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day of June instant, at ten o'clock in the forenoon of
J. W. C. LEVERIDGE,
COSTS AND CHARGES,
.1,180 96 Room lire of the Commissioners, 122 00 Husty, twenty-three meetings, at $4, 92 00 Whitney, sixty-one do. at $4, 244 00 Leveridge, sixty-one do. at $4, 244 00 Collector,..
200 00 Printing,..
519 00 Other expenses,
3 50 Appraiser's bill,
Four copies of notice fol. 4 news
papers at 25 each, Three copies to put up as hand-bills, Putting up notice for 14 days at 50
each day, Do. affidavit thereof fol. 2,50, copy
25 oath 12}, Copy notice to annex to affidavit, Do. affidavit of services and dis
bursements for taxation fol. 2
copy and oath, Taxation and attendance, Copy taxed bill to file with Street
Commissioner, Paid Sutton and Folger for hand
bills for Commissioners, Do. affidavit of J. Leveridge as to
charges in bill fol. 4 $1, copy 50 oath 12,
50 00 300 00
Surveyors bill. Edward Ewen, Sur
veyor, 192 days work for himself
at $4 per day,
lett, 143 meetings at $4 per meet
572 J. W.C. Leveridge, 143 mee
tings at $4 per meeting. 572 Chas. A. Whitney 143 meetings at $4 per meeting,
572 Room híre 76 meetings, at $2 per meeting,
152 Stationary for Commissioners, R. C. Root & Co.,
6.25 J. T. Trow & Co.,
2.25 Appraisers bill. John Carr and
12 days notice,
20 days Notice,
nexed, Counsel fees,
1 621 19 00
8 60 8 60 8 60 8 60 6 25 6 25 6 25 6 25
175 00 175 00 175 00 175 00
The like for 3 other newspapers at
37 1-2 each, Motion that Commissioner Report
be completed, Brief and fee on mution, Do. rule thereon for 2.50, copy 25, Clerk entering and for certified copy
17 20 17 20 17 20 17 20
$3,021 86 The commissioners were appointed by a Rule of the Supreme Court, entered on the 4th day of September, 1845, and were sworn into office on the 8th of September.
LEROY STREET. SER UPREME COURT.-In the matter of the appli
cation of the Mayor Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of New-York. relative to extending Leroy Street eastwardly from Hudson Street and Burton Street South Westwardly from its present termination at the line commouly known as the boundary line of Trinity Church, until the lines of the said Leroy Street and Burton Street respectively meet or intersect each other. Public Notice is hereby given that the costs and charge incurred by reason of the proceedings in the above entitled matter, will be taxed by WILLIAM PAXSON HALLET, Esq., one of the Clerks of this Court, at his office in the City Hall of the City of New York, on the 22d day of November instant, at 10 o'clock in the forenoon of that day.
Dated New-York, November 4, 1846.
Commissioners. CHARLES A. WHITNEY,
J. Leveridge Attorney.
STREET COMMISSIONERS OFFICE.
205 00 Counsel and Attorneys fees,..
1,152 62 Commissioners fees, 35 meetings, room hire, $50.
470 75 Other expenses $6, Appraisers bill,
50 00 Collectors fees,
100 00 Printing, .
1331 63 950 00
$6,128 33 The written objections made before Judge Ed. monds, will probably be laid before the Legislature, with other proceedings in this matter.
COUNSEL FEES. 1845. Attending the Special Term
of the Supreme Court at Albany, and moving the appointment of Comunissioners,
50 00 Attending the May Term of the Su.
preme Court to oppose motion to strike out one of the Commissioners,
25 00 Sept. Attending the Special Term
of the Supreme Court at Albany to vacate proceedings, and to ap
point Commissioners anew, 75 00 Attending at Albany at the Decem
ber Special Term to dismiss pro
ceedings commencing in 1839, 50 00 Attending Commissioners at differ
ent times, and advising them as to legal questions that arose, attending the May Term of the Court upon the motion to confirm the report and argueing the same, it being opposed and attending at the July Term of the Court at Utica, to complete confirmation of report arguing in opposition to the objections made to the taxation of costs and attending at the subsequent Special Term, 1846, to complete confirmation,
cation of the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of New-York, relative to opening a certain new street, laid out under and by virtue of an act of the Legislature of the People of the State of NewYork, entitled “ An Act to lay out a certain new Street in the 12th and 16th Wards of the City of NewYork, and to keep open a part of the Bloomingdale Road in said City, passed April 16, 1838,"~Public notice is hereby given, that the costs and charges on the above entitled matter will be taxed by WILLIAM PAXSON HALLET, Esq., one of the Clerks of this Court, at his office, in the City Hall of the said City of New-York, on the 22d day of June instant, at ten o'clock in the forepoon of that day. Dated New-York, June 4, 1846.
WILL'M PAXSON HALLET,
J. W. C. LEVERIDGE,
Costs as above.
$2,337 97 The Commissioners were appointed by a Role of the Supreme Court, entered the 4th day of September 1845, and took the oath of office on the 8th day of the same September. Mr. Hallet, Commissioner, is the Clerk of this Supreme Court named in the notice.
OPENING SEVENTH AVENUE. Commissioners Fees,...
4,920.00 Room Aire,...
