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“ The reformation of these men could not have taken against the bigot James ; and he had a great share in place at a more propitious moment. Out of nineteen child- bringing about the incorporating Union between Engren upon the island, there were several between the ages land and Scotland. of seven and nine years; who, had they been suffered longer Marchmont, was born in 1675, and died in 1710. His

His son Alexander, second Earl of to follow their own inclinations, might have acquired habits which it would have been impossible for Adams to eradicate. boyhood was spent in exile, in Holland. He was bred His exertions were attended by advantages both to the ob- to the law. As Lord Lieutenant of Berwickshire, he jects of his care and to his own mind, which surpassed his raised two battalions of cavalry, and commanded one of most sanguine expectations. He nevertheless had an ardu- them in person. He served his country abroad in seveous task to perform. Besides the children to be educated, ral embassies; and died an active member of the Opposithe Otaheitan women were to be converted; and, as the example of the parents had a powerful influence over the Marchmont, was born in 1708, and died, at an advanced

tion to Sir Robert Walpole. Hugh, the last Earl of children, he resolved to make them his first care. Here, also, his labours succeeded; the Otabeitans were naturally age, in 1794. He was the friend and correspondent of of a tractable disposition, and gave him less trouble than he Pope and Bolingbroke. He was an animated and acanticipated: the children also acquired such a thirst after complished debater in Parliament, an intelligent and scriptural knowledge, that Adams in a short time had little amiable country gentleman. Although acting by no more to do than to answer their enquiries, and put them in means such a conspicuous or influential part in state the right

way. As they grew up, they acquired fixed habits affairs as his father or grandfather, he was closely conof morality and piety, their colony improved ; intermarriages occurred; and they now form a happy and well-re- nected with the leading statesmen of the day, and enjoyed gulated society, the merit of which in a great degree belongs their esteem and confidence. None of his papers of a to Adams, and tends to redeem the former errors of his later date than 1750 are given in this collection. life."

The private papers of three such men are necessarily The account given by Captain Beechey of the manners full of the most interesting matter. Not only do they and appearance of this infant nation is extremely inte- bring to our knowledge many historical facts formerly resting, and may tempt us to pilfer again from his pages unknown, or of doubtful authority—they bring the actors next week, if no press of new matter interfere to prevent in the scenes of the Revolution, the Union, the Rebelus. In the meantime, we take our leave of the gallant lions of 1715 and 1745 before us, as they lived, thought, author and his book, expressing our admiration of the

and felt. We are admitted into the secret of all their manly, hearty, and sensible spirit which pervades it.

little intrigues; we see the opinions and feelings which motive their actions springing up vague and indistinct in

their minds, or gradually gaining form and consistency A Selection from the Papers of the Earls of Marchmont, in their conversations with each other. We see parties in the Possession of the Right Hon. Sir George Henry and practices of state developed and matured. In short,

forming, dissolving, and re-uniting-political principles Rose, Illustrative of Events from 1685 to 1750. In three vols. 8vo. Pp. 292, 418, 479. London. John view—not in its superficial form, not in the variable and

we have the machine of state completely exposed to our Murray, 1831.

inconstant motions of those who merely take their tone The period of English history of which these volumes from others—but in its most necessary springs and are illustrative, is one of which we know little-to the wheels, the conduct of those whom chance or talent have purpose. There are, no doubt, histories, biographies, (so enabled to form the opinions of others, and lay hold upon called by courtesy,) constitutional essays, &c. &c, But the management of national affairs. all these meritorious works have one great fault; their In this point of view, the papers of Hugh Earl of facts are either traditionary gossip, or cut out of the Marchmont are peculiarly interesting. They refer to veracious columns of the newspapers of the day. The the periods immediately preceding, and immediately folhistory of monarchical countries is apt to degenerate lowing, the Rebellion of 1745. They serve effectually into mere biographies of their successive rulers ; the his- to strip that Quixotic enterprise of the false colouring of tory of England has erred in another way—the loud heroism which some late writers have attempted to convoice of popular commotion has distracted the attention fer upon it. We see that the madmen concerned in it too much from the personal character of those who in were doomed from the first to destruction. They had silence, but irresistibly, gave its progressive impetus to raised every man who was attached to their cause-by the machine of the state.

