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SIR JOHN MA'
BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCHES OF THE AUTHORS, SELECTIONS FROM THEIR
DESIGNED AS A TEXT-BOOK POR THE HIGHEST CLASSES IN SCHOOLS AND POR JUNIOR CLASSES IN
COLLEGES, AS WELL AS FOR PRIVATE READING.
CHARLES D. CLEVELAND.
A. 8. BARNES & CO.
Educatia Aiytiate moru
I OF CLASSICAL
the acknowledged Standard wherever this refining study is pursued.
PROF. JAMES R. BOYD'S WORKS.
COMPOSITION, LOGIC, LITERATURE, RHETORIC, CRITICISM,
BIOGRAPIY;--POETRY, AND PROSE.
BOYD'S COMPOSITION AND RHETORIC.
Remarkable for the space and attention given to grammatical principles, to af. ford a substantial groundwork; also for the admirable treatment of synonym, figurative language, and the sources of argunent and illustration, with notable exercises for preparing the way to poetic composition.
BOYD'S ELEMENTS OF LOGIC
explains, first, the conditions and processes by which the mind receives ideas, and then unfolds the art of reasoning, with clear directions for the establishment and confirmation of sound judgment. A thoroughly practical treatise, being a systematic and philosophical condensation of all that is known of the subject.
BOYD'S KAMES' CRITICISM.
This standard work, as is well known, treats of the faculty of perception, and the result of its exercise upon the tastes and emotions. It may therefore be termed a Compendium of Aesthetics and Natural Morals; and its use in refining the mind and heart has made it a standard text-book.
BOYD'S ANNOTATED ENGLISH CLASSICS.
Pollok's Course of Time.
In six cheap volumes. The service done to literature, by Prof. Boyd's Annotstions upon these standard writere, can with difficulty be estimated. Line by line their expressions and ideas are analyzed and discussed, until the best comprehension of the powerful use of language is obtained by the learner.
Entered according to Act of Congress in the year 1848, by
CHARLES DexTER CLEVELAND,
o'S ENG. LIT.
Tas following work is, perhaps, as much the offspring of necessity, as of a love for the subject. In 1834, very soon atler I opened my School for Young Ladies in this city, I felt greatly the want of a book to give my first or "finishing" class a knowledge of the best British Poets and Prose writers, arranged in a chronological order, to show the progress of the English language, with short accounts of the authors and of their works, and such notes as would direct the reader to the best editions of the writers, to the various criticisms upon them, and to other books upon kindred subjects which might be read with profit. But such a work I could not find. Accordingly, in 1838, I printed, solely for the use of my pupils, a small syllabus of the names of most of the British authors, with the dates of their birth and death, arranged under the different sovereigns. From this syllabus I delivered a series of lectures, from time to time, until I had gone through the reign of Elizabeth, when I determined, about four years ago, to prepare, as soon as I could, a gyork like the present. But numerous avocations have, until now, prevented me from completing my design. •
I have felt it to be a duty to myself to give this brief history of my book, !est it stiould be supposed that the hint of it was taken from Chambers': *Cyclopedia of English Literature," recently reprinted in this country. On the contrary, it is apparent, that, years before that work was published, I had matured the plan of this, and had gathered materials for it. Besides, the
Cyclopedia," excellent as it is, is on a different plan, and far too voluminous for the object for which the “Compendium” is intended: yet the two, so far from conflicting with each other, may be mutual aids; for I should hope that uy own work would give the reader a greater longing to extend his inqui. ries into the same most interesting subject-one so rich in every thing that can refine the taste, enlarge the understanding, and improve the heart.
lo making selections for my work, I have not been prevented from insert. ing many pieces because they had previously been selected by others; for I did not deem myself to be wiser, or to possess a better taste, than hundreds who have gleaned from the same rich field. Hence, while much, to the generality of readers, will be new, some extracts may also be found that will be fainiliar. But, like old friends, their re-appearance, I hope, will be bailed with pleasure. Besides, I have constantly endeavored to bear in mind a truth, which even those engaged in education may sometimes forget, that what is well known to us, must be new to every successive generation; and, therefore, that all books of selections designed for them, should contain a portion of such pieces as all of any pretensions to taste have united to admire. Milton's "Invocation to Light," Pope's “ Messial," Goldsmith's “ Village Pastor," and Gray's “Elegy" are illustrations of my meaning.
But if any one should miss some favorite piece, let him reflect that I could not put in every thing, and be assured that often, very often I have felt no little pain in being compelled, from my narrow limits, to reject pieces of acknowledged beauty and merit. Let him but propose to himself, too, the task of bringing the beauties of English Literature into a duodecimo of seven hundred pages, and I am sure he will be little inclined to censure my defi. ciencies. I say not this to deprecate criticism. On the contrary, I invite it, and shall be glad to have all the faults in the work--both of omission and commission--faithfully pointed out.
In the preparation and execution of this work, I trust I have not been in mindful of the great, the solemn responsibility that rests upon him who is preparing a book which may form the taste, direct the judgment, and mould the opinions of thousands of the rising generation; and I hope and pray that it may contain not one line, original or selected, which can have the least injurious effect upon a single mind; not one line which, - dying, I might wish to blot,"—but that on the contrary, it may render good service to the cause of sound education: may exert, wherever read, a wholesome moral influence; and impress upon the minds of the young, principles essential to their well-being and happiness for time and for eternity-principles in harmony with everlasting truth.
CHARLES D. CLEVELAND. Puiladelphia, November 2, 1847.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION.
