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work, and the appositeness of its title. The former sessed the spirit, should be distinguished from the other secures our high respect; the latter, we think, misleads. classes of society. The ceremonial was merely the public We are almost inclined to hope that Mr James will him declaration, that he ou whom the order was conferred, was self admit the truth of these remarks; and to show, at

worthy to exercise the powers with which it invested him.

But still, the spirit was the chivalry." all events, that he was not unaware of the difficulty he had to encounter, we shall quote the three first pages of

We here find our author confessing at the very outset, his book, in which he boldly, and with the praiseworthy that chivalry was “more a spirit than an institution ;" precaution of a clear thinker, attempts a definition of consequently he must have felt, and the sensation would chivalry. It will be seen, however, by the last para- be an odd one, that he was about to write the history of graph of our extract, that he is obliged, after all, to have a spirit. recourse to something vague, shadowy, and unseen, which Be this as it may, we shall not dwell on the matter he calls, not chivalry itself, but the spirit of chivalry: any longer, but gladly turn to the more pleasing task of

bearing our unhesitating testimony to the Juminous and A DEFINITION OF CHIVALRY.

energetic style in which Mr James conducts his narra“ The first principles of whatever subject we may attempt tive, and to the great mass of correct and solid informa. to trace in history are ever obscure; but few are so entirely tion which bis work contains. buried in darkness as the origin of chivalry. This seems much condensed, with equal perspicuity and elegance,

We have seldom seen so the more extraordinary, as we find the institution itself suddenly accompanied by regular and established forms to into so small a space. The whole events of the Crusades which we can assign no precise date, and which appear to are Sade to pass in panoramic review before us; and have been generally acknowledged before they were reduced without any ambitious parade of fine writing, a series of to any written code.

graphic and vivid descriptions, intermingled frequently “ Although detinitions are dangerous things, inasmuch with sound philosophical observations, and comprehensive as the ambiguity of language rarely permits of perfect accu

views of the state of society, prevents the reader's attenracy, except in matters of abstract science; it is better, as far as possible, on all subjects of discussion, to venture

tion from flagging for a moment. We select at random some clear and decided position, that the subsequent reason

the following specimen of the work, which will be read ing may be fixed upon a distinct and unchanging basis.

with interest : “ If the position itself be wrong, it may be the more speedily proved so, from the very circumstance of standing forth singly, uninvolved in a labyrinth of other matter ; “ Many anecdotes are told of the tirst crusaders by their and if it be right, the arguments that follow may always be contemporary historians, which, though resting on evidence more easily traced, and afford greater satisfaction by being so far doubtful as to forbid their introduction as absolute deduced from a principle already determined. These con- facts, I shall mention, in exemplification of the manners siderations lead me to offer a definition of chivalry, to- and customs of the time. gether with some remarks calculated to guard that detinition “ The number of women and children who followed the from the consequences of misapprehension on the part of first crusaders to the Holy Land, is known to have been others, or of obscurity on my own.

immense ; but it is not a little extraordinary, that in spite “When I speak of chivalry, I mean a military institu- of all the hardships and dangers of the way, a great multition, prompted by enthusiastic benevolence, sanciioned by tude of both arrived safe at Jerusalem. The women we religion, and combined with religious ceremonies, the pur- find, on almost all occasions, exercising the most heroic pose of which was, to protect the weak from the oppression firmness in the midst of battles and destruction ; and Guiof the powerful, and to defend the right cause against the bert gives a curious account of the military spirit which wrong.

seized upon the children during the siege of Antioch. The “ Its military character requires no proof; but various boys of ihe Saracens, and the young crusaders, armed with mistaken opinions, which I shall notice hereafter, render it sticks for lances, and stones instead of arrows, would issue necessary to establish the fact, that religious ceremonies of from the town and the camp, and under leaders chosen some kind were always combined with the institutions of from amongst themselves, who assumed the names of the chivalry.

principal chiefs, would advance in regular squadrous, and “ All those written laws and regulations affecting knight-fight in the sight of two hosts, with a degree of rancour hood, which were composed subsequent to its having taken which showed to what a pitch the mutual hatred of the an acknowledged form, prescribed, in the strictest manner, nations was carried. Even after the crusaders had fallen various points of religious ceremonial, which the aspirant in battle, or had died of the pestilence, their children still to chivalry was required to perform before he could be pursued their way, and getting speedily accustomed to admitted into that high order.

