court of Versailles—Recep-

tion at that court. Visit to London——Reception at the Court of St. James.

General view of his official duties at Paris. His tribute to La Fayette, and the

Count de Vergennes. His project to engage the principal European Powers in

a perpetual alliance with the U. States against the Piratical States.--Letter to

Mr. Adams--His proposals---Their reception, and failure, pp. 243:250. His

measures for securing the foreign credit of the United States---Visit to Holland.

Extracts, giving his opinions on the state of society, &c. in Europe. Insurrec-

tions in America---How viewed by him. Extracts from his letters to America.

Movements in the U. S. for forming a Constitution—Agency of Mr. Jefferson.

The National Convention meets--Doversity of opinion. His views consulted--

Advice to the members--- Result of their labors - Reception by the States---His

opinions on the new Constitution---Letter to Mr. Madison---Advice on the man-

ner of accepting it—Further extracts. Isis influence in producing the amend-

ments, pp. 250 :272. Proposed abandonment of the navigation of the Mississippi

---Effect upon Mr. Jefferson, and letter to Mr. Madison. He introduces into the

Southern states upland cotton and the olive tree. Tour through France and

Italy—Extracts. Communicates to America a variety of new inventions, and

articles of culture. His scientific and literary efforts in France. Endeavors to

improve the architecture of the U. States. Letter to Washington on the Cin-

cinnati--Letters to the young men of America, pp. 272: 287. Opening scenes of

the French Revolution. Causes of this struggle, as stated by Mr. Jefferson---

His Letter, accompanied with a Charter of Rights---Consultation at his house,

and its effects---Apology---Character of the Queen. Departure, and Farewell

tribute to France. Arrival in Virginia. Receives the appointment of Secretary

of State. His answers, and sonal acceptance. Arrival at the Seat of Govern-

ment, pp 297:296.

CHAPTER X.

Political clements of Washington's cabinet. Character of Hamilton, Adams,

and remarks on Knox, by Jefferson. His critical position, and observations.

Hamilton's Funding System and Assumption scheme---Contentions excited by

these measures. Panic of Hamilton. Conciliatory intervention of Mr. Jefferson

and final passage of the Assumption---Influence of these measures. National

Bank, and grounds of opposition. The President requires the written opinions

of his Cabinet. Opinion of Jefferson. Subsequent influence of the Bank, and

extensive monied control of Hamilton. Opposition to the administration and

its causes, as stated by Jefferson, pp. 296: 310. Extensive duties of the State

Department. His Report on Coins, &c.---Its outlines. Report on the Cod and

Whale Fisheries; its general features. Report on Commerce and Navigation;

its political effects, pp. 310: 322. His duties as to foreign affairs. Extracts

from his instructions to our Minister in Spain, on the Navigation of the Missis-

sippi, &c. His controversy with Mr. Hammond. Instructions to our Minister

at London on Impressment. Critical situation of the U. States, as to their foreign

relations. Popular feeling in favor of France. Intemperate character of the

French Minister. Mr. Jefferson's controversy with him ; merits of the per-

formance---Character of Genet's communications; his violent measures--Re-

quest for his recall decided upon ; how performed by the Secretary. Extracts,

Pp. 322:333. Mr. Jefferson's retirement from the Cabinet, and its causes--Efforts

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Political character of Adams' cabinet. Jefferson’s arrival as Vice President,

and precaution to elude ceremony. Determination regarding executive consul-

tations. Separation between him and the President. His portraiture of the

administration. Catalogue of its most obnoxious measures. Opposition of the

Republican party; its dependence on Jefferson. Extracts from his works,

pp. 368 : 334. Desperate situation of affairs in '98...99. His advice on the best

course of measures. Republican members of Congress retire into the State

legislatures. Jefferson draughts the Kentucky Resolutions. Their general char-

acter. Extract. Madison's Virginia Resolutions, View of Jefferson's official

conduct...Prepares his Manual of Parliamentary Practice. Parties bring out

their candidates for the Presidency. Character of the contest. Licentiousness

of the Pulpit and the Press against Jefferson. Notice of some of the principal

libels on his character; his singular passiveness. Extracts from his works,

pp. 384:391. Result of the election by the people. Constitutional difficulty;