THou or it is but ten months since the first edition of fifteen hundred copies of the “Compendium" was published, it is now exhausted. For the great favor with which it has been received, I am truly grateful, and havo felt that I could return my thanks in no way more suitable than by endeavoring to make the second edition (now to be in a permunent form) as much better as my experience in the use of the first edition, further reading and research, and the suggestions of many literary friends would enable me to do. Accordingly, the present stereotyped edition will be found to be considerably enlarged, and I would hope materially improved. To state all the additions, however, would be impracticable in the limits of a preface. I must therefore confine myself to the most important.
First. There are in this edition, numerically, seventy-six more pages than in the first; but owing to a trifling enlargement of the page, and to the notes being printed in a smaller type, there are, at least, one hundred and fifty more pages of the same size and type as the first edition. Yet for all this, no advance in the price is contemplated by the publishers.
Second. Thirty-five new authors have been added; they are the following: Joh» Gower, James I. of Scotland, John Still, Queen Elizabeth, Sir Thomas Overbury, Francis Beaumont, Lady Elizabeth Carey, Jolin Fletcher, John Donne, Michael Drayton, George Herbert, Gervase Markham, William Hahington, Richard Lovelace, Catherine Philips, Sir William Davenan, Margaret Duchess of Newcastle, Edward Hyde Earl of Clarendon, Owen Felltham Robert Leighton, Anne Killegrew, Henry Vaughan, Anne Finch, Estl.er Van bomrigh, George Sewell, John Arbuthnot, Elizabeth Rowe, Thomas Yalden Elizabeth Tollet, Lady Montagu, Catherine Talbot, Thomas Chatterton, Tobia Smollet, Mrs. Greville, William Piti Earl of Chatham.
Third. Many new selections will be found from the prose writings of the poets given in the first edition from Chaucer, Wyatt, South well, Spenser, Šandys, Gay, Gray, Cowper, and Sir William Jones. These, with the prose selections from other poets previously given, will fully substantiate tie remark of Sir Egerton Brydges, that our best poets will loo found to have equally excelled in proso.
Faurh. Many more specimens of the English female mind will be found in this edition. The reader, howcver, must bear in mind that the most dis tingiushed female writers of England have been during the present century, ini which it was not my purpose to enter.
Fifth. This edition will be found to be enriched also with many more specimens of epistolary correspondence-not only the most interesting porbons of an author's writings, as they show us more plainly the workings of his heart; but the most permanently valuable, serving as models in that branch of literature with which every one must, more or less, be practically conversant The letters of Wyatt, Temple, Gay, Gray, Pope; Montagu, Jones, and Cowper, will, I am sure, be considered as adding much to the value of the “Compendium."
The changes that have been made in a few of the authors were not made without substantial reasons, which I think it proper concisely to state.-MORE. The previous account of the Utopia was too meagre to give a correct idea of it; and there were some points in the author's life that deserved to be brought out, to do justice to his character.-MARLOW. The beautiful song, “The Passionate Shepherd to his Love," is now printed as found in Sir Egerton Brydges's elegant edition of Sir Walter Raleigh's Poems, which I took the pains to procure, though but one hundred copies of it were printed. It is now, doubtless, correct; and who will not be struck with its superior beauty ?-SOUTH WELL. One of his poems I had to omit, to make room for some of his equally charming prose.--ENGLISH MinstexLSY. The changing of the ballad of the - Demon Lover," for the longer and far richer one of “ Sir Patrick Spens,' every one must deem an improvement.-TrangLATION OF THE BIBLE. The account of the most important versions of the Bible is now given, chronologically arranged, with some additional remarks on the value of our present version.-SAAKSPEARE “Othello's Defence," being more common, is left out for two choice extracts that are less known.-SIB Walter RALEIGH. More change has been made in this author than in any other, as I was able to procure a copy of Sir E. Brydges's edition of his works. “The Nymph's Reply” is now printed correctly, and every one must see its greater beauty. The “Soul's Errand" is given to him for reasons stated in the note under the piece.-Ben Jonson. An additional piece of poetry and of prose. GEORGE SANDYS. An extract from the Preface to his travels.-CRASHAW. A portion of his spirited version of the twenty-third Psalm.-JEREMY TATLOR. Instead of the “ Ephesian Woman," will be found those most instructive reinarks, “What is Life ?"-Milton. Considerable change will be found in this author. I was very desirous to give one of his poetical pieces entire, and selected his “ Lycidas," which, of all his minor pieces, ranks next in merit to “Comus." This obliged me to throw out the extracts from " L'Allegro," and " Il Penseroso," and two extracts from “Paradise Lost." I regretted the loss of these the less, as they are more generally known. I also added two extracts from " Paradise Regained,” and another of his exquisite “Sonnets." The extracts, also, from Dr. Symmons's and from Sir E. Brydges's Life of this greatest of great men," will be deemed choice ad.titions.-ANDREW MARVELL. His “Song of the Emigrants” is now printed fron the best edition of his works: the alterations, though trifling in nunber, are certainly for the better.—SAMUEL BUTLER. This was one author from whom I thought I could take two pages, without much loss.-Walton. The ad litions from this author will, I am sure, be considered an improveinent. DREDEN. Instead of the Character of Shaftesbury," the reader will find the beautiful Ode to the Memory of Mrs. Anne Killegrew," and an adeli. tional extract from his prose works: his remarks on Spenser and Milton I have left out, as they are hardly worthy of his genius. ADDISON. To tho ex•