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able effects. There appears much probability in the view first proposed by Mr. P. Scrope, that when the barometer is low, and when rain might naturally be expected to fall the diminished pressure of the atmosphere over a wide extent of couutry might well determine the precise day on which the earth already stretched to the utmost by the subterranean forces, should yield, crack, and consequently tremble. It is however, doubtful how far this idea will explain the circumstance of torrents of rain falling in the dry season during several days after an earthquake, unaccompanied by an eruption. Such cases seem to bespeak some more intimate connections betweon the atmospheric and subterranean regions.

In the evening, Capt. Fitz Roy and myself were dining with Mr. Edwards, an English resident, well known for his hospitality by all who have visited Coquimbo, when a sharp earthquake happened. I heard the forecoming rumble; but, from the screams of the ladies, the running of the servants, and the rush of several of the gentlemen to the doorway, I could not distinguish the motion. Some of the women afterwards were crying with terror, and one gentleman said he should not be able to sleep all night, or if he did, it would only be to dream of falling houses. The father of this person had lately lost all his property at Talcahuano, and he himself had only just escaped a falling roof at Valparaiso in 1822. He mentioned a curious coincidence which then happened : he was playing at cards, when a German, one of the party, got up, and said he would never sit in a room in these countries with the door shut, as, owing to his having done so, he had nearly lost his life at Copiapo. Accordingly he opened the door; and no sooner had he done this than he cried out, Here it comes again, and the famous shock commenced. The whole party escaped. The danger in an earthquake is not from the time lost in opening a door, but from the chance of its becoming jammed by the movement of the walls.

It is impossible to be much surprised at the fear which natives and old residents, though some of them known to be men of great command

of mind, on generally experienced during earthquakes. I think, however, this excess of panic may be partly attributed to a want of habit in governing their fear, as it is not a feeling they are ashamed of. Indeed the natives do not like to see a person indifferent. I heard of two Englishmen who, sleeping in the open air duriug a smart shock, knowing that there was no danger. did not rise. The natives cried out indignantly, " look at those herotics, they will not even get out of their beds." VOLCANIC ACTION EXTENSIVE IN ITS

OPERATIONS. On January the 15th, we sailed from Low's Harbour, and three days afterwards anchored a second time in the bay of S. Carlos in Chiloe. On the night of the 19th, the volcano of Osorno was in action. At midnight the sentry observed something like a large star, which gradually increased in size till about three o'clock, when it presented a very magnificent spectacle. By the aid of a glass, dark objects, in constant succession, were seen in the midst of a great glare of red light, to be thrown up and to fall down. The light was sufficient to cast on the water a long bright reflection. Large masses of molten matter seem very commonly to be cast out of the craters in this part of the Cordillera. I was assured, that when the Corcovado is in eruption, great masses are projected upwards and are seen to burst in the air, assuming many fantastical forms, such as trees: their size must be immense, for they can be distinguished from the high land behind s. Carlos, which is no less than ninetythree miles from the Corcovado. In the morning the volcano became tranquil.

I was surprised at hearing afterwards that Aconcague in Chilie, 480 miles northwards, was in action on the same night; and still more surprised to hear that the great eruption of Coseguina, (2700 mlles north of Aconcague), accompanied by an earthquake felt over 1000 miles, also occurred within six hours of this same time. This coincidence is the more remarkable, as Coseguina had been dormant for twenty-six years; and Aconcague most rarely shows any signs of action. It is difficult even to conjecture whether this coincidence was accidental, or show some subterranean connection. If Vesuvius, Ætna, and Hecla in Iceland, (all three relatively nearer each other than the corresponding points in South Amorica) suddenly

burst forth in eruption on the same night. the coinci- and even the surface of perpetual snow, all

support dence would be thought remarkable; but it is far organic beings. more remarkable iņ this case. Where the three vents

SALINE INCRUSTATIONS. fall on the same great mountain chain, and where the I have several times alluded to the surface of the vast plains along the entire eastern coast and the up- ground being incrusted with salt. This phenomenon raised recent shells along more than 2000 miles on is quite different from that of the salinas, and more the western coast, shown in how equable and con

extraordinary: In many parts of South America, nected a manner the elevatory forces have acted. where the climate is moderately dry, these incrustaLAKE OF SALTWATER BECOME A FIELD OF tion occur ; but I have nowhere seen them so abun. SALT.