remaining in Scotland, they would have given the goThe collections of private papers which are now be- vernment time to muster forces to crush them—by pushginning to drop out one by one from family repositories, ing on, they disconcerted its operations, but, at the same promise in time to furnish us with more authentic infor- time, they abandoned their fastnesses, and delivered themmation. When these important publications have become selves up to an overwhelmingly superior and inimical sufficiently numerous, an author of comprehensive and population. Their own differences accelerated their deacute mind may, by conjoining the information they struction; but union could only have made them misafford, with that which is to be found in the public chievous for a little longer space, to a country which records, give to the world a history of England from the knew nothing of them or their leader, and wished to Restoration till the accession of George III., the most know nothing. We do not call the person who plunges important, if not the most attractive era in our history. himself into such a predicament a hero, but a madman. It is a pleasing part of our task, as periodical literary Nor can above half-a-dozen of Charles Stewart's followers newsmongers, to give the public some preliminary notion claim even the lenient judgment that they were amiable of the character of each of these accessions to our histo- or high-minded dreamers. The mass of the Highlanders rical fund.

merely obeyed their chiefs, and the majority of these The volumes now before us contain a judicious selec- chiefs were disappointed politicians or bankrupts. Lord tion from the papers of the three Earls of Marchmont, Marchmont's papers show most satisfactorily that it was These noblemen were all possessed of superior natural not to any high-wrought enthusiasm that the Highlandabilities, carefully cultivated, and were all of them deeply ers owed their transient appearance of success, but solely engaged in the political business of their respective pe- to the weakness and inefficiency of the ministry for the riods. Sir Patrick Hume, afterwards the first Earl of time being. Conscious of their own weakness and unMarchmont, was born in 1640, and died in 1724. He popularity, they hesitated to put into the hands of the was a strenuous and consistent advocate of Presbyterian Lowland counties of Scotland arms wherewith they and Constitutional principles during the dark reigns of might defend themselves, or even to allow them to unite; the two last Stewarts. He was an actor in the Mar- and the land was thus left with nothing to oppose the quis of Argyle's premature attempt to rouse Scotland irruption of the Highland host, For corroboration of

this opinion, we need only refer the reader to Hugh for a war-cry to attract public favour and support. The Lord Marchmont's diary, from September 1745 to May genius of Swift and Bolingbroke devised one for them. 1746. The following passage sets in a clear point of They learned to plead the cause of the exiled family upon view their irresolution and paltry jealousies, even when principles of abstract liberty. There was something bold the enemy was at their gates :

in this attempt—more bold than honest. The tone which “ I told Lord Bolingbroke, that we in Scotland were lost, they assumed, however, attracted to their ranks many in a dispute who should be Viceroy, but that I thought we who were disgusted with the vulgar profligacy of Walpole. ought to try every thing to save ourselves, and therefore Out of these elements gradually arose a constitutional Tory was going to the Duke of Montrose, to see if he would otier party, which, shortly after the accession of George Ill., to do whatever service he could ; and that I desired him to obtained the ascendency, and, with a few brief intervals, tell any of the English ministers he saw, to consider whe- maintained it until very lately. To mark the progress ther we could be of any use. I went to the Duke of Mon- of such an atter extinction of a political sect, seems to us trose, and proposed to him to ask the ministers, whether they who knew the king's afairs, thought we could be of a much more instructive task than to dilate upon the any use, because we were ready. On his agreeing to it, I irruption of a small band of semi-barbarians into a proposed telling Lord Stair of it; and his Grace bade me civilized country. Towards effecting such a task, the speak: so we went together to him, and I told him what papers of Lord Hugh afford valuable contributions. we had thought of. He said it was extremely right, and We doubt much whether the mere general reader will would bave a very good effect. I said, we feared it might find as much amusement in these papers as the historical be treated as officious or medaling; he said, that it must be student profit. There is, however, much that must be well received; I told him if it was so, we thought of send attractive even in the eyes of the butterfly generation. ing an express for the Duke of Queensberry, and assembling others, so as to act all in conjunction to defend our liberty; The last words of Bolingbroke, Pope, and his Atossa, are he said, he found but one man in England, and that was

too curious to remain unperused. Of the epistles of the Lord Thanet, who thought that the king should make a last mentioned, we last week submitted some specimens declaration to satisfy his people, that he meant to detend to our readers. Some of Bolingbroke's letters are as and secure our free constitution; and then every man would gorgeous in language as his “ Idea of a Patriot King." rise in arms for him. At last he agreed, together with us,