fatigue and privation, evinced powers of endurance equal “What preceded the regular recognition of chivalry as to those of the most hardy warriors. an institution is entirely traditional ; yet in all the old “ With the army of the Cross also, was a multitude of romances, fabliaux, sirventes, ballads, &c., not one instance men—the same author declares— who made it a profession is to be found in which a squire becoines a knight, without to be without money; they walked barefoot, carried no some reference to his religious faith. If he be dubbed on arms, and even preceded the beasts of burden in the march, the battle field, he swears to defend the right, and maintain living upon roots and herbs, and presenting a spectacle both all the statutes of the noble order of chivalry, upon the cross disgusting and pitiable. A Norman, who, according to all of his sword; he calls heaven to witness bis vow, and the accounts, was of noble birth, but who, having lost his horse, saints to help him in its execution. Even in one of the continued to follow as a foot-soldier, took the strange resomost absurd fables of the chivalrous ages, wherein we find lution of putting himself at the head of this race of vayaSaladin himself receiving the order of chivalry from the bonds, who willingly received him for their king. Amongst hands of Count de Tabarie, that nobleman causes the infidel the Saracens these men became well known under the name sultan to be shaved, and to bathe, as a symbol of baptism, of Thufurs, (which Guibert translates Trudentes,) and were and then to rest himself upon a perfumed bed, as a type of held in great horror, from the general persuasion that they the repose and joy of Paradise. These tales are all fictitious, fed on the dead bodies of their enemies; a report which was it is true; and few of them date earlier than the end of the occasionally justified, and which the King of the Thafurs 12th century; but at the same time, as they universally took care to encourage. This respectable monarch was ascribe religious cereinonies to the order of knighthood, we frequently in the habit of stopping his followers, one by one, have every reason to suppose that such ceremonies formed a in any narrow defile, and ot causing them to be searched fundamental part of the institution.

carefully, lest the possession of the least sum of money “ Before proceeding to enquire into the origin of chivalry, should render them unworthy of the name of his subjects. I must be permitted to make one more observation in regard If even two sous were found upon any one, he was instantto my definition-namely, that there was a great and in- ly expelled from the society of his tribe, the king bidding dividual character in that order, which no definition can him contemptuously buy arms and tight. fully convey. I mean the spirit of chivalry; for indeed it “ This troop, so far from being cumbersome to the army, was more a spirit than an institution; and the outward was infinitely serviceable, carrying burdens, bringing in forms with which it soon became invested, were only, in forage, provisions, and tribute, working the machines in truth, the signs by which it was conventionally agreed that the sieges, and, above all, spreading consternation amongst those persons who had proved in their initiate they pos- the Turks, who feared death from the lances of the knighus

less than that further consummation they heard of, under must intervene ere we two meet again." What estrangethe teeth of the Thafurs,

ment may not have taken place in our affection e'er then! “ Mercy towards the Turks was considered, by the contemporary clergy, to whom we owe all accounts of the cru

We may be a shivering rheumatic monster, trembling sades, as so great a weakness, that perhaps fewer instances

at its rough, though friendly, embrace; we may be an of it are on record than really took place ; for we seldom aldermanic rotundity, beneath whose tread its brittle sub. find any mention of clemency to an intidel, without blame stance may shrink like woman's delicate and maiden love, being attached to it. Thus, the promise of Tancred to save beneath rudeness and disrespect. the Turks on the roof of the Temple, is highly censured, as But a truce to vain repining, and let us look at the well as the act of the Count of Toulouse, in granting their work before us. We know it to be compiled by a curler, lives to some 500 wretches who had taken refuge in the tower of David.

and the son of a curler ; by one of whom no less an au“ One deed of this kind is told of Baldwin I., more as

thority than the Ettrick Shepherd has pronounced that in its consequences it saved the king's person, than as any he“ plays a good stane.” The truth is, that he was early thing praise worthy in itself. Passing along one day on initiated into all the mysteries of this noble game. While horseback, after his troops had been employed in wasting yet in short-clothes did his venerable father expound to the country, Baldwin is said to have met with an Arabian him the mysteries of “inwicking,” “ chuckling up the woman, who had been taken in labour by the way. He port,” “ lying in the bosom of the winner,” “ kittling,” and covered her with his own cloak, ordered her to be protected by his attendants, and having left her with two skins of