dant as near Bahia Blanca. The salt here and in

other parts of Patagonia consists chiefly of sulphate One day I rode to a large salt-lake, or salina, which of Soda with some common salt. As long as the is distant of fifteen miles from the town. During the ground remains moist in these salitrales as the Spawinter it consists of a shallow lake of brine, which niards improperly call them. Mistaking this subin Summer is converted into a field of snow white stance for saltpetre nothing is to be seen but an ex. salt. The layer near the margin is from four to five tensive plain composed of a black muddy soil, supinches thick, but towards the centre its thickness in

porting scattered tufts of these tracts. On returning This lake was two and a half miles long, through one of these tracts, after a weeks hot and one broad. Others occur in the neighbourhood weather, one is surprised to see square miles of many times longer, and with a floor of salt two and

the plain white, as if from a slight fall of snow, bere three feet in thickness, even when under the water and there heaped up by the wind into little drafts. during the winter. One of these brilliantly white This laiter appearance is chiefly caused by the salts and level expanses, in the midst of the brown and

being drawn up during the slow evaporation of the desolate plain, offers an extraordinary spectacle. A moisture round blades of dead grass, stumps of mud large quantity of salt is annually drawn from the

and pieces of broken earth instead of being crystalsalina ; and great piles, some hundred tons in weight, ized at the bottoms of the puddles of water. The were lying ready for exportation. The season for salitrales occur either on level tracts, elevated only a working the salinas forms the harvest of Patagones, few feet above the level of the sea, or on alluvial land for on it the prosperity of the place depends. Nearly bordering rivers. M. Parchappe found that the the whole population encamps on the banks of the saline incrustation on the plain, at the distance of river, and the people are employed in drawing out some miles from the sea, consisted chiefly of sulphate the salt in bullock wagons. This salt is crystallized of soda with only seven per cent of conimon salt inin great cubes, and is remarkably pure. Mr. Tren- creased to 37 parts of a hundred. This circumstance ham Reeks, has kindly analyzed some for me, and he would tempt one to believe that the sulphate of soda finds in it only 0.26 of gypsum, and 0.25 of earthy is generally in the soil from the muriate, left on the matter. It is a singular fact, that it does not serve surface during the slow and recent elevation of this 60 well for preserving meat as sea salt from the Cape dry country. The whole phenomenon is worthy the de Verd Islands, and a merchant at Buenos Ayres, attention of naturalists. Have the succulent salt. told me that he considered it is fifty per cent less loving plants which are well known to contain much valuable. Hence the Cape de Verd salt is constantly soda, the power of decomposing the muriate? Does imported, and is mixed with that from these salinas. the black fetid mud, abounding with organic matter, The purity of the Patagonian salt or absence from it yield the sulpher and ultimately the sulphuric acid ? of those other salina bodies fonnd in all sea water, is

A CLOUD OF LOCUSTS. the only assignable cause for this inferiority, a conclu

After over two day's tedious journey, it was resion which no one I think, would have suspected, but which is supported by the fact lately ascertained,

freshing to see in the distance rows of poplars and that those salts answers best for preserving cheese

willows growing round the village and river of Luxan.

Shortly before arriving at this place, we observed to which contain most of the deliquescent chlowdes.

the South a ragged cloud of a dark reddish brown The borders of the lake is formed of mud, and in this numerous large crystals of gypsum, some of

color. At first we thought that it was smoke from

some great fire on the plains ; but we soon found that which are three inches long lie embedded, whilst on

it was a swarm of locusts. They were flying norththe surface others of sulphate of soda lie scattered

ward ; and, with the aid of a light breeze, they overabout. The Gauchos call the former Padre, del, sal,

took us at the rate of ten or fifteen miles an hour. and the latter the “ Madre.” They state that these