Pope is as attentive to point and antithesis in his latest to call Lord Tweeddale into a separate room at court, and letters as in those which he wrote in the heyday of his ask him, if we or any Scots peers could be of any service at court, observing, that the affairs of Scotland were consider- literary vanity. Chesterfield appears to much greater ed lightly, and that it was reckoned sure that the troops advantage than we had anticipated. Of all the statesmen now a-marching, would quiet every thing as soon as the king of the time, he alone seems to have seen what was the was gone in. I told Lord Stair, that as he could judge of true method of pacifying the Highlands. The Duke of the air du bureau better than I could pretend, I desired to Cumberland was cheered on by the rest. Marchmont know, whether he thought we ought to speak to Lord says, “I found Lord Chesterfield was for schools and

How far, in conrence it could do no hurt. On this I beckoned up the Duke villages to civilize the Highlands.” of Montrose, and asked Lord Stair, if he thought we should ceiving this idea, he had outstripped his age, is apparent then take Lord Tweeddale aside; he repeated the same from the length of time which has elapsed without its answer, and turned to speak to some other body; on which being more than partially realized. the Duke pulled me by the sleeve, and going into a window, said, that we saw what was likely to happen to our offer, and that we bad best postpone it.

In two “When I came from court, Lord Gower came in, to A Year in Spain. By a Young American. whom I told that the Duke of Montrose and I had been to

volumes. 8vo. Pp. 413, 377. London. John Muroffer our services; he said he was glad we had done it, on which I told him what had passed. He said the ministers could not tell what to depend on concerning Scotland, one

This is a clever, lively, and just sketch of a country side constantly contradicting the other. I told him, I'my- much more talked about than understood. The author self out of Parliament, and all I could influence in Parlia- entered Spain,-crossing the Pyrenees by the route which ment, should loudly complain, that Scotland was thrown leads to Barcelona. He passed through Tarragona and out of the King's protection. He said he did not see that; Valencia to Madrid ; spent the winter in the capital ; unI answered, Scotland was undone in the dispute between dertook some excursions in its environs, and made his exit, two men, who should be Viceroy of it, and the English travelling by the way of Cordova and Seville to Gibraltar, be absolute lords of the kingdom, and thus the king had lost He is endowed by nature with the first great requisite his crown, which he seemed not to value; that all this for a traveller-good-humour, a disposition to see every might have been prevented last winter, if, instead of hold- thing on the sunny side. He mixed with the people, ing up the Duke of Argyle to be king, and insisting on all and gaining their affections by deference to their prejuof us bowing to him, they had obliged his Grace to shake dices, saw them as they see each other. His remarks are hands with the rest of the nobility, and be content with his characterised by candour-judging the Spaniards by their share; thing unless he could do every thing, and Lord Tweeddale powers and capacities, not by that miserable state of socia: thought he had credit enough in the closet to suffer nobody and liberal sentiments worthy of himself, the denizen of

disorder into which their country is fallen ; by manly to have power but himself; and, therefore, from resentment to the Duke of Argyle, and to all of us who had not a more free, moral, and happy community. cringed to him, he had neglected the common good and ne- He is equally at home in describing the sturdy peasant, cessary precautions to defend the kingdom.”

and the sparkling donna. His sketches of the Madrid The nation must have been sound at heart that could beggars are worthy of Le Sage, or Guzman Alfarache : withstand aggression while its rulers were indulging in

There is, perhaps, nothing with which the stranger is such child's play.

more struck and more offended in Madrid, than with the But a much more important page of our nation's bis- pitals and infirmaries, where the poor of the city might all

extent of mendicity. There are, indeed, abundance of hostory is traced in Lord Hugh's correspondence; a vital be received and taken care of; but they are not subject to change in its political sentiments, the creation of a new compulsion, and such is the charm of liberty, that many political creed, the effects of which have shown them- prefer to roam about, and depend upon the casual charity selves in the eventful reign of George III. The two of the wayfarer. Unfortunately, the facility of gaining a great parties opposed to each other during the reigns of subsistence in Spain by begging is so great, that, not with Queen Anne and the two first Georges were the old standing the national pride, many ablebodied men prefer it, Tories, or Jacobites, and the Whigs. The gradual ex- This facility comes in part from the practices of certain

with all its degradation, to the irksome task of daily labour. tinction of the party attached to the old dynasty left conscientious Christians, who give each day a portion of those who had been accustomed to lead it sadly puzzled their abundance to the poor; some from a mistaken sense

