« 上一頁繼續 »
NO. 55.- Body of a dead bishop lying' in state. When a bishop has deceased, his body is sprinkled with holy water, after which it is washed with wine and warm water. He is then dressed in his episcopal vestments, and it an archbishop, in his pall, when he shall be laid on a bed of state, with four or six lighted tapers standing round it, his pontifical hat shall be laid upon him near the feet. At the foot of the bed, a little cupboard must be set, on which two lighted tapers, the vessel of holy water, the sprinkler, the mass book, the navicula thurrible, surplice, stole, and black chasuble must be set. The clergy, both secular and regular, must come and sing the office of the deceased prelate, standing round his corpse; sprinkle with holy water, incense it, &c. This ceremony is performed by several detached bodies: for first, part of the clergy adFance forward, in order to sing vespers near the corpse; these draw off, and are succeeded by others, who come and chant mattins; and a third detachment comes and sings laudes. As to the interment of a bishop; he is carried to the Church, the bell tolling all the while, and the clergy walking before in a body. The corpse is carried on the shoulders of the priests, the chief citizens follow after, and the burial concludes as usual.
NO. 56 and 57.-Manner of carrying the Host when the Pope travels. The two engravings, 56 and 57 represent the different modes of carrying the holy sacrament betore the pope-the one on horseback-the other in a kind of litter between two mules. Several instances of the host going before the pope are recorded, but none can enter into comparison with the pomp with which it was carried into Ferrara in 1598. When about to enter that city, it was placed in the center of the procession. The pope's chief treasurer had bags fixed on each side of his saddle, out of which he ihrew money to the people. After the treasurer, came thirty youths of the highest quality in Ferrara, walking on foot bare-headed, dressed in cloth of silver, with little black cloaks, embroidered with silk, and caps in their hands, enriched with golden roses, pearls and precious stones. After this shining troop, came Pope Clement himself, clothed in a robe of very rich silk, and having on his head a crown enriched with jewels of immense value. He was carried on the shoulders of eight tall lacqueys, clothed in long scarlet robes, under a canopy of the finest crimson velvet, embroidered with gold, surrounded with a double range of guards very richly dressed, and followed by his Swiss, and an auditor of the rota, who carried his triple crown after him, having on each side of him the great chamberlain, and the chief butler. A great number of coaches and horsemen followed. During the whole march, the faithful sung anthems and motets, repeated prayers, made signs of the cross, and gave and received blessings. In a word, they practised all the exterior tokens of devotion. They marched very slowly, and the clergy both secular and regular, in all the places through which the procession passed in the night-time, advanced to meet them, with a body of the militia at their head. After the clergy, came the magistrates, and other persons of distinction; and at the entrance into the city, the trumpets sounded, and the air echoed with spiritual songs, whilst the people crowded from all parts to come and adore the Host.People of the highest rank, at the same time, strove who should first present his boliness with the canopy.
NO. 58.-Baptism. This engraving represents the baptism of an infant, which is conducted in the following manner. The company, with the child, wait without the church door. The priest, having previously prepared, by due consecration, water and all the other materials to be used in the ceremony, goes to the door and enquires, who is there? The godfather in the name of the child, answers, Stephen such an one. The priest asks, what he wants? the godfather tells him, to be admitted into the church. The priest demands, what end he proposes in coming into the church? He is answered, to obtain salvatod. Then the priest exorcises the infant, and the devil is solemnly adjured to depart, and never to return. Next, he puts salt into the mouth of the infant; Signs him with the sign of the cross on several parts of his body; and with spittle on his finger touches his nostrils and his ears, pronouncing at each
part, sentences, prayers, and benedictions. All this is performed in the porch. Then the priest gives the godfather hold of the bottom of his surplice, and turning him about introduces him in that manner into the church, saying as he walks, “Enter into the church of God, that you may partake of eternal life with Christ.” At the font, the godfather renounces Saran, professes his belief of the articles of the creed; and on being asked whether he desires to be baptized, answers he does desire it. Then the priest takes the child, if he dips him, and immerses him once in the font, pronouncing the baptismal words. If he pours water on his head, the godfather holds the babe bare-headed over the font, and the priest pours on the water. Rituals differ: but an old ritual of Venice seems to speak the general sense, when it says; “Let the priest baptize him in the name of the Holy Trinity by trine immersion; or according to the custom of the country or place, let him pour water on the head.” Then the priest anoints him with chrism, and in some places puts on him a white garment, and gives a lighted wax taper into the hand of the godfather, who all along is considered as the representative of the child.