The main body filled the air froin a height of twenty progenitive salts always occur in the borders of the

feet to that as it appeared, of two or three thousand salinas, when the water begins to evaporate. The

above the ground, and the sound of their wings mud is black and has a feoted odour. I could not at

was as the sound of chariots of many horses running first imagine the cause of this, but I afterwarda per

to a battle ;" or rather I should say like a strong ceived that the froth which the wind drifted on shore was coloured green as if by confervae. I atteinpted sky, seen through the advanced guard, appeared like

breeze passing through the rigging of a ship. The in carry home some of this green matter, but from

a mezzatinto engraving, but the main body was iman accident failed. Parts of the lake seen from a

perious to sight, they were not however, so thick short distance appeared of a reddish colour, and this

together but that they could escape a brick waved perhaps was owing to some infusorial animalcula.

backwards and forwards. When they alighted they The mud in many places was thrown up by numbers

were more numerous than the leaves of the field, and of some kind of worm, or angeliduous animal. How

the surface became reddish instead of being green ; surprising it is that any creatures should be able to

the swarm having once alighted, the individuals exist in brine, and that they should be crawling few from side to side in all directions. Locusts are amongst crystals of sulphate, of soda and lime. And

not an uncommon pest in this country. Already, what becomes of these worms when during the long

during this season several small swarms had come up summer, the surface is hardened into a solid layer of salt. Flamingoes in considerable numbers inhabit

from the South, where, as apparently in all other this lake, and breed here ; throughout Patagonia in

parts of the world, they are bred in the deserts. The

poor cottagers in vain attempted, by lightning fires, northern Chile, and at the Galapagos Islands I met

by shouts and by waving branches, to avert the with these birds whereever there were lakes of

attack. This species of locusts closely resembles, brine. I saw them here wading about in search of

and perhaps is identical with the famous Gryllus food, probably for the worms which burrow in the

Migratorius of the East.
mud ; and these latter probably feed on infusoria an
cafervone. Thus we have a little living world

within itself adapted to the inland lakes of brine. A At night I slept at the house of the owner of one of
minute crustaceous animal (cancer salinus) is said to the sall-pelre mines. The country is here as unpro-
live in countless numbers in the brine pans at Ly. ductive as near the coast; but water having rather a
mington; but only in those in which the Auid has bitter and brackish taste, can be procured by diging
attained, from evaporation, considerable strength, wells. The well at this house was 36 yards deep,
namely about a quarter of a pound of salt to a pint as scarcely any rain falls it is evident the water is
of water. Well may we affirm that every part of the not thus derived ; indeed if it were it could not fail
world is habitable! Whether lakes of brine, or those to be as salt as brine, for the whole surrounding
subterenean ones hidden beneath volcanic mountains country is i. crusted with various saline substauces.
warm mineral springs, the wide expanse and depths We must therefore conclude that it percolates under
of the ocean-the upper regions of the atmosphere, ground from the Cordillera, though distant many



leagues. In that direction there are a few small villages, where the inliabitants having more water are enabled to irrigate a lit:le land, and raise hay on which the mules and asses employed in carrying the saltpetre are fed. The nitrate of soda was now selling at the ships side at fonrteen shillings per hundred pounds; the chief expense is its transport to the sea-coast. The mine consists of a hard stratum between two and three feet thick of the nitrate mingled with a little of the sulphate of soda and a good deal of common salt. It lies close beneath the surface and follows for a length of one hundred and fifty miles the margin of a grand basin or plaiu. This from its outline, manifestly, must once have been a lake or more probably an inland arm of the sea as may be inferred from the presence of iodic salts in the sea line stratum. The surface of the plain is 3300 feet above the l'acifiic.

TERRIBLE HAIL STORM. September 16th. To the seventh posta at the foot of tho Sierra Tapalguen, the country was quite level, with coarse herbage, and a soft peaty soil. The hovel was here remarkably neat, the posts and rafters being made of about a dozen dry thistles-stalks bound together with thongs of hide; and by the support of these ionic-like columns, the roof and sides were thatched with reeds. We were here told a fact, which I would not have credited if I had not had partly ocular proof of it, namely, that during the previous night, hail as large as small apples and extremely hard, had fallen with such violence as to kill the greater number of the wild animals. One of the men had already found thirteen deer (cervus campestris) lying dead, and I saw their fresh hides. Another of the party, a few minutes after my arrival brought seven