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of piety, others through remorse for evil actions. The most " The road from the Gate of the Sun to the library was prominent cause, however, of this evil is found in the dis- | the habitual stand of a young man, a deaf mute, who sat tribution of food at the gates of churches and convents. No cross-legged, in a grey capote, with his bat before him, and sight, indeed, can be more degrading than one which I have a bell in his hand. The sense of his misfortune, of his often witnessed at the gate of San Isidro, the church and complete separation from the rest of the human family, college of the now l'e-established Jesuits. There, at the seemed to have tinged his character with a degree of brutal hour of noon, a familiar brings out a copper caldron filled ferocity, at least such was the expression of his countenance. with soup, which he serves round in equal portions to each | He took no notice of those who gave to him, but sat all of the hungry crew brought together by the ccasion. day in one of the coldest streets of the city, ringing his bell, Should a scramble take place for precedence, the familiar and uttering sounds which, as he knew not how to modusoon restores order by dashing the hot soup amongst them late them so as to strike a tone of supplication, came harshly with his long iron ladle.

upon the ear, like nothing so much as the moans sent “ From all these reasons, Madrid abounds in beggars. forth by the wounded victims of the arena. There is not a frequented street or corner in the city but is “ Asturdy wretch, in the garb of Valencia, constantly the habitual stand of some particular occupant, and even the infested the Calle Montera, placing himself along the narcharms of the Pases are too often qualified by their unwel- row side-walk of flag stones reserved for foot passengers. come intrusion. They enter boldly into every house where Here he would stretch himself on his side, Hat upon the there is no porter to stop them at the vestibule, and pene- cold pavement, with nothing between his head and the trate to the doors of the different habitations, where they stones but a matted mass of uncoinbed hair, and the tatters make their presence known by a modest ring of the bell. of a handkerchief. His body was rolled in a blanket, and

Though often greeted at tirst with a scolding, they seldom a young child of a year or two, either his own, or hired for go away empty-handed, especially if they happen to appeal the occasion, raised its filthy head beside him. But the to a woman; for the female heart is easily opened by a story most disgusting part of the picture was a diseased and otinisfortune. I had occasion to see this in the house where nearly naked leg, thrust out so as to cut off the passage of I resided; for the daughter of my host, when she found her the walkers, and drive them into the middle of the street. door thus besieged, would be exceedingly angry for a mo- The man was well made and able-bodied, and his sores were ment; but if a poor wretch stood his ground and grew doubtless carefully kept from healing, for they constituted eloquent, she would at length soften, the frown would vanish the stock-in-trade-the fortune of the mendicant. This from her brow, and ejaculating. Pobrecilo!' she would miscreant was my greatest eye-sore in Madrid: stretched hurry away to bring some cold meat, or a roll of bread. out as I have described, the child was always crying, either The successful beggar would then kiss the gift devoutly, from the intense cold, or because its legs were pinched beand say with feeling, as he turned away, ' Dios se lo pagara'! neath the blanket; whilst the wretch himself shouted in an •God will reward you!'

imperative tone, and without the intervention of any saint, “ The churches, however, are the most frequented stands - Me da usted una limoona!' which, taking the manner for the beggars. They collect in the morning about the into consideration, amounted to · Give me alms and be doors and near the holy water, which they take from the dd to you !' basin and offer on the ends of their fingers, or with a brush “ But the most singular instance of mendicity I have made for the purpose, to such as come up to mass or to con- ever seen, was turnished by a couple whom I one day met fession. These poor wretches have doubtless found from in the Red San Luis. The principal personage was a large experience, that the most pious, are likewise the most cha- blind man, whose eyelids were turned up and fiery, and ritable.

who carried upon his shoulders a most singular being, with “ However one may be prejudiced against this system of an immense head, and a pair of thin elastic legs, which mendicity, it is impossible for him, if he have any com- were curled and twisted round the neck of his companion. passion, to move untouched through the streets of Madrid The fellow overhead carried a bundle of ballads, which -misery assumes so many and such painful aspects, and both were singing at the top of their lungs. Behind them one is so often solicited by the old, the infirm, the macerated, care a patient ass, tied to the girdle of the blind man, and nay, I had almost said, by the dying. In my winter morn- loailed with the effects, as though they were passing through ing walks down the street of Alcala, to make a turn through ou their way to some other place, or were coming to make the solitary alleys of the Prado, I used to see a poor, ema- some stay in the capital. They seemed to manage very ciated wretch, who seemed to haunt the sunny side of the well, by thus joining their fortunes; for, whilst the blind street, and seat himself upon the pavement, rather to be man eifected their locomotion, the cripple shaped their warmed, after a long and chilly night, spent, perhaps, upon course, jesting with the other beggars and blind men whom the stones of some court-yard, than to beg from the few they met, and holding out his hat to receive the offering of who passed at that early hour. Though sinking rapidly the charitable. Their bodies were, indeed, so twisted and into diecay, he was yet a very young man, scarce turned of entangled, as to give at first the idea of a single being formtwenty; and whilst his red hair and fair complexion be- ing a combination almost as monstrous as the fabled one of spoke the native of Biscay or Asturias, the military trow- the Centanr.” sers which he wore, unless the gift of some charitable trooper, showed that he had once been a soldier. When