the federalists taking advantage of it resolve to elect Burr. Election scenes

in the House, and conduct of the minority. Fidelity of the republicans to, and

final election of Jefferson. Attempts of the federalists to extort capitulary terms

from him ; his answers. Causes of their final abandonment of the contest, as

stated by him. Feelings of the nation, pending the election in the House, and

subsequently. Last scenes and appointments of the defeated dynasty. Extracts

from his correspondence at this memorable epoch, pp. 391 :403.

the President on the Navy. Letter of John Adams to him, and reply. Insti-

tution of Gun Boats; outlines of the system, and historical instances of

its efficacy, pp. 436: 450. Character of the opposition to the administration.

Letter of the President to Judge Sullivan on the licentiousness of the press.

Disunion machinations of the monarchical federalists. Extracts from his pri-

vate correspondence. His anxiety to decline a re-election; reasons for his

submitting to another trial. Character of the second contest ; unanimity of

the result, pp. 450:455. Second inaugural address. His censure upon the fan-

atical intruders among the Indians. His views on the most eligible arrange-

ment of the Tariff after the discharge of the public debt, and on the distribution

of the surplus revenue. Conspiracy of Burr: his designs, and trial. Immovable

tenure of the Judiciary. Correspondence of Jefferson on the subject; his subse-

quent opinions, and proposed remedy, pp. 455 : 464. Foreign relations of the U.

States. Embargo; historical review of its causes. Berlin and Milan decrees.

Impressment of American scamen. Outrage on the Chesapeake. Popular in-

dignation. Moderation of the President; approved by the federalists. Trea-

sonable opposition to the embargo. Plot of John Henry. Disclosures of

J. Q. Adams. Causes of opposition to, and utility of the Eunbargo, pp. 464: 473.

Policy of the President on the Freedom of Speech, and the Press --Ancodote.

He discharges those suffering under the Sedition law. Refuses to permit pros-

ecutions for libels against himself. Dismissal of certain prosecutions in Conn.

His policy on Freedom of Religion. Letter to a clergyman. Ridiculous elec-

tioneering prophecies of his infidel intentions. His personal religious observan-

ces. Review of the minor traits of his administration. Examples of his simpli-

city, and disinterestedness, pp. 473:483. Private labors &c. of the President.

His syllabus of the doctrines of christianity. Correspondence with literary men,

and diff rent societies in Europe. Efforts for the introduction of Vaccination.

Correspondence with the Emperor Alexander. His labors on colonization Im-

provements bestowed on the city of Washington. Oracular authority of his ad-

ministrative policy. Anecdote of Bonaparte. Urgency of the people for his

second re election; his anxiety for retirement. Extracts from his letters. Re-

tires to private life. Gratulations of the people. His reply to the citizens of

Washington. Proceedings of his native county. He declines all ceremony.

Address of the citizens of his native county.... His affecting reply. Farewell

address of the Virginia Legislature. Remarks on the termination of his polit-

Remarks on the nature of his retirement. His principal objects of employ-

ment. Selections from his Correspondence, showing his opinions on the Relative

Powers of the General and State governments...On the Relative Powers of the

three branches of the General government...On the Tendencies to Consolidation

and mode of resistance...On Internal Improvement, constructive powers, &c...

On Domestic Manufactures...On the Laboring Classes, Agriculture...On the Na-

tional Bank...On Political Parties. His character of the Sovereigns of Europe.

His portraiture of General Washington. His opinions of Progressive Improve-

ment and Popular Rights....On the Missouri Question...On the Being of a God...

On Religion. Loss of Friends. His advice on the Studies of young men....On

Rules for the regulation of their moral conduct. His Physical Habits, pp.

496 : 520. His system of employment in retirement. Description of Monticello.

Portraiture of Mr. Jefferson, by a guest. Number of letters received by him.