Now I well know that one man without dogs could hardly have killed seven deer in a week. The men believed they had seen about fifteen dead os. triches, part of one of which we had for dinner ; and he said that several were running about, evidently blind in one eye. Numbers of small birds, as ducks, hawks and partridges, were killed. I saw one of the latter with a black mark on its back, as if it had been struck with a paving stone. A fence of thistle stalks round the hovel was nearly broken down, and my informer, putting his head out to see what was the matter, received a severe cut, and now wore a bandage. The storm was said to have been of limited extent. We certainly saw from our last night's bivouac, a dense cloud and lightning in this direction. It is marvellous how such strong animals as deer could thus have been killed ; but I have no doubt, from the evidence I have given, that the story is not in the least exaggerated. I am glad, however, to have its credibility supported by the jesuit Dobrizhoffer, who was speaking of a country much to the northward, says, hail fell of an enormous size, and killed a vast number of cattle ; the Indians hence called the place, Lalegraicavalca, meaning “ The little white things." Dr. Malcolmson also informs me, that he witnessed in 1839, in India, a hail storm, which killed numbers of large birds, and much injured the cattle. These hail-stones were flat, and one was ten inches in circumference, and another weighed two ounces ; they ploughed up a grand walk like musket balls, and passed through the glass windows, making round holes but not cracking them.

EARTHQUAKE RUINS. There is also another and very different class of ruins, which possesses some interest, namely, those of old Callao, overwhelmed by the great earthquake of 1746, and its accompanying wave. The destruction must have been more complete even than at Talcahuano. Quantities of shingle almost conceal the foundations of the walls, and vast masses of brickwork appear to have been whirled about like pebbles by the ritiring waves. It has been stated that the land subsided during this memorable shock. I could not discover any proof of this ; yet it seems far from improbable, for the form of the coast must certainly have undergone some change since the foundation of the old town, as no people in their senses would willingly have chosen for their building place the narrow spit of shingle on which the ruins now stand since our voyage M. Tschudi has come to the conclusion, by the comparison of old and modern maps, that the coast both north and south of Lima has certainly subsided.

THE POTATO IN ITS NATURAL SOIL GROW- months 7 days and in the autumnal months 14 and

21 day periods are distinctly marked, and the whole

are modified by the position or place of the moon in AGO ISLANDS.

its orbit; and about the equinoxes the storms and The wild potatoe grows on these islands in great winds from the south west and west materially affect abundance on the sandy shelly soil near the sea beach. the weather, generally indncing irregularity along the The tallest plant was four feet in height. The tubars lands drained by the Mississippi River. were generally small, but I found one of an oval shape In the past year at least 200 days of westerly winds two inches in diameter. They resembled in every. have prevailed in this section and about 26 days of the respect and had the same smell as English potatoes ; last 30 days the wind veered to the south west point. but when boiled they shrunk much, and were watery I suppose it probable that during the south westerly and insipid without


bitter taste. They are un- winds, a strong electro magnetic current set across doubtedly here indigenious; they grow as far south. the Atlantic from the African coast to the Charybean according to Mr. Low, as latitude 50°, and are called coasts of South America and thence passing into the Aquinas by the wild Indians of that part : the Gulph and the interior land regions may have caused Chilitan Indians have a different name for them. storms and prepared the exitants of earthquakes which Professor Henslow, who has examined the dried will be developed in February and March next. specimens which I brought home, says, that they The trade winds are not wholly dependent upon are the same with those described by Mr. Sabine the chemical daily influence of the sun, but in part from Valparaiso, but they form a variety which by arise from certain reactive forces set in motion by efsome botanists, has been considered as specifically forts at equations between tropical and polar general distinct. It is remarkable that the same plant should chemical results. The same forces which cause the be found on the sterile mountains of central Chile, trade winds partially interrupted expend part of their where a drop of rain does not fall for more than six energy in giving the sea current called the Gulph months, and within the damp forests of these Southern

But much the greater share of those forces Islands.

entering the land surface of South America penetrate

to its volcanic mountains and wending northward VIRGINIA CORRESPONDENCE.

through the Isthmus of Panama crosses Mexico and

December 21, 1846. the Rio Grande through Arkansas and arriving this E. MERIAM, Esq.

side of the Mississippi river in a zone several hundred Dear Sir :- I received two numbers of the New

miles wide becomes divided. The greater share of York Farmer and Mechanic-it is a well conducted these wind and earthquake forces takes a northward journal, and better stored with modern views of course up the Mis-issippi while the remainder turns things than any similar journal I have read.