The following incident gives a lively but horrible picany one passed, he would stretch out his hand, and move ture of the present state of Spain : his lips, as if asking charity ; but whether his voice were “ Having shaken off a portion of the dust which had gone, or that he was not used to beg, he never uttered more gathered round me during the journey, I walked forth to thair an inarticulate rattle. I had several times intended refresh myself in a rainble along the banks of the Tagus. to ask a story, which must doubtless have been a sad one; In crossing Taza to join the river, I was accosted by a lad, but ere I had done so, the poor fellow ceased to return to whom I presently recognised to be one of those who had his usual stand. The last time I saw him, he was crawl- offered to conduct me to the posada. He asked me if I had ing slowly down a cross street, bent nearly double, and sup- lost any thing when I got down from the carro, and at the popting his unsteady steps as he went, with a staff in either same time took from his cap a cut glass inkstand with a hand.

brass cover, which fitted tightly with a screw. I was " At the coming out of the theatre of Principe, a little pleased with this little act of honesty in a needy boy, and girl, bareheaded, and with naked feet, though in the midst on turning to take more notice of him, was struck with his of winter, was in the habit of patroling the street through frank sunburnt face, and keen black eye. Having asked which the crowd passed. She usually finished her night's him to show me to a pleasant walk, he took me at once across task by returning home through our street, begging as she the bridge, and as we traced a footpath which lay along went. Frequently, when I had just got into bed, and was the margin of the river, I drew from him a story which yet shivering with cold, would I hear her shrill and pier- was more than melancholy. cing voice borne upon the keen wind, and only alternated “ Jose-for such was the name of the lad-had never by an occasional footfall, or by the cry of the sereno, as he known his father ; as he had been born to sorrow, he might told the hours: 'A esta pobrecita para comprar zapatos ; also have been begotten in guilt. All that he knew of himself que no tiene padre ne madre! For the poor little crea- was, that three years before, at the period when the entry ture to buy shoes; she has neither father nor mother !' of the French troops into Spain had restored the priest Many were the contributions she thus raised upon the party to preponderance and power-at that period of unicharitable; but the winter wore away, and still she went versal license, when from a pulpit in Madrid it was pubabout barefooted, and still she begged for money to buy licly proclaimed to be no sin to kill the child of a constitushoes.

tional, though in its mother's womb-two royalists had

entered their dwelling in dead of night, and dispatched his / spluttering Dutchmen, and flippant Frenchmen; smoothmother with their knives. Jose could not tell whether this tongued Italians, long-waisted and red-capped Catalans, murder had been instigated by religious or political fanati- and English sailors, with their neat tarpaulins and blue cism, or by revengeful jealousy-it was enough for him that jackets. As you penetrate into the town, all denotes the they had killed his mother. Since that fatal night he had stir and bustle of commerce, an immense business confined wrestled for his bread as best he could. His character within narrow limits. Goods are constantly landing and seemed to have formed itself prematurely, and though only embarking, and carts and waggons passing in every directwelve years old, he had already something of the bearing tion. The people no longer moved slowly as in Spain, nor and dignity of manhood. Yet his ragged clothing and un- loitered about the corners; every one had something to do, combed hair showed that he still needed a mother's care. _every one was in a hurry. Salutations were abrupt, and

“ I was greatly struck with the solitary and unfriended ceremonies dispensed with—How do?' was the word, condition of this poor boy, and determined to employ him without waiting for an answer. Even the Spaniards resithe next day in showing me the wonders of Aranjuez. In ding here seem to have caught the impetus. Instead of returning towards the posada our road lay through the their long • How are you?' and · God guard you !' I now market-place. It was thronged with labourers, returning heard nothing from them but a sudden salude' as they from their work in the palaces and gardens, and who paused were forced against, and bounded away from each other in in groups to talk over the gossip of the day. All the men the crowd. The officers of the garrison, amid all this wore the undress of royalist volunteers. I had nowhere bustle, seemed the only men of leisure. They sat on horseseen so many of these birds of evil omen. In one group, back, dressed in their neat red Moorish jackets, with foranear which we passed, I noticed a stout powerful man, ging caps covering their faces often equally red; their horses with thick hair and long black mustaches. His jacket was drawn up in the middle of the street, to the obstruction of hanging carelessly from the left shoulder, and a red cockade, the drays, or planted at the only crossing-place for footmen. of most royal dimensions, stuck under the ribbon of his hat. Others monopolized the side walk, driving the trader into He followed us with his eyes as we went by, and when we the street; whilst elsewhere a couple, as if mutually unhad turned a corner, the boy drew towards me and said, willing to sacrifice dignity by coming towards each other,