410.00 Other Charges,
77.00 Counsel Fees,
-3,977.76 Surveyors Fees,..
.2,801.00 Collectoe's Fees,
.1,115.00 Clerk Hire, .
SUPREME COURT, For the matter of the application
of The Mayor, Aldermen and Com. monalty of the City of New York, relative to opening a certain new street laid out under, and by virtue of an act of the Legislature of the People of the State of New-York, entitled, " an act to lay out a new street, and to keep open a part of the Bloomingdale Road in said City.” Passed April 26, 1838.
cation of the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the City of New York, relative to widening Houston street on the north-easterly side, in the 11th Ward of the said City, from the intersection of the northcasterly side of Second street, with the south-easterly side of Lewis street to the north-westerly corner of Tompkins street and Houston street, -Public notice is hereby given, that the costs and charges incurred by reason of the proceedings in the above entitled matter will be taxed by William Paxson HALLET, Esq., one of the Clerks of this Court, at his office, in the City Hall of the City of New-York, on the 22d
$13,550.76 See Senate Document No. 100, of 1842, page 13, and the appendix of that document, page 85, 93, to 98, 119 to 123; 148, and 278-9.
(PUBLISHED BY THE ANTI-ASSESSMENT COMMITTEE AND DISTRIBUTED GRATUITOUSLr. Edited by E. MERIAM.] NEW-YORK, FEBRUAY 20, 1847.
[Vol. I.....No. 47.
UNITED STATES PUBLIC STOCKS EXEMPT a rule, which shall limit its exercise, is undoubtedly
can devolve on those whose province it is to exAND CORPORATIONS.
pound the supreme law of the land in its application MR. JUSTICE STORY, in his Commentaries on the to the cases of individuals. This duty has more than Constitution, Vol. 2, pag. 492, says :
once devolved on this court. In the performance of
it wehave considered it, as a necessary consequence, “ In another case the question was raised, whether
froin the supremacy of the government of the whole, a State had a Constitutional authority to tax Stock that its action in the exercise of its legitimate powers issued for loans to the United States, and it was held should be free and unembarrassed by any conflicting
powers in the possession of its parts, that the powers by the Supreme Court that a State had not " the
of a State, cannot rightfully, be so exercised, as to reasoning of the Court," was as follows:
impede and obstruct the free course of those mea
sures which the Government of the United States “ Is the Stock issued for loans to the Government
may rightfully adopt. of the United States, liable to be taxed by States and
“ This subject brought before the court in the case Corporations ?
of M.Culloch, vs. The State of Maryland, when it “ Congress has power to borrow money on the was thoroughly argned, and deliberately considered. credit of the United States. The stock it issues is the The question decided in that case bears a near reevidence of a debt created by the exercise of this semblance to that, which is involved in this. It was power. The tax in question is a tax upon the con- discussed at the bar in all its relations and examined tract subsisting between the government and the in- by the court with its utmost attention. We will not dividual. It bears directly upon that contract while repeat the reasoning, which conducted us to the con. subsisting, and in full force. The power operates
clusion tlius formed ; but that conclusion was, that upon the contract the instant it is framed, and must all subjects over which the Sovereign power of a imply a right to affect that contract. If the States State extends, are objects of taxation; but those, over and Corporations throughout the Union possess the which it does not extend, are upon the soundest prinpower to tax a contract for the loan of money, what ciples exempt from taxation. The Soveroignty of a shall arrest this principle in its application to every State extends to every thing which exists by its own other contract. What measure can government adopt, authority, or is introduced by its permission ; but which will not be exposed to its influence ?
not to those means which are employed by Congress “ But it is unnecessary to pursue this principle to carry into execution powers conferred on that body through its diversified application to all the contracts, by the people of the United States. The attempt to and to the various operations of government. No use the power of taxation, on the means employed by one can be selected which is of more vital interest to the government of the union, in pursuance of the conthe community, than this of borrowing money on the stitution, is itself an abuse ; because it is the usurpation credit of the United States. No power has been con- of a power which the people of a single State cannot ferred by the American people on their government, give. The States have no power by taxation or the free and unburdened exercise of which more otherwise, to retard, impede, barthen, or any manner deeply affects every member of our republic. In control the operation of the Constitutional laws, enacwar, when the honor, the safety, the independence of ted by Congress to carry into execution the powers the nation are to be defended, when all its resour- vested in the general government. We retain the ces are to be strained to the utmost, credit must be opinions, which were then expressed. A contract brought in aid of taxation, and the abundant revenue made by the government in the exercise of its power of peace and prosperity must be anticipated to supply to borrow money on the credit of the United States, the exigencies, the urgent demands of the moment. is undoubtedly independent of the will of any State, The, people for objects, the most important, which can in which the individual who lends, may reside ; and occur in the progress of nations, have empowered their is undoubtedly an operation essential to the imporgovernment to make these anticipations to borrow tant objects, for which the government was created. money on the credit of the United States.' Can auy It ought, therefore, on the principles settled in the thing be more dangerous, or more injurious, than the case of M‘Culloch, vs. The State of Maryland, to be admission of a principle which authorises every State, exempt from the State taxation, and consequently and every Corporation in the Union, which possesses from being taxed by Corporations, deriving their the right of taxation, to burthen the exercise of this power from States. power at their discretion.