eastward extending over all the horizontal limestone The progressive democracy of knowledge has more

regions of Kentucky and Middle Tennessee and crossfreedom in your mixed atmosphere than in the Quake: ing the Eastern parts of Ohio follows the South shores city or the tea city down east.

of Lake Erie and Ontario towards the sea and across Your approbation of the new Constitution of New- it to a junction with the Gulph stream. York with a strong touch of Radical Whigism, in- But jndging by the uniform tracks of Gulph Hurrivites both yourself and Spencer to fall in and hold canes which passing through Mississippi and Arkanwell the reins for guiding the Democratic Phaeton. sas into the western end of Tennessee there divide,

The Whigs have the wrong Telescope now as they part going northward or north eastward and the rehave had for the last fifty years, with the exception

mainder passing east mounts over the Cumberland of a few months.

mountain and thence advances along the valleys bor. Those that have eyes to see ought to use them. dering on the Alleghany range, I would infer that the If Congress bring back the boundary to the Neuces electro magnetic forces pursue the same direction. River you will soon see an Empire Republic between

In the Indian Ocean the monsoons for six months 24 and 42 degrees from the Gulf to the Pacific, made on this side the Equator blow south easterly, at the by the progressive Whigs and Democrats.

same time a countercurrent beyond the Equator blows The die is cast, and the Rubicon is crossed for attain- south westward and during the ensuing six months ing commercial supremacy over the assiatic trade. with a short rest about the change the monsoons

The interests of twenty millions of people is come from the north east and beyond the Equator stronger than when our number was only three mil

the counter current runs toward the south east. lions, and how will it be twenty years hence ?

The position of the Mediterranean and Black seas Land, land, wherever the rain falls has been the with the arid state of Central Africa and Arabia watch word of the Saxon ancestry for 2,500 years

have much to do with generating the currents from past, and will the young ones now change habits ? the west, while the Hymalayan mountains and table The above letler drew from us some remarks under

plains and heated sands of Southern Asia give direct

ion to the monsoon from the Malabar regions while the head of " Comparative Meteorology" on pages the ocean surface south of the Equator invite the 641 and 642 of this series of the Gazetle, to which countercurrents. we referred our learned correspondent in a letter we

To keep up these energetic movements of winds,

clouds and waters, an incalculable force is constantly addressed to him.

warring against the opposing stillness ordered and ABINGDON, January 12th, 1847. E. MERIAM, Esq.,

vainly attempted to be imposed by the attraction of

gravitation. Who can estimate the gross amount of Dear sir,

such force? The tides on opposite sides of the world Your acceptable favor of January 2d is received, at the same time represent the power exerted, and with several newspapers containing your remarks on volcanic heavings indicate the mighty efforts for ba temperature, &c.

lancing and equating these terrene breathings of the Since the 14th December to the 7th of this month chemical world we walk upon and think so stablethe weather in this region has been remarkably tem- and motionless. perate and uniform with light frosts or none at all. Now if these positions have foundation in nature The next 42 hours succeeding 2 o'clock P. M. of the you perceive that all their lesser classes of incidents 7th the thermometer fell from 74 degrees above to 2 must be no less true, among which all atmospheric or degrees below zero at this place, and 71 to zero at weather variations are embraced. If it be true that Saltville.

tide elevations at the antipodes answer each other in In all the 24 preceding days, the earth copiously gross, so do also every particle of the waters, although sent forth calorifying influences, when as above stated 8000 miles apart, answer one to the other as certainly a collapse ensued, during which the ground not only as the complex atoms of all my hand unite in obeying refused to impart heat, but abstracted it from the air, the intent with which I indite these lines. Admit so that in four hours, soft deep mud became so frozen this to be true and how can it be said that your as to sustain a horse and next day loaded waggons. observations upon swelling and collapsing states of The rocks to day dissolve the snow next their surface atmospheric temperature indicate nothing ? As well especially such as are deeply embeded in the crust of might the sceptic say maguetic polarity is accidental the earth, which I did not so soon expect. In winter and without parentage of multiplied causation. But the changes commonly occur by seven or by fourteen the march of common sense observation is now, in day periods, while the analogous changes in summer, every Christian land, collecting facts and making in. are 14 to 28 day times, attended by similitudes of ductions which if not examined and rightly connected vapor and other atmospheric changes. In spring with existing theories and systems of physical philosophy, will overset them, burying their merits with demerits, to the great injury of progressive science.