It was he who killed my mother!'--' Es le, quien mató carried on their conversation for the public benefit from á mi madre!

either side of the street, saying very flat things, with We have been pleased and edified by bis description of arms folded or a-kimbo, and in a very 'pon-honourish tone, the impression made upon his mind at the moment of his

as though each were talking through a quire of paper. Here

was music too and marching, and ladies, and every thing entry into Gibraltar :

that can be seen in the whole world, reduced into a narrow “ Nothing could be more striking than the contrast which compass. There was much in all this to please, and yet every thing presented, as I passed the narrow interval there was much that was unpleasing. I now saw again, which separates Spain from Gibraltar. It so happens that in the appearance of many of the moving multitude, those the very poorest of the Spanish troops are stationed here, indications of intemperance to which I had been long a and that every thing connected with the public service de- stranger-swollen and unwieldy bodies, surmounted by fiery notes inore than usual ruin and dilapidation. The soldiers faces, mottled with blotches and carbuncles. Everywhere on duty were ragged, their schaikos often stretched out of along the main street stood open tap-rooms-the ready reshape, and kept from falling over their eyes by a handker- servoirs of all this intemperance. The well-rubbed bottles chief thrust between them and the forehead, until they pro- glistened upon the shelves, with each its silver label, while jected in front like the self-sustained penthouse of a Low the alternate glasses were surmounted by lemons to make Dutch dwelling. Some wore shoes and gaiters, others poison palatable to beginners. It was long since I had seen hempen sandals. In this neglected garb, however, you could any thing like this ; and it pained me to remember, that had see a well-ınade and sinewy, though starved form, a weather. I been transported as suddenly into my own country, I beaten face, and black and bristly mustaches, which, with might have met with objects equally hateful and disgusting. the keen eye of the poor soldier, denoted a fund of military The contrast brought into strong relief the frugal, temperate spirit

. Besides these troops, the traveller is beset by groups habits, the sinewy conformation, and manly bearing of the of beggars, vagrant gipsies, squalid, unwashed men, and Spanish peasantry. Nor could I help reflecting, that if their half-naked women, paralytic and rickety wretches from

case called upon us for commiseration, there was also some the quicksilver mines, converted by their toils into monsters

room for admiration and for envy." of deformity.

“How different every thing within the English lines ! We know from personal acquaintance, that the Trans1 first came to a drawbridge of neat construction; then a atlantic Republic has, at this moment, many as worthy guard-house, with a snug lodge for the person who is charged sons as this “ Young American,” travelling in Europe, with the service of watching those who enter and depart, and we augur well of the future destinies of a nation and who sits comfortably under cover. Beside this man, whose youth are thus fitting themselves, by extended to secure his obedience, stood a British soldier, as stiff as a statue; his coat, cap, and shoes, all brushed to perfection ; observation of men and manners, to take an active and his trowsers, ruffles, plume, and belts, as white as washing influential part in the business of the state. and pipeclay could make them; and his musket, where not coloured, reflecting the sunbeams like a mirror. Though his form was less muscular, and his eye less martial, than those of the poor Spaniard without, he was, neverthe Narrative of Discovery and Adventure in the Polar Scas less, larger and better fed, and was ready, by the force of and Regions, (Edinburgh Cabinet Library, Vol. I.) discipline, to do any thing, and go anywhere.

Second Edition, Edinburgh. Oliver and Boyd. “On a near approach to the fortress, I paused for a mo- 1831. ment to look upon its rugged front with a mingled feeling of awe and admiration. Here the whole art of defence has

We noticed the first edition of this valuable publicabeen exhausted. The entire face and foot of the mountain tion at a length which would have excused us from is covered with defences, and bristling with cannon. The directing the attention of our readers to the new edition, level ground below, the slopes and ridges, and every inequa- but for the interesting details of the misfortunes of the lity of surface, have been converted into batteries. Even the precipice itself, where nature, having precluded all ap; the spirited conductors of this work at no small expense

tleets sent out last season to Davis' Straits, collected by proach, refuses a foothold for a single warrior, is perforated with yawning port-holes, suspended near a thousand feet and exertion. We lay before our readers the history of above, and ready, in a moment, to be converted into mouths the ill-fated squadron which suffered most : of fire. All these cannon, pointed at the place upon which “ One of the largest of these squadrons, and that whose I stood, their tompions out, to denote preparation and a eventful story we can relate in the greatest detail, consisted readiness to be lit up in a moment into one vast blaze, as of six very fine vessels, the St Andrew of Aberdeen, the terrible as the thunder of the heavens.