" coming under his grannie's wing.” Through a long water, and two female camels, be pursued his march. The and active discharge of his parochial duties, he found the chances of the desultory warfare of those times soon brought chief amusements of his leisure hours in the cultivation back her husband to the spot, and his gratitude was the of his curling talents. And now, retired to the “ chimmore ardent, as the benefit he had received was unusual and ney neuk of eild,” the old boy finds delight in fighting unexpected. After the fatal day of Ramula, while Bald- “ all his battles o'er again.” win, with but fifty companions, besieged in the ill-fortified

Curling is essentially a clerical game. Independent of castle of that place, was dreaming of nothing but how to sell his life dearly, a single Arab approached the gates in

our venerable friend, is there not Somerville of Currie, the dead of the night, and demanded to speak with the king.

alike master of the gun and the curling-stone? Is there He was, in consequence, brought to Baldwin's presence,

not the venerable individual who has so long presided where he recalled to his mind the kindness once shown to over our University, the father of the Highlands ? Nor the Arab woman, his wife; and then offered to lead him is it only among modern clergymen that we find this insafely through the lines of the enemy. The fate of Pales-clination. On consulting the pages of our erudite author, tine at that moment hung upon Baldwin's life, and, trusting hinself in the hands of the Arab, he was faithfully seventeenth century of carrying his love of the sport so

we find a Bishop of Orkney was accused early in the conducted to bis own camp, where he appeared,' says William of Tyre, ' like the morning star breaking through

far as to forget, in his ardour, the sanctity of the Sabbath. the clouds.'

This was rather too much, but, as the clown says, abusus “ Superstition, which, in that age, was at its height in non tollit usum. It is exactly the amusement in which Europe, was, of course, not unknown in Palestine ; and all a clergyman ought to relax, with all his flock around sorts of visions were seen. Battles, according to the Monk- him. Steadied by his crampits on the slippery board, ish acrounts, were won by relics and prayers, more than his presence adds a grace, and gives a gentle sobered bilaby swords and lances. A part of the Holy Cross was said to be found in Jerusalem, a thousand more martyrs were

rity to the high flow of spirits excited by the hollow dug up than ever were buried, and we find one of the roaring of the stones as they fly along the ice, the keen bishops, ferens in pyride lac Sanctæ Mariæ Virginis. Ghosts air, and the merry faces all around. It is well and justly of saints, too, were seen on every occasion, and the Devil said by one of the author's correspondents—a reverend too himself, in more than one instance, appeared to the cru- -“ In curling, 1 daresay, you must have often remarksaders, tempting them, with consummate art, to all kinds ed, that among those who are truly embued with the of crimes. The evil spirit, however, often—indeed gene- spirit of the game, there exists a degree of punctilio and rally-found himself cheated by his victims in the end, who, by repentance, gifts to the church, and fanatical ob

etiquette, even among the commonest artizans, which servances, easily found means to swear the seal from off would reflect credit upon many in a far superior station ; their bond.'”

and though it is confessedly somewhat of a boisterous We are glad that a man of so well-cultivated a mind, game, yet I can honestly aver, to the best of my recollecand of information so extensive, should have taken up

tion, I never heard an oath or an indecent expression his residence among us; and we trust that, whether he made use of upon the ice. All ranks are there mixed reverts to the more Howery paths of imaginative litera- together—the lower seem anxious to prove themselves ture, or continues his researches in the graver walk of not unworthy of the society of their superiors—and the history, he will have no cause to regret bis intercourse latter are aware that they would have just cause to be with the fervid spirits and warm hearts of this our

ashamed, were they to yield to the former in those points northern land.

which are essential in constituting a true gentleman,

Had this not been the case, and had I found that I could Memorabilia Curliana Mabenensia. Edinburgh : Henry

not have indulged myself in this exhilarating sport withConstable. Dumfries : John Sinclair. 8vo. Pp. 111. out compromising the clerical character, great though the 1831.

sacrifice would have been, I certainly would have sup(Unpublished.)

pressed my ardour as a curler.” This is true magnani

mity! We open this book with a feeling of the most profound

Curling is a game of considerable antiquity. Our melancholy. January has not yet elapsed ; but that moist author endeavours to make out that it is as old as Ossian. open weather, more beloved by huntsmen than by curlers, We confess that we do not think that he has altogether has set in, apparently with a dogged resolution of re

succeeded. The passage which he quotes runs thus :-maining. We peruse the records of curling with much