I need not say that I commend your careful attention to such facts as you refer me, in the papers received from you. In my last letter to you I gave the Geological outlines of the inclined fractured edges on the slope of Walker's mountain, extending down to Saltville on the one side, and northwestward I described the slope of sandstone ascending 2700 feet high to the summit of Clynch mountain. The latter is the surface sandstone under which lies the red sandstone, and while the fractured edges of the rocks of Walkers' shew they have been upheaved from a depth of above 4000 feet, the base of the Clynch mountain must, on the Saltville side, have had a corresponding depression else the superstratal sandstone could not in the saliferous bed come into contact with the basal upheaved rocks of Walker's mountain as we now find them. There must have been a disruption along the valley between them, not less than a mile in depth and above a hundred miles long and when the gap received much of the diffractured superior rocks it came together at the valley level crushing and disjointing much massive material. It is the irregular parcels of rucks near this great crevice which seems to have produced some differences of opinions among the numerous geologists who have inspected the place, but by crossing the valley at several distant places from the summit of one mountain to the other, the true construction can be ascertained and the local irregulari. ties be explained.

I mentioned that here the geological conformation is too low dowu in the series of rocks for coal to exist. In the superstructure of the Alleghanies and especially in the Cumberland mountain coal abundantly appears. In the Alleghany chain I have seen no granite nor in any range of these mountains not directly attached to the Blue mountain, which overlooks the Atlantic slope from Virginia circling westward toward Vicksburgh. All south and east of the Blue inountains contain old rocks as well as vast formations of recent rocks, but here no rocks above the ancient secondary are found. It is very strongly prestımptive that the rock sall here was composed out of saliferous material dissolved from the red and marly beds when broken up about 800 feet under the surface, at the time the present mountains were formed. At the same time also, the Gypsum was made and commingled with it, by very extensive decomposition of adjacent limestone, in heated lakes. After that period much dæbris was cast upon it, covering up the mammoth or mastodon skeletons under the action of currents from the north west crossing Clynch mountain, at a point 2000 feet higher than Saltville, but, when this last event occurred no considerable diffraction of rocks or changes of valley and hill surfaces occurred. To my mind thousands of proofs exist for one opposed to the belief, that both the early and later general changes of the terrene crust were caused by foreign masses approaching too near the earth to permit its waters to remain as now on the face of the globe. The waters generally were vaporized and subsequently descended to the earth, causing immense floods whilst the equatorial diameter was recovering its lost position.

From the description of the world in Adam's day it is manifest Moses conceived a belt of waters (somewhat like Saturn's rings) composed the waters in the open heavens far above the waters composing the

Nor is it less plain that in Noah's time he describes those waters as descending upon the earth nor is it improbable that Saturn's thin muddy and watery rings will fall to his body, by the lesser influence of some foreign body which caused the elevation. Under such circumstances volcanic and oceanic action wonld not remain neutral, but still their results would not be on a scale to forin uniform hills and mountains for hundreds and thousands of miles in length, as we now find them. To derange these more enlarged effects is the province of local volcanic and oceanic operations as the surface of all countries attests.

When there is a return of the causes once leaving monuments over all the earth of fiery heats and frozen seas, the rainbow and its concometant seasons will not exist as now and man himself will not then be the witness of terrene things as at the present time.

Remarks of the Rev. Mr. Colton, Chaplain of the
United States Ship Congress made in relation to the
effects of the climate of the Westorn parts of the Con-

tinent, bordering the great Pacific, which we have racter bends before these new and until now untried before quoted, were cominunicated in a letter written energies for evil or for good, and doubtless for good by that Gentleman to the Editors of the Journal of these changes are granted by an overruling Provi. Commerce, and by them published in that Journal. dence ; yet all these mighty influences would sud