Treachery of correspondents. His efforts to revive ancient affections between

Mr. Adams and himself; reminiscence of his great regard for him. Cor-

respondence with Mrs. Adams. Engages the mediation of Dr. Rush. Receives

a friendly opening from Mr. Adams. Letter to Dr. Rush. Subsequent corres-

pondence tetween himself and Adams. Extracts, pp. 520:536. University of

Virginia---His agency, and leading object in its establishinent. Distinguish-

ing features of his public life and private character. Distressing state of his

finances--Letter to his grandson-- Last letter to Madison. Lottery granted him.

Private liberality of the nation. Alarming state of his health. Letter to the

Mayor of Washington. Particulars of his last hours. Extraordinary circum-

stances of his death. Epitaph by himself, pp. 536 : 556.

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THoMAs JEFFERson was born April 2d, 1743, on the farm called Shadwell, adjoining Mopocello, in the county of Albemarle, Virginia. The date of his nativity was unknown until his decease. It had been a subject of speculation and eager scrutiny among the votaries of liberty, for a long series of years, with a view to its special commemoration. Repeated attempts had been made to as certain it, by formal applications to him personally, on various occasions, by individuals, and public bodies; but from scruples of a patriotic nature, he always declined revealing it, and enjoined the same privacy upon his family. The principles which determined him on this subject, were, the great indelicacy and impropriety in permiting himself to be made the recipient of an homage, so incompatible with the stanch dignity and independence of the republican character; the still greater repugnance which he should feel, to seeing the birth-day honors of the Republic transferred, in any degree, to any individual; and the paramount importance over all, of suppressing, at the first blush, every tendency to familiarize the moral sense of freemen to the artificial forms and ceremonies of royalty. He thought he discovered in the birth-day celebrations of particular persons, a germ of aristocratical distinction, which it was incumbent upon all such persons, by a timely concert of example, to crush in the bud. Soon after his inauguration in 1801, he was waited on by the Mayor and Corporation of the city of Washington, with the request that he would communicate the anniversary

of his birth, as they were desirous of commemorating an event

which had conferred such distinguished excellence upon their country. He replied, in a style of Roman heroism, “The only birthday which I recognize, is that of my country's liberties.” In August, 1803, he received a similar communication from Levi Lincoln, in behalf of a certain association in Boston, to which he replied: “Disapproving myself of transferring the honors and veneration for the great birth-day of our Republic, to any individual, or of di. viding them with individuals, I have declined letting my own birthday be known, and have engaged my family not to communicate it. This has been the uniform answer to every application of the kind.” On the paternal side, Mr. Jefferson could number no titles to high or ancient lineage. His ancestors, however, as far back as they can be traced, were of solid respectability, and among the first settlers of Virginia. They umigrated to this country from Wales, and from near the mountain f Snowden, the highest in Great

Britain. His grand-father was the first of whom we have any par. ticular information. He lived in Chesterfield county, at the place

called Ozborne's, and owned the lands, afterwards the glebe of the parish. He had three sons; Thomas, who died young; Field, who resided on the waters of the Roanoke, and left numerous descendants; and Peter, the father of the subject of these Memoirs, who settled in Albemarle county, on the lands called Shadwell. He was the third or fourth settler in that region of the country. They were all gentlemen of property and influence in the Colony. But the chief glory of Mr. Jefferson's genealogy was the sturdy contempt of hereditary honors and distinctions, with which the whole race was imbued. At a period when birth was the principal circumstance which decided rank, such a raciness and unsophisticated tone of character, in an influential family, whose wealth alone was suf. ficient to identify them with the aristocracy, could not but be regard. ed as a novel and decisive peculiarity. It was a strong genealogical feature, pervading all the branches of the primitive stock, and forming a remarkable head and concentration in the individual who was destined to confer immortality upon the name. With him, indeed, if there was any one sentiment which predominated in early life, and which lost none of its rightful ascendency through a long career of enlightened and philanthropic effort, it was that of the natural equality of all men, in their rights and wants; and of the nothingness of those pretensions which “are gained without merit and

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