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the whole, without hearing with patience and weighing with impar tiality the arguments and evidence of the party accused. To condemn unheard, is to condemn iniquitously, although the sentence may be merited.
But a candid investigation of the principles of the Roman Catholics would discover, amidst the fundamental and essential verities of our common faith, many superfluous and unprofitable doctrines; some indeed superstitious and unscriptural, but none, I will venture to assert, that disqualify them for acting their part in society, honorably and discreetly, whether in a public or private situation. Their errors it is our duty to combat, not by compul sion or menace, but by bringing to bear on them the improved philosophy of the age, and more especially the clear unclouded blaze of the Gospel. But to ensure a triumph over their errors, or to deserve it, we must persuade them by the arguments of kindness, and confound them by the unanswerable syllogisms of charity. Prove to them the evangelical tenor of your faith, by the purity of your principles, and the liberality of your conduct. Men who cannot reason, can feel; and if they cannot analyse your dialectics, they will love and imitate your practice.
Exact uniformity of faith, among all diversities of understandings, on matters so abstruse and comprehensive as theology, is not attainable. It is folly to expect it. But there is another and more excellent way, of which an inspired Apostle speaks, a bond of perfectness, capable, and at some future day, destined to unite the several members of the Christian Church in one concordant and harmonious body. This bond is Charity. This was the remedy St. Paul prescribed, as fit to compose the distractions of the infant church. Even he did not undertake to define his doctrines with such luminous precision, and self-evident simplicity, as to preclude diversity of conception, and erroneousness of interpretation, to faculties various and weak as ours. He, therefore, advised his spiritual children to think humbly of that knowlege which at best is imperfect, and which will be done away; and even to postpone the higher graces of faith and hope, to that last, best fruit of the Spirit, Charity. Be it the office of the ministers and members ofour vene ́rable establishment, to lead the van of that holy and heavenly host, on whose banner is read, On earth peace, good-will to man, the weapons of whose warfare are not carnal but spiritual. We have nothing to fear from the rivalry of any religious sect in these kingdoms. The ampleness of our endowments; the high rank and higher character of our dignitaries; the piety and learning of our ministers and people leave us nothing to apprehend from human competition. But let us not forget that all these external advantages avail us nothing, except we have the God of Jacob for our
defender, and our trust be in the Lord our God. In every conflict, religious ones more especially, the race is not to the swift, nor the battle to the strong, but to him who contends in the genuine armor of God, having on the breast-plate of righteousness, and his feet shod with the preparation of the gospel of peace.
Vain is our wealth, vain our learning, vainer still our rank and influence in the state, if these gifts are not tempered and sanctified by humility, moderation, and charity. Exterior distinctions in every religious establishment, if not held in subordination to the Almighty's will, and used in subservience to His glory, are worse than vain. They corrupt and they destroy. But why this severity of reproach? Why this bitterness of recrimination among Christian sects? Why this haste to pass judgment and do execution on our fellows, and anticipate the doom of Him who judgeth righteous judgment? While we are tearing and trampling each other, do we forget that the day is fast approaching, when every man's worke shall be made manifest, and the fire shall try it, and every man shall receive his own reward according to his own labor? Hushed, then, will be the voice of the disputant, and the clamor of the factious, and the shout of the triumphant, and the lament of the vanquished. Their voices only will be heard breathing the accents of praise, and hymning the gratulations of mutual joy (to whatever religious community they belonged), who have laid their work on the one sure foundation of Jesus Christ; and who have taken heed to build thereupon not wood or hay or stubble, the rank growth of factious zeal, and uncharitable knowlege, which the fire shall in a moment consume; but on that foundation of their faith have laid gold and silver and precious stones, the solid, brilliant, imperishable productions of piety and charity; for they shall pass through the furnace with undiminished substance and unsullied brightness, and shall shine as stars for ever in the presence of the Lord, and the firmament of his glory.
Relative to the State of the Nation, submitted to the
1. THAT the assertions made to this House by the Chancellor of the Exchequer on the 3d of March, 1823, that a reduction of 24,766,520. in the capital of the Public Debt had been effected by the operation of the Sinking Fund, from the termination of the war up to the 5th of January, 1823; and again on the 13th of March, 1826, that a further reduction of the Public Debt of 18,401,000%. had been effected between the 5th of January, 1829, and the 5th of January, 1826, making together a reduction of 43,167,520%. in the capital of the Public Debt since the termination of the war, are not consistent with the accounts before the House, as appears by the facts contained in the following resolution:
2. That it appears, by the annual Finance Accounts, the Public Debt of the United Kingdom, funded and unfunded, on the 5th of January, 1817 (after the union of the English and Irish Exchequers), was 846,765,078/.; and that on the 5th of January, 1826, the amount of funded and unfunded debt of the United Kingdom was 819,437,2987.; 2 showing a decrease, in the nominal amount of capital, of 27,327,7807.
3. That the diminution of 27,327,7807. in the aggregate amount of the capital of the Public Debt has been effected by a reduction of 18,072,0237. in the funded debt, and in a diminution of the unfunded debt of 9,255,7571.
1 Vide Resolutions 14 and 16 of Parliamentary Paper, No. 557, of 1822.
4. That of the 18,072,0231. of capitals of funded debt reduced in the nine years, 1817-25, there has been cancelled capitals to the amount of 6,934,2857.,' leaving only 11,137,758/. of funded, and 9,255,757. of unfunded debt, or an aggregate reduction of capital in the nine years of only 20,398,4951., effected by means of surplus revenue.
5. That the charge of the funded debt, as it stood on the 5th of January, 1817, was
And total reduction of annual charge for
£ 27,709,505 1,657,904
6. That out of the 2,985,757/., the total reduction of annual charge, as shown by the preceding resolution, the following re
' Vide Appendix F.
2 Vide Resolution 16, Parliamentary Paper, No. 557, of 1822.
✦ Vide Appendix G.
duction has taken place without any reference to the surplus revenue, or proceeds of loans; viz.In 1819, Imperial Annuities expired Exchequer ditto ditto
Long Annuities cancelled for
In 1822, by conversion of 5 per Cents.
into 4 per Cents.
In 1824, ditto of 4 per Cents. into 31 do.
And dividends on capitals cancelled
Total reduction of charge on the funded
debt 7. That the total amount of the revenue of the United Kingdom, received in the nine years, 1817-1825 (and exclusive of all sums received for loans or dead weight), was 531,266,5351., and the total amount of expenditure, including every charge for interest of debt, and civil and military establishments in the same period (exclusive only of payments to the commissioners of the sinking fund), was 508,309,6147.,3 showing a clear surplus of revenue of 22,956,9227.,+ which, with the sums paid by Austria and the East India Company, make an amount of money of 25,965,539/. disposable for the redemption of debt, exclusive of 6,917,569., received from the Bank of England in the three years, 1822-25, in part payment of an annuity of 585,740%. for 45 years.
1 Vide Resolutions, No. 4.
6 Vide Parliamentary Paper, No. 300, 1826.
8. That the balance of all monies in the Exchequer on the 5th of January, 1817, amounted to And, on the 5th of January, 1826, amounted to
Showing a decrease of
which has also been applicable to the reduction of the public debt, in addition to the surplus of revenue, as stated in the preceding resolution.
9. That although there has been in these nine years an excess
* Vide col. 1. of Appendix C.