It is adınitted that the power of the government “ If the right to impose the tax exists, it a right
to borrow money cannot be directly opposed ; and which, in its nature, acknowledges no limits. It may
that any law, directly obstructing its operations, would be carried to any extent within the jurisdiction of the be void. But a distinction is taken between direct State or corporation, which imposes it, which the
opposition and those ineasures, which may consewill of each State and Corporation may prescribe. quently affect it; that is, a law prohibiting loans to A power which is given, by the whole American
the United States would be void ; but a tax on them people, for their common good ; which is to be exer- to any amount is allowable. It is, we think, imposcised at the most critical periods for the most impor.
sible not to perceive the intimate connection, which tant purposes on the free exercise of which the inter
exists between these two modes of acting on the ests, certainly, perhaps the liberty, of the whole may
subject. It is not the want of original power in an depend ; may be burthened, impeded, if not arrested,
independent Sovereign State, to prohibit loans to a by any of the organized parts of the confederacy. foreign government, which restrains the legislature
• In a society, formed like ours, with one supreme from direct opposition to those made by the United government for national purposes, and numerous States. The restraint is imposed by our Constitution. State Governments for other purposes : in many res- The Annerican people have conferred the power of pects independent, and in the uncontrolled exercise of
borrowing money on their government; and by many important powers, occasional interferences
making that government supreme, have shielded its ought not to surprise us. The power of taxation is
action, in the exercise of this power, from the action one of the most essential to a State, and of the most
of the local governments. The grant of the power extensive in its operation. The attempt to maintain is incompatible with a restraining or controlling
power ; and the declaration of supremacy is a declaration that no such restraining or controlling power shall be exercised. The right to tax the contract to any extent, when made, must operate upon the power to borrow, before it is exercised, and have a sensible influence on the contract. The extent of this influence depends on the willos a distinct government. To any extent, however inconsiderable, it is a burthen on the operations of government. It may be carried to an extent which will arrest them entirely.
" It is admitted by the Counsel for the defendants, that the power to tax stock must affect the terms, on which loans will be made. But this objection, it is said, has no more weight when urged against the application of an acknowledged power to government stock thau if urged against its application to lands sold by the United States. The distinction is, we think, apparent. When lands are sold, no connection remains between the purchaser and the government. The lands purchased become a part of the mass of property in the country, with no implied exemption from common burthens. All lands are derived from the general or particular government, and all lands are subject to taxation. Lands sold are in the condition of money borrowed and repaid. Its liability to taxation, in any form it may then assume, is not questioned. The connection between the borrower and the lender is dissolved. It is no burthen on loans; it is no impediment to the power of borrowing that the money, when repaid, loses its exemption, from taxation. But a tax upon debts due from the government stands, we think, on every different principle from a tax on lands which the government has sold. The Federlist has been quoted in the argument, and an eloquent and well merited eulogy has been bestowed on the great statesmen, who is supposed to be the author of the number from which the quotation was made. This high authority was also relied upon in the case of M'Culloch, rs. The State of Maryland, and was considered by the court: Without repeating what was then said, we refer to it, as exhibiting our view of the sentiments expressed on this subject by the authors of that work.
“ It has been supposed, that a tax on stock comes within the exemptions stated in the case of M-Culloch, vs. The State of Maryland. We do not think so. The Bank of the United States is an instrument essential to the fiscal operations of the government; and the power, which Inight be exercised to its destruction, was denied. But property acquired by the corporation in a State, was supposed to be placed in the saine condition with the property acquired by an individual. The tax on government stock is thought by this court to be a tax on the contract, a tax on the power to borrow money on the credit of the United States, and consequently to be repugnant to the Constitution."
PUBLIC POLICY. The Deposits in Banks of Savings are not taxed, neither should they be, for in times of great distress, either from war, pestilence, famine, or extensive conflagrations, these institutions afford extensive relief.
MARINE INSURANCE COMPANIES. MARINE INSURANCE COmpanies should also be exempt from Taxation. Storms have been unparalleled in their frequency and destruction, and the Stock is not by any means a desirable investment for capitalists. Public policy requires that such stock should be exempt from taxation.
12.1 inches, On the night of the 15th and 25th, we were visited with thunder and lightning. You will perceive the mercury was down to zero on Friday the 8th at 5 P. M.. and at same hour on Friday 22d, 30 below zero. The weather for the past month has been extremely disagreeable. Our roads are almost impassable with but a sorry prospect for improvement for some time
Pigeons again made their appearance this morning moving in great quantities. It is attributed to the unusual beach mast. Very respectfully yours,
WM. P. MILNOR.
HUDSON RIVER RAILROAD.
down from failure of that staple. In the whole disThis enterprize is in giant hands—may it have tance I travelled over yesterday I observed that a
fungus growth has seized on all the cherry orchards good speed. Its completion will add twenty millions
which will quickly, this year, totally destroy the to the value of Real Estate in New-York,-will increase
young and old irees--by next fall a dry rot will have its trade and commerce, and men who have the means
seized on the whole woody fibers except one-twelfth
inch thickness next the bark, This, to that desof forming correct opinions, say it will be productive.
cription of tree, will be no less destructive than the Nature has made the path for it---man should improve Potatoe disease is to that plant. On Gauley River, it.
near Kenhawa and in the hurricane district of Western
Tennessee, the wild Irish potatoe can be obtained, The prosperity of Boston may be counted up in
and in three years from it many varieties can be had the numerous Railroeds leading to that growing city. fresh and renewed. Near Huntsville, Ala., can be
In Boston there is abundance of public spirit-in found in the mountain the indigenous Tomatto and in New York there is but little.