Baffin and Rattler of Leith, the Eliza Swan of Montrose, “ After passing through several parallels, where all de- the Achilles of Dundee, and the French ship Ville de Dieppe. noted the most perfect state of order and preparation, I They began by making themselves fast to some icebergs, but came to the neat market recently erected without the gate, soon quitted these in order to attempt a passage in different and the general landing-place of men-of-war's-men and directions. On the 19th, a fresh gale sprang up from the merchant sailors of every nation in Europe. Here one SS. W., and drove in upon them masses of ice, by which inay sec filthy Jews, big-breeched Moors, wily Greeks, they were soon beset, in lat. 75 deg. 10 min. N., long. 60 deg. 30 min. W., about forty miles to the southward of which the captain had thrown a few articles from the cabinCape York. They ranged themselves under the shelter of windows, was itself soon afterwards sunk. In the same a large and rugged floe, having water barely sufficient to latitude, a few miles to the westward, the tempest proved float them. Here they formed a majestic line behind each also fatal to the Old Middleton of Aberdeen. other, standing stem to stern so close as to afford a continued “ A similar disaster befell part of a large group, amountwalk along the whole line of their decks; being at the same ing to twenty-two sail, which had not entered the icy time so pressed against the ice, that in some places a boat- barrier, but remained considerably to the south ward in hook could with difficulty be inserted in the interval. In about lat. 74 deg. 20 min. N. They seem scarcely to have the evening of the 24th, the sky darkened, the gale increa- felt the storm of the 25th June, and remained in tolerable sed, the floes began to overlap each other, the ships in an alarming manner.


press upon safety, though beset, till the night of the 30th. A heavy tempted to saw the ice into a sort of dock, where they hoped morning of 20 July, when it swelled to a dreadful tempest. to be relieved from this severe pressure; but soon a huge The howling of the wind, the showers of hail and snow, floe was driven upon them with a violence completely irre- the dark and fearful aspect of the sky, gave warning of sistible. The Eliza Swan (whose surgeon, Mr Maccall, approaching danger. At seven in the morning, a signal of has also furnished us with some particulars) received the distress was hoisted by the William of Hull, and in a short first shock, and was saved only by the floe raising her up. time thereafter she appeared almost buried under masses of It caused her indeed to strike with such force on the bow of ice. About ten, the North Briton was reduced to a comthe St Andrew, that her mizzen-mast was nearly carried plete wreck; and at eleven the Gilder shared the same fate. off, -but it then passed from under her, after damaging During six' hours, the storm slightly abated, but then severely her stem and keel. It next struck the St Andrew, returned with augmented fury, and pressed the ice with midship, breaking about twenty of her timbers, and staving additional force upou the Alexander of Aberdeen, and the a number of casks; but it then fortunately moved along her Three Brotbers of Dundee,-two large and fine vessels, side, and went off by the stern. Now, however, pursuing so strongly built and equipped, that an observer might have its career, it reached successively the Baffin, the Achilles, supposed them capable of withstanding any shock whatever. the Ville de Dieppe, and the Rattler, and dashed against They made, accordingly, a very stout resistance; the conthem with such tremendous fury, that these four noble flict was dreadful, and was beheld with awful interest by vessels, completely equipped and fortified, and which had the sailors as they stood round; at length their timbers gave braved for years the tempests of the Polar deep, were, in a way at every point,- the sides bursting open, the masts quarter of an hour, converted into shattered fragments. The crashing and falling with a frightful noise; the hull of the scene was awfuli-the grinding noise of the ice tearing open Three Brothers was twisted so that the two ends of the their sides-the masts breaking off and falling in every di- ship could scarcely be distinguished; finally, only some rection-amid the cries of two hundred sailors leaping upon broken masts and booms appeared above the ice. The the frozen surface, with only such portions of their ward- crews, spectators of this awful scene, gave three cheers in robe as they could snatch in a single instant. The Rattler honour of the gallant resistance made by their vessels to the is said to bave become the most complete wreck almost ever overpowering element by which they had been vanquished. known : she was literally turned inside out, and her stem Our correspondent here observes--somewhat as Captain and stern carried to the distance of a gunshot from each Parry had already done at a critical period--that a ship, the other. The Achilles had her sides nearly pressed together, strongest which human art can construct, becomes like an her stern thrust out, her decks and beams broken into in- egg-shell when opposed to the full force of this terrific numerable pieces. The Ville de Dieppe, a very beautiful natural agent. * vessel, though partly filled with water, stood upright for a " It is a remarkable and gratifying circumstance, that, fortnight, and the greater part of her provisions and stores in the whole of these sudden and dreadful disasters, there were saved; as were also some of those of the Batfin, two should not have occurred the loss of a single life. The very of whose boats were squeezed to pieces. All the other boats element, indeed, which destroyed the vessels, was in so far were dragged out upon the ice, and were claimed by the propitious, as it afforded to the crews a secure, though unsailors as their only home. Not far from the same spot, the comfortable retreat. By leaping out upon the ice, in the Progress of Hull was crushed to atoms by an iceberg, on moment of wreck, they all effected their escape. the 2d of July; and, on the 18th of the same month, the have heard of several instances in which the danger was Oxenhope, also of that port, became a total wreck.