Fly, son of Morven, fly! Amid the circle of stones; the same emotion that we should devour the biography Swaran bends at the stone of might!" This is extremeof a lately lost, and warmly beloved friend. The ice is ly vague, and is, if any thing, more descriptive of a game gone-we saw the last of it,-attenuated as in a con

now relegated, along with tales of hobgoblins, to the jusomption,-honeycombed like an old cannon,—on Mon venile portion of the community, and known to the vulday. The ice is gone ; and May with her Aowers and

gar under the designation of “ Duck.” But the question merry songs; June and July with their cool trouting is happily rendered immaterial, for on the 20th of Dec. streams, o'erhung with greenwood ; Autumn with her last, a curling-stone was dug out of the foundation of the “ red-lipped fruitage,”

old house of Loig, in Strathallan, having the date 1611 “ Blushing through the mist and dew," deeply engraven upon it. Now, all the world knows that the poems of Ossian were composed in the latter or Pierce Egan for the art pugilistic. How gratifying half of the eighteenth century; and consequently the must it be to this carum et venerabile caput, to reflect that game of curling, whether mentioned in them or not, is his name will now last for ever upon the ice, and that older than they are.

the field of his glory and happiness during life shall reThe origin of the game is indeed, as Gibbon would say, main that of his authority, long after he has been depo“ lost amid the clouds of antiquity;" which, being inter- sited in his own churchyard, and his parish knows him preted, means in a Scotch mist. Camden mentions it so no more! We already see in fancy's eye the “ Memoraearly as 1607. But the stone already mentioned as bear- bilia Curliana” bound up by the elders of his parish along ing a date only four years later, is highly tinished. There with that selection of the author's sermons, wbich he keeps are, however, certain “piltycocks," or "kuting-stanes," at so carefully treasured up for postbumous publication, and present in the possession of the Duddingstone Curling So- consulted with equal reverence. The good old man is ciety, which were some years ago fished out of the Loch of reluctant to come forward as an author, and nothing but Linlithgow. The extremely rude workmanship of these a conviction of the importance of curling, and the necesearliest specimens of the curling-stone, bespeak an era sity of giving to the world those finishing and happy long anterior to that which could produce such a fine touches which only his own master-hand could bestow, specimen of art as the Strathallan stone. Now there are has induced him to publish the present work during his two facts mentioned by our author, which, taken in con- lifetime, instead of leaving it, like his less vitally essential nexion with these, are of great importance :-Ist, That theological discourses, to the care of his heirs. the technical language of the game is unsubdued Teutonic; We have borne willing testimony to the merits of this and 2d, That it is but little known to the north of the work : its revered author must not take it amiss if we Forth-we believe not at all among our Celtic population. advert to its one defect—the unmeasured and unjustifiIt only remains to add, (a circumstance for which we are able terms in which he speaks of a certain learned prolikewise indebted to our erudite author,) that Kilian, in tessor, an esteemed correspondent of our own. The trihis Dictionary, renders Kluyten Kalluyten (evidently the fling nature of their dispute, the length of time that has same with the Scotch kuting) by-ludere massis sive glo- elapsed since its occurrence, might have moderated his bis glaciatis, certare discis in equore glaciato. There can- language, even although his own better feelings had not not be a doubt-as the Lord Advocate is accustomed to interfered to soften that asperity in which clergymen and say when winding up a case in which he has been forced ladies, not having, like other mortals, the fear of pistols to plead in the face of law, equity, and justice—there before their eyes, occasionally indulge. We trust that cannot be adoubt that curling was imported into this when the work now before us reaches the second edition, country by our Saxon ancestors at their first advent. which its author so confidently anticipates, and we so

The difference betwixt the first rude dawnings of the devoutly wish to see, this blemish will be obliterated. game and its present advanced state, is immense; but we And now, with best wishes for his success, we take our are reluctantly obliged to pass them over uncelebrated, leave of him. referring our readers simply to the ample chronicle of the author of Curliana. There he will find described the skating-curlers upon the late Duke of Atholl's plan--and | The Corrrspondence of the Right Honourable Sir John interesting notices of Carnie's and Somerville's artificial Sinclair, Baronct; with Reminiscences of the most disrinks. We cannot, however, refrain from lamenting the tinguished Characters who have appeared in Greal indications contained in the two last-mentioned inventions Britain, and in Foreign Countries, during the last fifty that Curling has passed its high and palmy state, and is years.

2 vols. 8vo. London. Colburn and Benton the eve of degenerating into one of hyper-refinement. ley. 1831. All artificial substitutes for a broad Joch, and a yard

(Unpublished.--Second Notice.) deep frost, degrade curling. The great beauty of the game

We now proceed to redeem our promise to present our is, that in playing at it, we conquer him who hath con- readers with a few more extracts from this interesting quered vegetable life-laugh in John Frost's face-pluck work.