Nicotianum Tobagoin a wild imperfect condition, and
on the Tennessee and Cumberland River Islands, James Boorman, Stephen Allen. Saul Alley and
can be obtained a peculiar Artichoke, resembling in ethers are engaged in tlie Hudson River Railroad en- form tlie sweet potatoe, some samples being one foot terprise. Such men are competent to accomplish
in length. It seems not generally known that these
are natives of the United States ; on river banks this what they undertake.
Artichoke vields 300 to 500 bushels per acre, and is
very difficult to eradicate. It is the great lard oil BOSTON PUBLIC DOCUMENTS.
maker of the Southern swamps and promises to ami
hilate the whole harpoon race of destructives. We are indebted to Charles B. Wells, Esq., of Bos.
There is a bur Artichoke of the South, which for ton for a package of the public documents of the city table use should be extensively cultivated-the of Boston. These papers are valuable.
eatable core of the bur when boiled and trimmed is Mr. Shattuck has completed a report for the Com
large as a goose egg and of most delicate flavor.
The Artichoke family was the most ancient Lotus mon Council of the City of Boston which is a valua- family of the Egyptians and the Wild Onion colomon ble document. We intend to make extracts from it. amongst our mountains, shoots up its stem doubled;
its top inclining downward, thus showing the original The industry of the people of New England is the
of one of the inost common Egyptian hieratic characfoundation, under heaven, of their prosperity.
ters. There is a large Onion, wild in our mountains,
colled the Rhamps-it is strong and unpallatable. VIRGINIA CORRESPONDENCE.
There are also numerous dyestuffs of vegetable and
tricts, which are as good as the similar articles FEBUARY 1st, Wytheville, Va. 1847. brought from foreign places. Why does not some E. MERIAM, Esq.,
one look into these things ?
Within a few miles of this place are inexhaustible DEAR SIR :- I came on horseback 60 miles in the past 24 hours over mud, water and icy roads. The
beds of lead ore and many copper veins are found
there is silver in small amount in union with the lead thaw is complete and the arid winds from the South West, like those in March, rapidly absorb the waters
and copper. Near this also is the famous glade iron
ore from which steel is made by a process similar to and even the cenaius of undisolved snow. On
making common iron. A gentleman near this owns left as I came South East lay Walkers
50,000 acres of iron mountain land, on which are the Mountain, and on my right lay the iron mountain, behind which the blue peaks of the Alleghany and
richest and perhaps the most extensive iron mines in
the world ; for all which he asks only $5000. The Blue Ridge were visible. The Alleghany South East of this cominingles with the Blue Ridge, while
rock salt and gypsam of this region you are already both these and the Cumberland range compose the
apprised appear to be inexhaustible, but here there
are neither roads or other means for transportation of great Appalachan Chain. All these ranges within this latitude, Southward,
these weighty articles. The coal beds near this are are now bare of snow, and this morning the birds
not promising, but the timber is most abundant over
all the hills and mountains. and farm fowls by their voice and manners are rejoicing that spring has come. I observe however, that
I began this letter merely to apprise you of the the ivy and laurel of the mountain streams pays no
singular state of the weather. I fear severe winds regard to this premature experiment of the budding
have prevailed for a week past from the Charyb Their leaves are curled in the shape of
Sea across the Mexican Gulph.
The surface ground is saturated with water and fingers, clinging close to the sustaining twigs, and still preserving the blackened hue indicative of por
the variable temperature of the air with almost
uniform warmth of the crust surface of the earth tending cold. When the Spring really opens those leaves in twenty four hours will assume their deep
most favorably prepares the soil for the ensuing Summer green, wide spread and erect to receive the
crops. genial influences. A German to-day said the Spring
The high market values of all commodities and has not come yet, for on this day annually the ground
plentiness of cash will arouse even the most indolent hogs leave their hybernating beds, and after examin
and we may expect superabundant harvests. Grain ing the sky go back if the next six weeks is to be
and meat are now very plenty, but the holders not cold, and so they have done this day. Finding a
being in debt have the advantage over buyers throughburning heat in the suns rays at two o'clock to-day I
out the South and West. This state of things it is placed Fahrenheit's thermometer (a very fine one) in
which causes Cotton and Tobacco to flow so languidly the direct sunshine upon a plank wall with a warm
to the great sea board marts. Speculators tind it breeze from the South West passing over it. On a
hard to get the staple articles into their hands without north exposed brick wall it showed 50 degrees, and
giving the extremest verge of anticipated values. exposed as mentioned it rosa to 1114 in fifty minutes
The planter holds the key for the first time. and seemed stationary whilo Reamers scale shewed
Feb. 2.—This day is overcast with slow moving
clouds from the South West—the temperature at 2 in the same situation 35 degrees. It is not freezing this evening ; the sky is hazy, rather whitish with
P. M. was 56° Fahrenheatma light white frost this bright moonshine. The South and Southwest clouds
morning, and a perfect thaw. There will be rain this winter generally are of the Mexican Gulph kind
to.nỊght and snow to-morrow night—there has been -dense cumbrous, sometimes black, at others glazed
no sleet this winter-the snow dissolving speedily in
all cases. with light as in Summer, often flying swiftly, and
The lead mines company have run a level sometimes becalmed high up in the sky-above them,
1500 feet at a cost of $20,000 under their mines. This have been fewer than usual, of the flaky light curling secondary limestono, and is about 6 feet deep and 6
way is horizontal into the hill all the distance in clouds sailing in different courses at various elevations.