NO. 59.- The Communion. This engraving represents a priest administering the bread in the Eucharist to the laity. Before he gives it to any one, he makes the sign of the cross with the host upon him and then puts it to his mouth, observing not to take away his hand till the communicant has fairly received it. If by chance the smallest piece should fall on the ground, it must be taken up in the most respectful manner, and the place on which it fell must be covered, for fear of treading upon the least particle of it; they must afterwards scrape the floor, and throw the shavings into the sacristy; and wash the place very clean: if it should happen to fall upon the napkin, or the veil, &c. such parts of it must be washed, and the water thrown into the sacristy; if it fall on the vestments of the officiating priest, the part must be observed, and afterwards washed.
NO. 60.- The Viaticum. The blessed sacrament is sometimes administered as a viaticum, or provision for a journey to those whose life is in danger.-The priest having arrived with the host, as he enters the sick man's apartment he says, “peace be to this house:" then he goes to the the table, and deposits the host. This being done, he and every person present, worship the host; he then sprinkles the sick person, and also the room; during which anthems are sung and prayers are repeated suitable to the occasion. After this, he opens the viborum, takes out a consecrated wafer with the thumb and forefinger of his right hand, observing to hold it a little aloft over the top of the viborum, which he holds in his left hand, and turning about, advances towards the sick man, in order to administer the sacrament to him. This is followed by prayers, but if the sick person be just expiring these are omitted.
NO. 61.--Confession. In this engraving is represented the manner in which confession is practised in the Roman Catholic Church. The confessor must have a surplice over his cassock, with a purple stole, and square cap; he must hear confession in the church, and at that part of it, which is the most distant from the high altar, i. e. at the bottom of the nave, being the most exposed to the view of the people, in the confessional or confession-chair, which is the tribunal of penance. The confessional must be open before, and have one or two lattice-windows in it. Opposite to the penitent is placed an image of the crucifix, or some mystery of the passion. Confession must be made in the daytime, and, if possible, when there are people in the church. As soon as the penitent is come up to the confessional, he must make the sign of the cross and ask the confessor's blessing. The confessor must then be seated, his body upright, his cap on his head, his face covered, and his ear stopped towards the penitent. The penitent should be generally kneeling, and his or her hands clasped.
NO. 62.-Extreme Unction. Extreme Unction is administered in manner following: the priest dips the thumb of his right hand into the oils of the infirm; he anoints in the form of a cross, and pronounces some words suitable to the anointing of each part; whilst the clerk lights him with a consecrated taper, and holds a basin in a dish, in which the pieces of cotton are laid. The priest begins by anointing the right eye, observing that the eye-lid is shut; he best anoints the left eye and in the mean while repeats words: May God by this holy anointing, and by his most pious mercy, pardon you the sins you have coffritted by the eyes. If the priest be accompanied by a clergyman, who is in holy orders, he must wipe the part which has been anointed, otherwise the priest must wipe it himself. The eyes being anointed, he proceeds to the ears, observing to repeat the proper form of words. After the ears, he anoints the nostrils, but not the tip of the nose. He afterwards proceeds to the mouth, and anoints the lips, the mouth being shut. He anoints the hands in the manner above mentioned ; then he proceeds to the soles of the feet, and afterwards ad-, vances upward to the reins, but this for men only ; nor are they anointed in this part, but when they can be easily turned in their beds, or be laid down in them without danger. The anointing being ended, the priest rubs those fingers which have touched the oil, and afierwards washes his hands. The crumbs of bread, with which he rubbed his fingers, and the water with which he washed them must be thrown into the fire. The pieces of cotton that have been employed in anointing, are carried into the church, where they are burnt and the ashes are thrown into the sacrarium. The anointing being ended, the priest repeats some prayers, which are followed by an exhortation to the sick; after which the priest goes away, leaving a crucifix with the sick person, in order that the representation of his dying Savior may administer some consolation to him.
