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beauty, according to Anacreon, is to woman, courtesy, according to everybody, is to Lord Eldon : to armor of all sorts-offensive as well as defensive-a matchless and most advantageous substitute. With the exception of those, whom, while doubting, he is ruining, and, without knowing anything of the matter, plundering,—this it is that keeps everybody in good humor : everybody— from My Lord Duke down to the Barrister's servant-clerk. Useful here, useful there, useful everywhere,-of all places, it is in the Cabinet that it does Knights' service. It is the Court sticking-plaister, which, even when it fails to heal, keeps covered all solutions of continuity : it is the Grand Imperial cement, which keeps political corruption from dissolving in its own filth. Never (said somebody once), never do I think of Lord Eldon or Lord Sidmouth, but I think of the aphorism of Helvetius-Celui qui n'a ni honneur ni humeur est un Courtisan parfait.

When this virtue of the Noble and Learned Lord's has received its homage, the rest may be most effectually and instructively made known by their fruits. These fruits will be his res gesta : exploits-performed throughout, or in the course of, his four-andtwenty years' dominion over the fields of judicature and legislation. Enterprises consummated-enterprises in progress-measures not originating with him, but taken up by him and improved-exploits performed by his own hands-exploits performed by the hands of his creatures, or other instruments ;-under one or more of these heads, were any such exactness worth the space and trouble, would some of these exploits be to be entered,-under another or others, others. But forasmuch as all judicial censure is altogether out of the question, and the space and research necessary for such distinctions altogether unaffordable, they must unavoidably be omitted. Under each head, it will be for the reader, from what he has seen or heard, or may choose to see or hear, to consider whether, and, if yes, how far, the imputation attaches. To improve on these hastily collected hints, and complete the investigation, would, if performed by a competent hand, assuredly be a most interesting as well as useful work.

1. Nipping in the bud the spread of improvement over the habitable globe, ruining fortunes by wholesale, and involving in alarm and insecurity a vast proportion of the vast capital of the country, by wantonly scattered doubts, leaving the settlement of them to a future contingent time that may never come.'

Of this broadcast dissemination of uncertainty, one obvious cause may naturally be found in the profit made in the two great shops--the Private Act of Parliament Shop and the Charter Shop, in which the right of associating

2. Rendering all literary property dependent on his own inscrutable and uncontrolable will and pleasure.

3. Establishing a censorship over the press, under himself, with his absolute and inscrutable will, as censor : inviting, after publication with its expense has been completed, applications to himself for prohibition, with profit to himself in these, as in all other instances.

4. Leaving the line of distinction between cases for open and cases for secret judicature, for so long as there is any, at all times dependent on his own inscrutable and uncontrovertible will and pleasure, establishing and continually extending the practice of covering his own proceeding with the cloak of secrecy.

5. Rivetting, on the neck of the people, the continually pinching yoke of an aristocratical magistracy, by rendering all relief at the hands of the Chancellor as hopeless, as, by artificial law expenses and participation in sinister interest and prejudice, it has been rendered, at the hands of the Judge.

6. On pretence of heterodoxy, by ex post facto law, made by a single Judge for the purpose, -divesting parents of the guardianship of their own children.

for mutually beneficial purposes is sold at so enormous a price,—for the benefit of men, by whom nothing but obstruction, in this and other shapes, is contributed

Wheresoever, in the case of a public functionary, remuneration wears the shape of fees, there, abuse in every shape is sure to have place. Not only in judicial offices so called, but in all offices whatsoever, such cases excepted, if any, in which for special adequate cause special exception can be shown, salary should be substituted for fees.

In the case of patents for invention, exactiou in this shape has swelled to an enormous magnitude. Justice, in the shape of reward for inventive genius, denied to the relatively poor, that is to say, to probably the far greater number; sold at an enormous price to the relatively rich : all inventions,—the authors of which are not themselves rich enough to carry them through, nor able to find a capitalist to join with them, -nipt in the bud. Official men, lawyers and non-lawyers in swarms, who contribute nothing but obstruction, murdering invention thus in the cradle, ravish from genius its reward, and in case of failure aggravate the pressure of ill success. To see the use of matchless constitution, on this occasion, compare the price paid by inventive genius for this security, in the United Siates and in France. Note, that on these occasions, that plunderage may be tripled, the three kingdoms are disunited.