feet wide with a railway along it. In the cavities The winter of 1806-7 was like this, after which for
are many splendid metalic chrystallizations that were five or six years fine crops of cotton were yeilded in
never before exposed to human vision or the light of regions where subsequently the cotton gins rotted
day. The lead is soft and of purer quality than any
"A VOLCANO AT WORK." We last week recorded a very wonderful convul. sion of Lake Ontario. We have this week to mention one equally wonderful as having taken place in Rice Lake, 12 miles to the North of this town.
Last Thursday the 14th inst., the lake was seen to be in great commotion, the ice (18 inches thick,) undulating in every direction. Presently it burst with a noise like thunder, and a large piece from the centre of the lake was, in a few minutes, thrown up in a pile to the height of ten feet, in which position it now lies. This is no doubt related to the earthquake which caused the awful commotion in Lake Ontario at Grafton.-Coburg Star, Upper Canada, Wednesday, January 20, 1847.
The following statement was written by me and published in the Brooklyn Evening Star of January 20th, 1847 :
“My record book from the evening of the 14th inst. to the noon of the 18th inst-, is a blank. The wires performed their labor, but the eyes that had watched their mysterious pointings, were flooded with grief, and the hand that traced the record was shaken with mental agony.
“Oftimes have I suggested in the columns of the Star, that the aged of our race during the suspended periods of inactivity in the air, which I denominated equilibriums, have passed away to rest. Alas, I am made myself, an afflicted witness of the grave character of my own suggestion-for although I was unable to record the observations of the nightof Thursday the 14tb inst., still I watched with an anxious feeling the pointing of the wires, and they indicaled a long suspension of vitality in the atmosphere-a twelve hour's equilibrium, during which time my dearly beloved daughter-she who was a part of us, commenced that sleep which was the entering into rest, and ere the sun had marked the hour of noon, her blessed spirit had winged its flight.
E. M." The letter of Mr. Milnor, as above shows the state of the atmosphere at Saltville, which has an altitude of 1882 feet on the 15th of January, the day succeed ing this convulsion.
I have to-day and yesterday received several newspapers from Canada containing the account of this convulsion. Feb. 8, 1847.
MORTALITY IN THE CITY OF BOSTON...1846.
The number of deaths in the City of Boston during the year 1846, was 3,389—of which 698 were under one year, and 303 still born. Between 1 and 2 years, 435; 2 and 5 years 239; 5 and 10 years 252; 10 and 20, 136 ; 20 to 30 383 ; 30 to 40, 354 ; 40 to 50, 188; 50 to 60, 145; 66 to 70; 108; 70 to 80, 86; 80 to 90, 50; 90 to 100, 10.
Consumption 485 ; Fevers, 416 Dropsy, 205 ; Dysentry, 52; Diseases of the Bowels 251 ; Inflaination of the Bowels 58 ; Diseases of the heart, 42; Measles, 150; Small Pox, 92 ; Hooping Cough, 38 : Appoplexy, 22 ; Paralasis 30 ; Old Age, 79 ; All othiers, 1473.
VIRGINIA CORRESPONDENCE. Letter from Thomas SPENCER, Esq.
January 17th, 1847. ESTEENED FRIEND :-Your kind letter of 24th December was received by due course of mail. I should have replied at an earlier day, but for engagements which have absorbed all my time, and a part of the time I have been absent. You are laying me under renewed obligations constantly by furnishing me with New-York papers which I receive by almost every mail.
This is the most changeable climate that I ever witnessed. During one week we are iu the midst of a severe winter with the thermometer at zero, while the succeeding week is like May or June, and we have had some weather this winter as warm as much of that which we experienced last July, By Mr. Milnor's metorological observations for December (which you have probably reeeived) you will notice the weather was mild and warın during some of the last days of the year. Similar weather continued until Thursday evening the 7th instant when the thermometer at 5, 8, 9 and 10 o'clock marked go and at 11 o'clock 7.1°. On the following morning at 6 o'clock it stood at zero, and did not rise above 17° during the day. At 10 o'clock at midnight it again fell to 8o. Saturday however was rather warmer and on Sunday the ihermometer showed an equilibrium of twelve hours duration, including eleven o'clock in the morning to 11 o'clock at night, during which time it stood at 34o. It snowed during the day from daylight in the morning to four o'clock in the afternoon. On Monday the thermometer varied from 17 to 31°; on Tuesday from 12 to 320 ; on Wednesday 13 to 42°; Thursday 34 to 44°, remaining stationary at 44° from ten in the morning to four P. M. It was also stationary at 40° nine, ten and eleven o'clock in the evening and was found at the same point at six o'clock the next morning where it remained until eight A. M. During the day it marked as high as 63° and was at 51° at 10 and 11 o'clock P. M. and was also found at 51° the next morning Saturday the 16th inst. and continued at 510 until nine o'clock in the morning. During the night however, of Friday we had a severe rain storm of two or three hours duration, during which time the wind blew a hurricane from the south west and the thunder was very hard and lightning vivid, and what appeared to me to be remarkable was, that at eleven o'clock of that night, when I retired, there was a perfect calm and the stars shone with unusual brilliancy, there not being a cloud to be seen in any part of the heavens. It was as fine and beautiful a sky as I ever beheld, and such au one as I love to gaze upon in admiration.