They may be considered as good as manuscript, his frosty beard and play with his innocuous weapons.

as we possess the only copy yet in the hands of the reIt is even proposed by our degenerate Sybarites to invent viewers. As our space is limited, we must reluctantly a substitute for ice, and curl in the dog-days. Would it

pass over a good many of the Parts into which Sir Jobn not be better to play billiards at once? Curling owes one

has divided his book, without any quotations from them. half its charms to the rarity of its occurrence.

We may mention, however, that his Military CorrespondBut it is high time that we were giving our readers some

enco embraces, among others, Marshal Romanzow, Marnotion of the book we have been--or ought to have been shal Blucher, and Marshal Macdonald ; that among his --criticising. The truth is, that this is no easy task, The Clerical Correspondents we find the names of Dr Moore, learned author seems to have laboured under the embarras Archbishop of Canterbury, Dr Richard Watson, Bishop des richesses—to have been rather at a loss how to arrange of Llandaff, Dean Tucker, Dr Priestley, the Rev. Dr his materials. The first chapter is entitled, “ Preliminary;"

Hill, the Rev. Dr Davidson, and the Rev. John Logan; the second,“ Historical ;" the third, “ Descriptive;" the that his Agricultural, Statistical, and Medical Corresfourth, “ Initiatory;" the fifth, “ Panegyrical.” Then fol- pondence and Reminiscences are, of course, extensive and lows an interlude, entitled “ Bonspielana.” The eighth

valuable as is bis Financial, Commercial, and Political chapter (for, from some unaccountable aversion on the part Correspondence, none of which departments, however, of the author to the mystic number seven, there is none

come under our more immediate care. From the Polihaving that numeral prefixed) is Mechanical; the ninth tical Reminiscences, nevertheless, we take with pleasure treats of artificial rinks; the tenth is again an interlude, the following into which the compiler, in order to bring up his lee-way, has inter woven all his odds and ends, snatches of know


“ A motion had been made in Parliament for an enquiry ledge and reverend saws. The eleventh contains the con- into the conduct of Captain Lake, of the Navy, who was stitution of the Curling Court. The twelfth is “poetical" accused of having left a seaman, called Robert Jeffrey, on -being a collection of curling songs. An appendix is desert island in the West Indies, where, it was said, he bad added, containing the Rules of the Lochmaben Curling actually perished; and Captain Lake was therefore consiSociety, a list of the Curling Clubs in Scotland, toasts and dered guilty of his murder. Mr Archibald Lee, a gentlesentiments, sayings, a glossary of technicalities, &c. &c. &c.

man attached to the American Embassy, had requested me The author pours out the treasures of a redundant and we were sitting under the gallery together, when this

to procure bim permission to hear the debates in the House ; knowledge respecting every thing he professes to treat of. motion was brought on. Mr Lee expressed his astonishHe has done for curling what Hawker has for shooting, ment, that the time of the House should be taken up about such a business, since he had actually received a letter, by broad or long; but he has been distinguished through life the last packet from America, stating that Robert Jeffrey for vivacity, is veridic, open spoken, and quoted for bons was alive and safe at New York. I was much struck with mots. He was of a good aspect and stature, but is now so singniar a circumstance, thus accidentally communicated blind, and much shrunk ; goes through all his usual baunts to me; and having every reason to contide in the truth of without any assistance or guide; is even offended at being the inforination given me, I thought it right to mention it offered any. I see as well as you do of a dark night, he to the House, to prevent any measure being hastily taken said to me : ' and why may not I find my way as well as on the supposition that Robert Jeffrey was dead.

you do? They tell me I have lived long, but it is just a “ It is astonishing the noise which this circumstance gliff. I have often thought to get our minister to answer occasioned. The truth of my information was disputed in all your queries respecting this person, but you know the some of the anti-ministerial papers. I received anony- consequence of procrastination after fourscore. I bave the mous letters reprobating me as the associate of murderers, honour to be, my dear sir, your obedient humble servant, and threatening me with vengeance; and Mr Whitbread

“ A DAM FERGUSON."** wrote me, to say, I should be glad if you would take the trouble to inform me of the name of the gentleman, upon