In all, or most of these cases, Lord Eldon, after having had a little finger in the pie when Attorney-General, has a finger and thumb in it now that he is Chancellor : adding to the pleasure of licking in the sweets, the gratification of obstructing improvement--called for this purpose innovation.

A set of motions, calling for returns of these several sources, and of the masses of emolument derived from each by the several functionaries, could scarcely be negatived.

7. Injecting into men's minds the poison of insincerity and hypocrisy, by attaching to pretended misdeeds, sufferings, from which, by an unpunishable and unprovable, though solemn act of insincerity, the supposed misdoer may, in every case, with certainty exempt himself.

8. In all manner of shapes, planting or fixing humiliation and anxiety in the breasts of all, who, on points confessedly too obscure for knowlege, oppose him, or refuse to join with' him, in the profession of opinions, in relation to which there is no better evidence of their being really his, than the money and power he has obtained by the profession of them.

9. Pretending to establish useful truth by the only means by which success to pernicious falsehood can ever be secured. Proclaiming, in the most impressive manner, the falsehood and mischievousness of every thing that is called religion,—by punishing, or threatening to punish, whatsoever is said in the way of controverting the truth or usefulness of it.

Questions allowed to be put to a proposed witness. Do you believe in the existence of a God? If he, who does not believe, answers that he does, —thus answering falsely, he is received: if his answer be, that he does not believe-speaking thus truly, he is rejected of course.

It is by exploits such as this, that rise has been given to this appalling question-“Which, in the capacity of a proposed wilness, is most truseworthy--the Christian, Priest or Layman, who, for a series of years, has never passed a day without the commission of perjury,-or the Atheist, who —when at the instance of Lord Eldon, or any one of his creatures in the situation of Judge, interrogated as to what he believes--submits to public ignominy, rather than defile himself with that abomination in so much as a single instance ? Christians ! such of you as dare, think of this and tremble !

Question, as to this virtual Statute, the source and seat of which is in the breast of Lord Eldon :-if this is not a subornation of perujry, what is or can be? Lord Elon-is his mind's eye really so weak, as, throughout the whole field of legislation, to be kept by words from seeing things as they are ? * Decide who can, and give to head or heari,—sometimes to the one perhaps, sometimes to the other,-the credit of this blindness.

* As to the constant and all-pervading halit of perjury, see “ Sweur not at all.For cleansing judicature of this abomination, a not unpromising course is in the power of individuals. Any suitor, who sees a witness of whose testimony he is apprehensive-if the witness belongs to any of the classes in question, let his counsel have in hand a copy of the statutes in question, asking him whether he did not swear observance to every one of these statutes, and whether, in the breach of this or that article, he did not constantly live : on denial, he will be indictable for perjury: op admission, it will be a question whether he can be heard.

Lord Eldon ! did you never take that oath ? Lord Eldon! did you never violate it? Think of this, Lord Eldon !- Mr. Peel ! did you never take that oath ? Mr. Peel! did you never violate it? Think of tbis, Mr. Peel !

10. Bearding Parliament, by openly declaring its incapacity to render unpunishable anything to which the Judges, with the words Common Law in their mouths, shall have been pleased to attach punishment, or take on them to punish :thus, by the assumed authority of himself, and those his creatures, keeping men under the rod of punishment for habits of action, which, in consideration of their innoxiousness, had by Parliament been recently exempted from it: as if Parliament had not exempted men from declared and limited, but for the purpose of subjecting them to unconjecturable and unlimited punishment. Witness the Unitarians, and all others, who will not, at his command thus signified, defile themselves with insincerity to purchase the common rights of subjects.