Yesterday and to-day the thermometer bas marked about 44o most of the time, although it was down to the freezing point this morning, but the day has been mild and pleasant and there is nothing to remind one that it is mid-winter but the nakedness of the foresttrees.
I wish that I was more of a geologist, for I am exceedingly puzzled by the general aspect of every thing around me with reference to that science. Three miles north of me I see the “ Clinch Mountain" with an elevation of nearly three thousand feet capped with red and white sand-stone, to the depth of several hundred feet. This mountain extends in a northeasterly direction to New River, about sixty miles distant. It also extends in a southwesterly direction into Tennessee, I believe about a hundred miles. It belongs to the Cumberland range. A few miles south of me I see “ Walker's Mountain.” It lies nearly parallel with Clynch, and is composed of similar materials but is not quite as elevated. The valley between these two mountains is filled with limestone hills varying from one to four or five hundred feet high, which from their peculiar form are called " Knobs." In the midst of these “ Knobs' the Holston River is winding its serpentine course in many places encircling mountains for miles, to gain a very small advance in a direct line. You might well suppose that a river, in forcing its way through such a country, would present many lofty and beautiful cascades, but it is not so. It is a navigable stream, and large gnantities of salt manufactured at this place, is borne upon its bosom, to find a market in Tennessee and Alabama, although it is considerably “ down hill" all
A few feet below the bed of the river for many miles above this place, there is a deposite of beautiful white gypsum, to an unknown depth. A few years ago a gentleman attempted to penetrate through the gypsum, at a point about fifteen miles above this, with the expectation of finding salt or brine. He sunk a shaft about eight feet square to the depth of six hundred and seventy five feet and abandoned it, not having passed through the gypsum.
Now it seems to me that Clynch and Walker's mountains were once in close proximity and that they have been split apart and sundered a di tance of eight or ten miles, by some mighty and terrific power, the idea of which overwhelins ine, and that a vast and deep chasm was consequently formed between them, which has been for unknown ages the recepta. cle of these immense deposites of gypsum and salt which are known to exist here, and these lime-stone hills of several hundred feet high and several miles in circumference, seem to have been tossed about like playthings, and (geologically) have been left wrong side up some standing on edge, some leaning one way and some another way. For to use a word in a geological sense there is nothing in place" in this vicinity, and I learned that an eminent geologist who spent some time in this country a few years ago, expressed the opinion that Walker's Mountain" in its present position, is upside down.
I perceive that frequent accounts of earthquakes and storms in distant parts are rendering what you had previously said and written of certain conditions of the atmosphere as connected with these phenomena; prophetic. The stores of knowledge which human science are continually unfolding seem to he boundless. They are apparently a sea without a shore, and by their vastness proclaim the ignorance and littleness of man, and the wisdom and unlimited greatness of God.
I have not forgotten the geological specimens that I promised to collect for you. I will present them in due time.
I do not comprehend the arrangement of your meteorological wires" and how they indicate the temperature of the atmosphere, and why at certain times they mark the same degree as the thermometer, and at other times are at so great a disagreement with it.
THOMAS SPENCER. E. MERIAM, Esq.
in producing something else. As a farmer, I of course pay some attention to the improvement of stock, and have introduced from your region, an Ayrshire calf, Merino sheep and improved swine. Do you meddle with such things, if so, you might, in your kindness aid me in my future operations. I was not only gratified in the receipt of the papers and pamphlets you sent me as an evidence of your remembrance of me, but greatly in the perusal of many of the communications, not only gratified, but editied. Your communications bearing on lightning, &c. are very satisfactory, and more than usually interesting to me, as I had just taken down my rods in repairing iny dwellings, and am extremely anxious to make the protectiou against lightning as perfect as can be. Our climate is one of thunder storms. There is something in the bluff on which I reside subjecting it particularly to be struck, as the pine trees just back of my dwel. ing are more frequently riven than elsewhere in this region. Will you aid me in arrangement? My roof is fifty feet long and forty wide. Two chimneys extend a few feet above the roof, six feet from the gable ends to the inner part of the chimney.