NO. 63.-A Penitent about to be clo!hed with a hair shirt. When a peni tent desires to confess his offences publicly with a view to absolution, he goes to the church where he kneels before the penitentiary or priest, and implores with a loud voice, that his sins may be forgiven him: the priest answers him by a short remonstrance, and enjoins him such penance as he thinks proper. The Romish pontifical says that the penitent must be clothed in a hair shirt, which is a kind of garment made of goats-hair; this the penitent must wear next his skin, the better to mortify himself.
NO. 61.- Penitents standing at the gate of the Church. Having received the garment of goats-hair, as poticed in our explanation of the engraving, No. 63, the priest orders him to go out of the Church, after which prayers are offered for him. The priest then takes the penitent by the right hand, or in case there be several, he takes the first so, and the other penitents take each other by the hand. In this manner they are led to the Church door, where the priest says to them, “you are turned out of the Church for the sins you have committed, in the same manner, as Adam our first parent was driven from paradise, because of his disobedience." Here the penitents remain with unlighted tapers, till they have completed the penance enjoined.
NO. 65.—The Penitent led into the Church. When the prayers which in the mean time, are offered, are ended, the priest goes to the Church door, and makes a long exhortation to the penitents, at the close of which he takes them by the hand, and conducts them into the Church. In case the penitents have been excommunicated, the priest before he re-unites them to the body of the faithful, sets down, puts on his cap, and repeats the Miserere; the penitent being at his feet, the congregation upon their knees, and the clergy standing. At every rerse of the Miserere, the priest strikes the excommunicated penitent on the shoulder, with a little stick, or whip made of cords. The Roman ritual and the pontifical ordain, that the penitent, who is absolved in this manner shall be stripped of his shirt, as low as his shoulders. The priest then asks the penitent the occasion of his coming hither, and after that says to hiin, Receive the sign of the cross of Christ and Christianity, which thou hadst borne befor
renounced by the error, into which thou didst unhappily fall. This ceremony as all the preceding, must be followed by some prayers; and afterwards the litanies are to be sung, the people being upon their knees.
NO. 66.-E.xcommunication with unlighted tapers. This engraving represents that kind of Excommunication, which is performed with unlighted candles. This formidable excommunication is preceded by the anathema, by which the person excommunicated is threatened with torments, both in this life and in that which is to come; is delivered up to satan, separated from civil society, and in a word, completely oppressed; which is the reason why it is compared to thunder. When the pope is about to fulminate this solemn excommunication, he goes up to the high altar, with all the air of an excommunicator, and accompanied with twelve cardinal priests, all of them having lighted tapers in their hands, he then sits down on the pontifical seat placed before the high altar, and from thence thunders out his anathemas. Sometimes a deacon, clothed in a black dalmatica, goes up into the pulpit, and publishes this anathema with a loud voice; in the mean time, the bells ring a kind of knell, as for deceased persons, for the excommunicated person is looked upon as dead with regard to the Church. After the anathema, every one cries thrice with a loud voice, fiat or so be it: at the same time, the pope and cardinals throw their lighted candles upon the ground, and the acolyths tread them under their feet. After this the sentence of excommunication, and the name of the person excommunicated, are set up in public, in order that no one may have any further communication with him.
NO. 67.-Reconciliation of a heretic.- When an excommunicated person gives tokens of a sincere repentance, he must take a new oath of fealty, incur the penalties inflicted on him, and make such satisfaction as may be necessary. He first falls prostrate on his knees, when the seven penitential Psalms are sung; and after having been brought into the Church, he falls on his knees a second time, at the foot of the altar, to which he is conducted by the person, who reconciles him to the Church. The latter goes up to the altar, and turning himself towards the person reconciled, offers up a prayer to God in his favor, and signs him with a sign of the cross. Whenever an heretic, an infidel, or an apostate, are reconciled to the Church, before they are received into it, the pope, or the person who performs the ceremony of reconciliation, asks him the occasion of his coming thither, observing to say to him, receire the sign of Christ and of Christianily, which thou hast borne before, but which the error into which thou didst unhappily fall hath made thee lose. He then conducts him to the altar, where he examines him a second time concerning the articles of the Christian faith; and the rest of the ceremony concludes as usual. If the person so reconciled has taught any heresies or errors, he is obliged to abjure them in a solemn manner.