Sir John Sinclair's Answer to Dr Ferguson. whose authority you stated, in the House of Commons, “ My Dear Sir,-I received much pleasure from your that Jeffrey was alive, and at New York; and how soon he is expected to return to England, as I have received in- ing communication to Sir John Macpherson. It contained

obliging letter to me, and from the perusal of your interestformation of a very different complexion. Your immediate

a number of very important political observations. I am answer is requested.' Captain Lake's friends also applied happy to find that you preserve good health, and retain such to me, requesting to be informed, on what authority I had vigour of mind and powers of reflection. I wish that I asserted a fact of such importance to their relation. * Nor was this all. I likewise received a letter from his father Laertes :

had many such pets. Remember Ulysses's prescription to Benjamin Coad, near Liskard, in Cornwall, who had married Jeffrey's mother, in which he says, ' I observe by Warm baths, good food, soft sleep, and generous wine, the newspapers, that you stated in the House of Commons, These are the rights of age, and should be tbine.' that there were letters in London, containing the intelli

“ As I continue to collect as much information as possigence that Robert Jeffrey, my son-in-law, was alive, and in New York. It would give the greatest satisfaction to

ble regarding longevity, I should be glad to have the ques

tions on that suloject answered regarding the old man in myself, and his afflicted mother, if you would condescend to give as much information as you have obtained respect- 1 beg to send you the enclosed ; and I remain, with sincere

your neighbourhood. At Sir John Macpherson's desire, ing him, as we have had no sort of intelligence of him since regard and esteem, your faithful and obedient servant. he was put on shore on that desert island.'

“ Owing to the pressure of some official business, Mr We shall next extract some interesting notices of, and Lee had gone to Paris, two or three days after the debate correspondence with, in the House of Commons, so that it was impossible for me to give any particular information to the persons demand

EDMUND KEAN, ESQ., THE CELEBRATED ACTOR. ing it, until his return. In the interim, most fortunately, Mr Kean performed the character of Macbeth, on the I received intelligence from Cornwall, that Jefirey had ac- Edinburgh stige, in October 1819, and it was one of the tually arrived in England, and had been recognised by his most perfect specimens of acting I had ever witnessed. relations in Cornwall. He and his mother came to Lon- Several of my friends being of the same opinion, we redon, for the purpose of raising benefactions for the injuries solved to present him with a sword, as a proof of the high be counplained of; but, by the liberality of the Lake family, idea we entertained of his theatrical abilities. The intenany application for public benevolence was rendered unne- tion was communicated to dir Kean in the following letcessary, and any farther disagreeable discussions in Parlia- ter: ment, on so unpleasant a subject, were prevented.”

“ Sir,--Some of your friends in this city became exThe Literary and Miscellaneous Correspondence and tremely desirous otpresenting you with a mark of the high Reminiscences, which conclude the first volume, are very

estimation which they entertain for your talents as an interesting; and could hardly fail to be otherwise, when

actor, more especially having witnessed the very superior we find that they refer to such men as Dr Adam Smith, beth.' After considering the subject, it was at last resolved

manner in which you performed the character of MacMalthus, Godwin, Dr Gillies, Sir Joseph Banks, Arthur

to present you with “ A Sword of State,' to be worn, when Young, Dr Darwin, Dr Jenner, Dr Adam Ferguson, you appear upon the stage in that tragedy, as • The crownSir Humphrey Davy, Dr Black, Professors Playfair and ed King of Scotland.' 'I have much pleasure in sending Dugald Stewart, John Home, and many others. On you the sword, which is prepared by some of our ablest the important subject of health and longevity--a subject artists, for the purpose of being transmitted to you. It is to which our author bas devoted his attention with so

• of the true Highland make,' and ornamented with some much success, we are sure the two following letters will

of the most valuable precious stones that Scotland produces.

• Macbeth' is, on the whole, the greatest effort of dramatic be read with pleasure :

genius the world has yet produced ; and none bas hitherto attempted to represent the Scottish tyrant, who has done,

or could possibly do, more justice to that character, that Dr Adam Ferguson to Sir John Sinclair. the gentleinan to whom I have now the honour' of addresse

ing mysell. “ Halyards, near Peebles, October 21, 1803.