" The foundation of my house is about one hundred feet from ordinary high tide of a salt water river, from the ground to the top of the house. is thirty eight feet, and the chimneys are about four feet higher than the top of roof. There is a gentle declivity from the front door to high water mark. Now if I undertake to put up wire, such as I understand you to recommend, how shall I support it above the chimney top; how manage to fix it at the point at which it should diverge to the wires, as I presume it must run over the road which is in front of the house, twenty feet from the door there are two large trees, just over the road, through the branches of which the wire might be supported, if right. While I seek your instrnction in general how to fix the wires, my chief difficulty would be in supporting the wire in a perpendicular line above the house top, without attaching it to a pole. If so attached, how to fix it without rendering the pole liable to be struck. Again how to attach it to the house and confine it where it is to bend off, or diverge, without risking the passage of the lightning at that point to tho house. Will you be kind enough to instruct a grateful pupil and inform me what would be the cost of enough of such wire as is suitable, perfectly to protect my house, and whether I may trouble you to obtain it for me. I regret thus trespassing on your kindness, but the importance of the subject will plead with you my excuse. Might I add to this tax the solicitation that you would forward me a specimen number or two of the Monthly Farmer and Mechanic, and also of the Foreign Cultivator, which I perceive are published by Wm. H. Starr, the editor of the N. Y. Farmer and Mechanic, sent me by you. Any other papers of the kind which you think would interest me would be thankfully received. I subscribe to the Fariners' Library and Monthly Journal of Agriculture, American Agriculturist and Albany Cultivator, but in occasional papers sent me, of which I was ignorant, I have found articles of much interest, and in none more so than those sent me by yourself; they have been put with papers to be preserved for my sons.
“ Could you not be tempted to visit our sunny South. Though not as interesting as your mountain regions, you might find something to interest you,-novelty at least you would find, but of its interest I could give no security,--a hearty welcome to the home of your friend I can pledge.
Yours, most sincerely."
GEORGIA CORRESPONDENCE. Extracts from a letter wiitten by a Clergyman, residing in the State of Georgia.
January 28th, 1847. It is no doubt well we cannot foresee, and that I did not. My career has been a painful one, disease has disqualified me from occupying iinportant stations, after I have been instrumental in establishing them. My field in *
was all that I could have wished it, but congestive fever drove me from the country, and here I am again in this retired field, with a little fock, in ministering to which, the Lord has blessed me abundantly. Almost every youth in my congregation, has become a member of the church under my ministry. My family consist of the wife of my youth, two sons and three daughters, on earth, and three in Heaven. My wife's health is feeble ; children stout, rosy, healthy. My own health is fair, so long as I lead an active, industrious out of door-life. This has led ine to farming, not planting, as an inducemeut to exercise, and as a help in supporting my family, which has become necessary, from my outlays in supporting my family in Florida, and it is an occupation in which I find pleasure, and would delight, if I could only have a northern farm, with northern labourers. My desire to farm, not plant, and raise something valuable in preference to cotton, induced me to try Benne, and to communicate with you. As my plants were scattered, and few, I cannot say what the produce would be per acre. I have about half a bushiel of' seed, and could send you a quart or two for trial at the oil mill, or any other use, you please. If you wish it, please say so. I will plant a patch this season, carefully ascertain the labour, cost of cultivation, and produce, and no doubt will have some bushels next fall for experiment at the mill, if you should think it well to try it. Our planters think of nothing but rice, cotton, &c. and consequently there is an over production. My desire is to be instrumental
REMARKS.-We have taken the liberty lo publish the above extract from the letter of our ercellent friend, believing that he will not find fault with us for doing so-it is a letter that will be read with satisfaction by many good people.
The enquiries as to lightning conductors, I will endeavor to answer in the after pages of this volume and in those pages wbich record the statistics of 1846 and the commencement of 1847.
I am satisfied from the eramination I have inade of the opera tion of lightning on board of ships, steamboats, &c., that a wire lightning rod never fails to give full protection if it terminates in the water, and rises above the object sought to be supported.
The size of the surface protected does not depend on the height of the point of the rod-twenty feet is probably as far as it would be safe to rely on the influence of the rod.
On board of public armed ships no case has occurred where the immense weight of metal, guns, anchors, &c. bave withdrawn the lightning from the little rod. This fact speaks volumes.
GOVERNOR JOHN YOUNG.
MEMBERS OF THE SENATE.
First Senate District.
Second Senate District. Joshua B. Smith,
Saxton Smiih, Robert Denniston, Harvey R. Mon is.
Third Senate District, Stephen C. Johnson, Wm. H. Van Schoonloven, John P. Beckman, Ira Harris.
Fourth Senate District. Orville Clark,
Samuel Young, Augustas C. Hand, Thomas Crook.
Fifth Senate District. Thomas Barlow,
Joshua A. Spencer, Enoch B. Talcott,
Nelson J. Beach.
Sixth Senate District. Clark Burnham,
Thomas J. Wheeler, George D. Beers,
Samuel H. P. Hall.
Seventh Senate District. Albert Lester,
Richard H. Williams,
Eighth Senate District.
On the Division of Towns and Counties. Mr. Townsend,
Mr. Hall. Mr. Morris,
On Commerce and Navigation.
Mr. Ruggles. Mr. Beers,
On Manufactures. Mr. Barlow,
Mr. Van Schoonhoven. Mr. Clark,
On Medical Societies and Medical Colleges. Mr. Backus,
Mr. Barlow. Mr. Beekman,
On Privileges and Elections. Mr. Hall,
Mr. Hand. Mr. Crook,
On Engrossed Bills. Mr. Lester,
Mr. S. Smith. Mr. Townsend,
On Indian Affairs. Mr. Folsom,
Mr. Ruggles. Mr. Beach,
On Expiring Lars. Mr. Emmons.