11. Doing that which even Parliament would not dare to do, and because Parliament would not dare to do it: doing it, with no other warrant, than this or that one of a multitude of words and phrases, to which one import as well as another may be assigned at pleasure. Witness libel, blasphemy, malice, contra bonos mores, conspiracy, Christianity is part and parcel of the law of the land : converting thus at pleasure into crimes any the most perfectly innoxious acts, and even meritorious ones : substituting thus to legislative definition and prohibition an act of ex post facto punishment, which the most consummate legal knowlege would not have enabled a man to avoid, and as to which, in many an instance, perhaps, it was not intended that it should be avoided.

'But Parliament-contempts of its authority all the while thus continually repeated—what does it say to them? Say to them? why nothing at all to be sure : Cabinet, by which the wires of Parliament are moved, desires no better sport. Chancellor,-by whom the wires of Cabinet are moved, and by whom the acts of contempt are committed or procured, looks on and laughs in his sleeve. ,

Contempt of Parliament indeed! Parliament desires no better than to be thus contemned : and, to be assured of this, observe whether, of the indications given in these pages, it will suffer any, and what use to be made. Contempt of Parliament! Why, all this is the work of Parliament itself. That which, with its own forms, it could not do without a world of trouble --what it might even be afraid to doma(for, where guilt abounds, so does cowardice)-it does by simple connivance, without a particle of trouble. But why talk of fear? On each occasion, whatever is to be done, the object with all concerned is to have it done with least trouble to themselves. By the hand of a Judge, those by whom Parliament is governed do, without any trouble, that which without trouble in abundance could not be done by the hand of Parliament.

In flash language, Common Law-in honest English, Judge-made Law-is an instrument, that is to say, Judges are instruments-for doing the dirty work of Parliament: for doing in an oblique and clandestine way, that which Parliament would at least be ashamed to do in its own open way.

All this—which, under a really existing constitution, grounded on the greatest-happiness-principle, would furnish matter for impeachment on impeachment,- furnishes, under the imaginary matchless one, matter of triumph, claim to reward, and reward accordingly.

12. Poisoning the fountain of history, by punishing what is said of a departed public character on the disapproving side-while, for evidence and argument on the approving side, an inexhaustible fund of reward is left open to every eye: thus, by suppression, doubling the effect of subornation of evidence. This by the hand of one of his creatures: his own hand, without the aid of that other, not reaching quite far enough.

The title Master of the Abuses which occurs in page 49, may perhaps have been thought to require explanation. It was suggested by that of Master of the Revels, coupled with the idea of the enjoyments in which he and his have for so many years been seen revelling by the exercise given to the functions of it.

The Mastership of the Revels being abolished, or in disuse,--the Mastership of the Abuses appears to have been silently substituted; and Lord Eldon presents himself as having been performing the functions of the office, as yet without a salary : with his Masters in Chancery, serving under him in the corresponding capacity, and on the same generous footing, on the principle of the unpaid Magistracy. A subject for calculation might be at what anno domini, the business of all the denominated

Offices, possessed by those Masters and their Grand Master respectively, will have been brought into the state, into which, under his Lordship's management, that of the Sir Clerks has already been brought, together with that of the Six Offices, with which the future services of his Honorable Son have been so nobly and generously remunerated ? -at what halcyon period these offices will, with the rest, have been sublimated into sinecures, and the incumbents apotheosed into so many Dii majorum, or Dii minorum gentium of the Epicurean heaven?

Nor, for the allotment of these parts, is any such labor as that of concert or direction necessary. Nothing does the purpose require that an English Judge should do, more than what in his situation human nature and habit effectually insure his doing : giving, on every occasion, to his own arbitrary power every possible extent, by all imaginable means. While this is going on, so long as what he does suits the purposes of his superiors, it is regarded of course with that approbation of which their silence is such perfectly conclusive evidence. On the other hand (to suppose, for argument sake, an effect without a cause), should he ever in any the smallest degree obstruct their purposes, any the least hint would suffice to stop him. What could any Judge do-what could even Lord Eldon hope to do—against the will of Monarchy and Aristocracy in Parliament?

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