* The presentation of this stvord remiuds me of two par“ My Dear Sir,- I have a kind hint on the back of a ticulars. letter from Sir John Macpherson, franked by you, that the * 1. The swords, in ancient times, ivere large and weighty, answer might go through your hands also. "I accordingly and the scabbards brwid at tie point. Hence, in Shaktake the benefit of this hint, and the rather, that it gives speare, Hotspur describes himself

, (Part I. Henry IV. me an opportunity, without attempting an adequate return Act l, Scene 3,) 'leaning upon his sworit ;' that is to say, to the great dispatch with which you honoured me too resting upon it in the scabbard. The sword also was not many months ago, to deprecate your contempt of me for carried in belts attached to the person, (which, with a large having so long failed in that matier. This failure at least and heavy sword, would have been too cumbersome,) but may inform you, that I am, in fact, superannuated, and so was either held in the right hand, or carried in the left arm, far one of your pets, which you wish to preserve as long as the elbow being bent for that purpose. In battle, when the possible. It is to be hoped, that some of them are of more sword was drawi, t'ia scabbard rus throun uray, to imple, use than I am, otherwise you may e'en let them go in course. Here are three of us born the same year, viz. 1723. There is little difference in our appearance, only that I am

It is to be observed in this letter from this respectable author, the least weather beaten of the three. I have had the ad

that though the sense is unexceptionable, yet that the spelling is

deficient; and it has been remarket in various instances, triat whilst vantage of exemption from toil, and they, till of late, have the spiritual part of the mind remains uniinpareil, the mechanical bad the advantage of sobriety. But there is another twelve part of it, if I may be allowed that expression, falls off, and dimi years older than we are, having been born in 1712 A pea

nishes in point of strength or force. It is said that the celebrated out of this parish. His sobriety you need not doubt. The

Earl of Mavstield could hardly spell at all for soine tine before he

died. Spelling dependú inuch upon memory, wluch is impaired by world, for auglit he has seen of it, may not be twelve miles

disease or aje.


as that phrase denotes, that the combat was to terminate the poor, and other useful objects; and came to London on with the death of one of the parties.

purpose to procure such information as the metropolis “ 2. There is reason to believe, that Shakspeare collected could furnish regarding them. He happened to call with materials for “ The Tragedy of Macbeth,'on the spot where a letter of introduction to me, just when I was going to sit many of the transactions took place. It is recorded in down to an early dinner, preparatory to a long debate in Guthrie's History of Scotland, that Queen Elizabeth sent the House of Commons, and he readily agreed to take a soine English actors to the court of her successor, James, share of it. His conversation was so lively and pleasant, which was then held at Perth; and it is supposed that that I felt no wish to exchange it for a dull debate in the Shakspeare was one of the number. This idea receives House of Commons. Among other things, he said, “We strong confirmation by the following striking circumstance. Irish meet with more singular adventures than any other The Castle of Dunsinane is situated about seven or eight race of men, and, in proof of the assertion, I will tell you a miles from Perth. When I examined, some years ago, story, which I think will amuse you. In the course of our the remains of that castle, and the scenes in its neighbour- | future correspondence, as will appear from the subjoined lethood, I found, that the traditions of the country people ters, I earnestly requested him to send me the story himself, were identically the same as the story represented in Shak- or to procure it from Father O'Leary; but being unsucspeare. There was but one exception. The tradition is, cessful in those applications, I shall endeavour to make it that • Macbeth' endeavoured to escape, when he found the out the best way I can, from a distant recollection : castle no longer tenable. Being pursued by Macduff, he ran up an adjoining hill, but instead of being slain in single

The History of Darby O'Sullivan. combat by Macduff-which Sbakspeare preferred, as being “ Father O'Leary and Captain M.Carty were walking a more interesting, dramatic incident-the country people together through the streets of St Omers, when they came said, that, in despair, he threw himself over a precipice; at to a house, at the door of which a man was bawling, in the the bottom of which, there still remains The Giant's grave,' French language, Walk in, gentlemen, and see the greatwhere it is supposed that • Macbeth' was buried. When est curiosity ever heard of, a Russian bear who can speak, you next visit Scotland, it would be interesting to take an and dance, and sing, and in every respect is as intelligent as early opportunity of examining these classic scenes.

a human being.' Father O'Leary wished to walk on, but “With my best wishes that you may long continue an Captain M'Carty insisted on their going in to see so great a ornament to the British theatre, I remain, sir, your very curiosity. Upon their entering the apartment where the obedient servant,

exhibition was to be seen, they saw at the bottom of a long (Signed) “ JOHN SINCLAIR. room, a great cage, in which a huge bear was reposing. “ 133, George Street, Edinburgh,

Upon their approaching the cage, the keeper, with a long 16th November, 1819.

stick, began to beat the animal, in order to rouse bim. “ Edmund Kean, Esq. Clarges Street, London.

Upon his getting up he commenced speaking some gibber“ In Mr Kean's answer, which is subjoined, there are

ish, which the two visitors iminediately knew to be Irish. some just remarks on the hazardous profession of an actor.