NO.68.- Exposure of the corpse at the house door. This cut represents a funeral, as solemnized at Paris. Several children of the hospital of foundlings are seen at the head of the procession, with each a taper in his hand, and afterwards the cross bearer, and next the clergy, all of them carrying lighted tapers. The officiating priest walks last. The corpse follows immediately after the clergy. Several children walk on each side of it. Then come the relations of the deceased with long mourning cloaks, afterwards the friends, and lastly, all who had any esteem for the deceased. As to the mourning, a son or next heir was clothed with a long black, or very dark grey robe.
NO. 69.-Offering of bread and wine at the mass for the dead. In performing the service of the dead, the corpse, if the deceased was a clergyman is set in the choir; but in the nave, if a layman. The officiating clergy, cross, bearers, &c., place themselves in order, upon which the office of the dead is said, and afterwards mass, if the time will permit, with the ceremonies suitable in the masses of the dead, one of which is represented in the cut. Various services follow, which our limits do not allow us to describe.
NO. 70.-Funeral procession. W hen the preceding services are ended, the corpse is carried to the grave in funeral procession, which corresponds to the order observed when the corpse was removed from the house to the Church.
NO. 71.-Corpse in the Church. This represents the corpse in the Church, for the purpose of having the funeral service read over it, and mass celebrated.
NO. 72.-Sprinkling holy water upon the coffin in the grave. When the procession has reached the grave, the whole company pull off their hats and draw up much in the same order as at Church. The hearers lay the corpse near the grave, with its feet turned towards the east, it being affirmed that Jesus CHRisT was buried in that manner. If the corpse be buried in the Church, its feet must be turned towards the altar; but those of priests must have their heads turned in a contrary direction. After the body has been laid on the brink of the grave, the officiating priest blesses it by a prayer, in which he makes the general commemoration of the dead, who have been interred therein. The prayer being ended, he again sprinkles and incenses the body, and also the grave thrice. He afterwards begins this anthem, Ego sum resurrectio, fc. I am the resurrection and the life, fc. and concludes with the Requiem. Then the officiating priest performs a third time the triple sprinkling of the corpse with holy water, but does not incense it; which is followed by another prayer; with the anthem Si iniquitates, and the De profundis. The body being laid in the grave, the relations and friends of the deceased come, before the earth is thrown into it, and sprinkle it with holy water, in their turns. When the grave has been filled up, the company condole with the relations of the deceased, and they all return to the Church, where, after the mass for the deceased is ended, the funeral sermon is preached.
NO. 73.- Marriage. When a marriage is to be celebrated, the priest in his proper vestments, goes to the altar, being preceded by one or two clerks, in their surplices, carrying the holy water pot, the sprinkler, the ritual, and a little basin in which to put the ring, when it is blessed. The service is now performed.Mutual consent haring been given by the parties, the priest takes the couple by the hand, and making them join hands, says, Ego jungo vos in matrimonium,
e.. that is, I join you together in marriage, in the name of the Father, fc.At the same time he makes the sign of the cross upon them, and then sprinkles them with holy water. This being done, he blesses the wedding ring, and sprinkles it with holy water, in the form of a cross; after which he gives it to the man, who puts it on the wedding finger of the woman's left hand. This ring is the pledge of the conjugal chastity and fidelity, which the wise owes the husband. To all this the priest adds some prayers; after which follows an exhortation to the married couple, and to the assembly, and afterwards mass.
NO. 74.–Benediction of the nuptial bed. Following the marriage service the dewly joined couple desire the priest to bless the nuptial bed, the ceremony of which act is here represented. Among other blessings, which are asked by the mediation of the priest, when he blesses the marriage-bed, one is, that those who are to lie in it, may increase and multiply. The holy water completes the eanctification of the nuptial bed.
NO. 75.- A bishop elect presenting himself with two assistants for consecration. When a person has been raised to the Episcopal dignity, and has been confirmed in it, he is consecrated in solemn form. On this occasion the altar must be adorned with flowers and a carpet spread on the ground before it, and on the steps. The pontifical ornaments must be laid on the altar, and the