close and imminent. Sometimes the seamen, before they “ The Resolution (Philip ) of Peterhead, Laurel of Hull, could snatch their clothes and bedding, found themselves up Letitia and Princess of Wales of Aberdeen, had advanced to the middle in water. The surgeon of the North Briton considerably farther to the north-west, being in lat. 75 deg. beheld the ice rushing in and meeting from opposite quar20 min. N., long. 62 deg. 30 min. W. They were lying ters in the cabin, before he was able to make his retreat. side by side, and, baving cut out a dock in the ice, consider- “ The shipwrecked mariners, nearly a thousand in number, ed themselves perfectly secure. But the gale of the 25th were now obliged to establish temporary abodes on the drove the floes upon them with such fury, that the sides of surface of that rough and frozen sea where their ships had the Resolution and Letitia were pierced; they were filled | been wrecked. They erected tents of sails detached from with water to the deck, and pressed so forcibly against the the broken masts; they kindled fires, and procured proviLaurel, which lay between them, as almost to raise that sions, either out of their own shattered vessels, or from vessel out of the water. This last, however, remained for those of their companions which had fortunately escaped. the present in safety, and the seamen busied themselves But still their situation, though not desperate, was dreary placing on board of her the provisions and stores of her two in the extreme; like outcasts in the most desolate extrewrecked companions. But, on the 2d of July, she, along mity of the earth, without any assured means either of with the Hope of Peterhead, was exposed to a gale, if pos- subsistence or return. Yet such is the elastic spirit of sible, still more terrible than the former, when they both British tars, that, as soon as the first shock was over, they shared the disastrous fate of the Resolution and Letitia. began, with one consent, to enjoy themselves, exulting in The Hope, which was standing in the water clear and the idea of being their own masters. Finding access, secure, was overwhelmed with such rapidity, that, in ten unfortunately, to considerable stores of wine and spirits, minutes, only the point of her maintop-gallant-mast was they began a course of too liberal indulgence.

The rugged seen above the ice.

surface of the Arctic deep was transformed into a gay “The tempest, on the 26th June, assailed also the scene of festivity. The clusters of tents with which it was Spencer and Lee, which bad penetrated farther north than covered, the various scenes of ludicrous frolic, the joyous any of the other vessels, having reached even the latitude of shouting of the British sailors, and the danges and songs of 76'deg. The Lee escaped with only a number of her tim- the French, suggested the idea of a large fair; some even bers shattered; but the Spencer, after a long and vigorous gave it the name of Batfin Fair. The Frenchmen are said resistance, had her hold burst open and filled with ice and to have declared that they had never been so happy in their water, so that she soon became a complete wreck. Sufti- whole lives. Excursions of considerable extent were made cient warning, however, had been given to enable the sailors over the ice from one party to another; a communication to lodge on the ice their most valuable effects. In this was even opened between the northern and southern devicinity, the William and Ann of Whitby, and the Dordon of Huil, were attacked at the same moment. The latter, fortunately, was raised up by the pressure of the ice into a

* The shipwreck of these vessels is well represented in a litho. safe position; but the William and Ann, being placed Zephyr of Huil." To this gentleman, as well as to Vi Alexander,

graphic print, from a drawing by Mr Laing, surgeou to the between opposite floes, was crushed to pieces so rapidly, surgeon of the Three Brothers of Dunder, we have to acknow that nothing could be saved out of her; and a boat, into ledge ourselves indebted for some useful information,

Yet we

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