The keeper then said in French, · Come, Mr Bear, give

these gentlemen a song ;' and, to their utter astonishment,

November 27, 1819. he sung an Irish ditty. Father O'Leary immediately said “ Sir, I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of in Irish, · How come you to speak the Irish language?' your letter, announcing the transmission of a valuable The astonishment of the bear, at hearing himself addressed sword, which you teach me to receive as a token of the

in his native tongue, may easily be conceived. He said, flattering estimation in which my professional exertions, in Gentlemen, my name is Darby O'Sullivan. I was born the oorthern capital, are held by yourself, and a portion of in the county of Kerry. When men were raised for the that public, to whose fostering indulgence I am already navy, I became a volunteer, and was put on board a ship of bound in lasting gratitude. To those unknown patrons, in We sailed to the coast of Armoric, (Brittany,) and whose name you have been pleased, in such gratifying terms, a boat was sent ashore to procure some water and provito address me, I beg you will convey the assurance, that sions. The people, where we landed, spoke a kind of Irish, their kindness bas not been lavished where it is not duly and I thought I would be better off among them than on appreciated and deeply felt. I am happy iu the conviction, board a ship, where we were not very kindly treated. I that I shall only do justice to their intentions, in receiving ran, therefore, into the country, and came to a little town, this sword, as at once a record of national liberality, and where they were very kind to me. I found the cider betScottish patronage of the stage.

ter than the cider of Kerry, and took my fill of it. I then “May I not recognise as this their object, in their selec- walked into the country, and I lay down to sleep, and tion of the distinguished pen which has honoured me with when I awoke, I found myself transformed into a bear.' the communication, as well as the costume of the present “ The keeper was not at all satisfied with what was going itself, which you are pleased to inform me is strictly na- forward, and said to the company who had assembled, tional, both in its character and ornaments.

• Gentlemen, you must now be satisfied of the truth of “ Permit me to add, sir, that my own feelings could what I asserted. This bear, in many respects, resembles a know no higher gratification, than to be instructed in the human being ; but he is tired, - we must leave him to his belief, that I may have been the fortunate instrument of repose.' Upon which Captain M Carty drew his sword, increasing the number of the patrons of our art; the diffi- and seizing the man by the collar, he said, “ You have been culties of which may, in some measure, be appreciated, by playing some tricks with a countryman of mine, which the rarity and instability of success, and in which we but shall not go unpunished. Instantly open the door of the too sensibly feel how necessary is public protection, to en- cage to let him out, otherwise this sword will be buried in courage and sustain us, even in our least chequered and your body.' The keeper, much terrified, admitted that it unclouded career. I have the honour to be, sir, with was a man in a bear's skin, and gave the following account grateful respects, your very obliged servant,

of the circumstance: (Signed) “ Edmund Kean. “ Right Honourable Sir John Sinclair, Bart.

“ My partner and I were exhibiting, in a town in

France, a real Russian bear, when he unfortunately became “ When our intention was first intiinated to Mr Kean, sick, and died. We had the skin taken off, and buried the he said, “That the approbation of the Edinburgh audience body; and then resolved to take a walk into the country, to he had ever rated as one of the proudest feathers in his dra- consider what we could do to remedy our misfortune. A matic plume, and the testimony proposed he would trea- short way from the town, we observed a man, lying in a sure with the most zealous regard and gratitude.''

ditch, quite drunk. It accidentally occurred to us, that it In the Christmas Number of the Journal we gave from the state in which he then was, and to persuade him, when

would be possible to sew the bear's skin over the man, in the volume now before us a narrative, which we entitled, he became sober, that he had been converted into a bear, as “ A Romance in Real Life.” The following still more a punishment for his drunkenness. We set about it withremarkable story, which seems at the same time to be out a moment's delay; and by means of blows, and showsufficiently authenticated, might well come under a simi-ing him bis figure in a glass, we convinced him that the lar denomination :

transformation had actually taken place. The man be

lieves himself to be a bear. He is perfectly reconciled to CHARLES FRASER FRIZELL, ESQ., OF HARCOURT STREET, his fate; and to make him again a man, would do bim no

good, and would ruin us.' “ One of the most extraordinary characters I ever met “ Captain M.Carty immediately replied, • This must not with was Mr Fraser Frizell, an Irish barrister. He was be suffered. I will not permit a countryman of mine to be much devoted to enquiries regarding education, the state of treated so inhumanly.' Scissars were immediately procu



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