Mr. Van Schoonhoven. Mr. J. B. Smith,
On Public Expenditures. Mr. Sanford,
Mr. Wheeler. Mr. Denniston,
On Incorporation of Citics and Villages. Mr. Wheeler,
Mr. Gridley. Mr. Folsom.
On Public Buildings. Mr. Spencer,
Mr. Johnson. Mr. Beach,
On the Poor Laus. Mr. Beekman,
Mr. Williams. Mr. Sedgwick,
On Charitable and Religious Societies. Mr. Clark,
Mr. Emmons. Mr. Buraham,
On Public Printing. Mr. Beers,
Mr. Talcott. Mr. Hard,
On Retrenchment. Mr. Morris,
Mr. Gridley. Mr. Townsend,
On Grievances. Mr. Van Schoonhoven, Mr. Crook. Mr. J. B. Smith,
Joint Library Committee. Mr. Jones,
Mr. Harris. Mr. Folsom,
OFFICERS OF THE SENATE.
Jared S, Halsey, Door-keeper, Franklin House.
Joseph Courtney, Jr. Messenger, 50 Dallius Street. STANDING COMMITTEES OF THE SENATE.
On Claims. Mr. Johnson,
Mr. Einmons. Mr. Wheeler,
On Finance. Mr. Young,
Mr Harris. Mr. Jones,
On the Judiciary. Mr. Hand,
Mr. Spencer. Mr. Lester,
On the Militia. Mr. Clark,
Mr. Ruggles. Mr. Burnham,
On Canals. Mr. Denniston,
Mr. Beach. Mr. Sanford,
On Railroads. Mr. Hard,
Mr. Willia ns. Mr. Beekman,
On Roals ond Bridges. Mr. Burnham,
Mr. Riggles. Mr. Crook,
On Literature. Mr. Sedgwick,
Mr. Young Mr. Folsom,
On State Prisons. Mr.js. Smith,
Mr. Giridley. Mr.[Backus,
On Banks and Insurance Companies. Mr. Talcott,
Mr. Morris. Mr. Beers.
From the County of Clinlon. Rufus Henton.
From the County of Columbia. John S. Gould,
William M. Miller. From the County of Cortland. Timothy Green.
From the County of Delaware. Jonathan C. Allaben, Donald Shaw.
From the County of Dutchess. Epenetus Crosby, Walter Sherman. Aves I. Vanderbilt,
From the County of Erie. Horatio Shumway,
William H. Pratt, Obadiah J. Green, John D. Howe.
From the County of Essex. William H. Butrick.
From the County of Franklin. Joseph R. Flanders.
From the Counties of Fnllon and Hamilton. Darius Moore.
Frem the County of Genessee. Heman Blodgett,
Alonzo S. Upham. From the County of Greene. Almeron Marks,
William V. B. Adams. From the County of Herkimer. Abijah Beckwith, Jefferson Tillinghast.
From the County of Jefferson. John Boyden,
Samuel J. Davis. John D. Davison,
From the County of Kings. Abraham D. Soper,
Ebenezer W. Peck. John A. Emmons,
From the County of Lewis. Thomas Baker.
From the County of Livingston. William S. Fullerton, Andrew Sill.
From the County of Madison. Peter Van Valkenburgh, George T. Taylor.
From the County of Monroe. William C. Bloss, John McGonegal. John B. Smith,
From the County of Montgomery. Gamaliel Bowdish, Andrew S. Gray.
From the City and County of New-York. Wilson Small,
Charles Baxter, Alexander Stewart, Michael Walsh, David J. Chatfield, Lyman Candee, Daniel E Sickles,
James C. Rutherford, John H. Bowie,
Alexander M. Alling,, John E. Develin,
Dennis Garrison, Norman B. Smith, Edward R. Carpentier, Henry Keyser,
Uzziah Wennan. From the County of Niagara. Benjamin Carpenter,
Christopher H. Skeele.
From the County of Onondaga.
John Lakin, William Henderson,
Joseph Prindle. From the County of Ontario. Emery B. Pottle,
Ezra Pierce. From the County of Orange. William C. Hasbrouck. Joseph Davis. Hudson McFarlin,
From the County of Orleans. Abner Hubbard.
From the County of Oswego. Orrin R. Earl,
M. Lindley Lee. From the County of Otsego. Cyrus Brown,
William Temple. Francis U. Fenno.
MEMBERS OF ASSEMBLY.
From the County of Albany. Valentine Treadwell, John I. Gallup, Robert D. Watson,
John Fuller. From the County of Allegany. Grover Leavens,
Samuel Russell. From the County of Broome. Oliver C. Crocker.
From the County of Catlaraugus. Rufus Crowley,
Joseph E. Weeden. From the County of Cayuga. John T. Rathbun, William I. Cornwell. Samuel Bell,
From the County of Chautauque. Madison Burnell,
Charles J. Orton. From the County of Cheinung. William Maxwell.
From the County of Chenango. Ransom Balcom,