Mr. Colton, in that letter written at Valparasio, May || denly cease or be immensely interrupted by any 5, 1846, says:— The climate of Peru, has a singular great disturbance in the present institutions of Brazil effect on the color of the different racesmit bleaches and our own country. All the earth ought at present the black man into the Mullatto, and bronzes the white to guard and protect those institutions as they are. It man into the Indian. It dwarfs the European in was the wealth of New England that stocked the stature in the second and third generation, and de- South with slaves and it was the uncongeniality of the prives him of fire and energy. The native youth, in climate and products in the northern states and not their boyhood, exhibit intelligence and force, but as the donations of humanity that liberated those states they grow np they become feeble in body and irre- from slavery. Even now the most humane abolisolute in mind."

tionist searches alter the cheapest cotton, sugar, toI believe it was said in the United States Senate bacco, rice and other slave grown products without a by some member of that intelligent body—that compunction for not leaving in some charity liberat. Mexico is destitute of great men. That climate is not ing box, one stiver, as a conscience offering to hucongenial to the developement of intellect.

manity. Out of the expansions of commerce agriThe Rev. Mr. Colton, has, since he penned the culture and manufactures, gains are made for buil. letter of May 5, 1846. became a sort of Executive ding splendid church edifices and bells and orizons Magistrate, in a City on the Western Coast of America, chime in the contracted understanding of votaries which was forcibly taken possession of by Captain who glory in their own absolute purity (inglorious Stockton, an officer commanding a United States Ship arrogance) and send up prayers of indignation against of War in the Pacific

their neighbours. Abingdos, January 17th, 1847.

I have seen much of the Indian, the Negro and the E. MERIAM, Esq.,

Caucasian White and well know that wherever the Dear Sir,

latter comes in contact with the former, submission I beg leave to differ with you in the opinion that

and a protective care or extinction becomes their inethe caucasian or white germanic race of mankind will

vitable doom. In all the adventurous action of the deteriorate after a few generations by habitation upon

Germanic races of mankind whilst searching the the Western side of North America. The able work

earth for the most commodious homes we find them of Dr Lawrence and the truly excellent and elaborate

always selecting rich soils irrigated by great rivers book of our own countryman Dr. Samuel G. Morton

or from regular rains by the clouds; they do not upon the characteristics of the various races and con

willingly remain in countries of great aridity or restitutions of mankind demonstrate wonderful per

quiring irrigation by much hand labor, prefering to manence of organization and intellect. Without com

fight for better places. It is because of the irregumixture of blood, every variety retains distinctive larity of seasons, except in small portions of Califorfeatures, for thousands of years, with slight modifica

nia, that all the lands beyond the Rocky Mountains tions for changes of climate and facilities of subsis

and the Rio Grande are all suited to slave products tence. A few hundred thousand Anglo Saxons occu

by tillage and no Southerners would ever dream of pying the million of square miles beyond the rocky

subjecting those regions to slavery provided their mountains, will within a few generations, humanize

home relations were unmolested by political dragothe wild savages now roaming like Buffaloes for

men of the north. Apart from this danger constantly scanty and insecure sustenance, not by the mere fact

threatened, there is not and never can be ihe slightest of conquest, but by commixture of blood. Not all the

motive for the extension of slave representation beyond Indians of the world, it possessed at once, with the

the Rio Grande, yet even there under any future riches and the steam navigation of the Mississippi val

events that can happen, the Caucasian will exercise ley could preserve and much less extend those sour

his dominent sway over the mixed blooded races for ces of affluence and power even for the poor term of

ages to come, whether as hunters, shepards graziers one or two years. Nor would all the black race,

sailors, day laborers, or tillers of the soil. educated as many are, be able by themselves to carry

The physical and intellectual endowments and esout the expanding energy of the same machinery pecially the pliability of his constitution to all latitudes beyoud the term of ten or twenty years. Their social

enables him to hold supremacy until by admixture of and obedient tempers can imitate, admire and patern

blood his pure cast being lost, new hordes of the Cauafter the plans of direct superiors and from an instinc

casians seeing the defect, step forward and assume tive regard to affairs of one year in advance, they will

the direction of affairs, elevating the mass and again carefully preserve seeds and plant, cook and weave, commingling with it. But the commercial appetite yet are mentally incapable of conducting and preser

of our people for the hoarded gold and silver which ving civilizatiou and its complex appendages.

it has for ages accumulated in China will impel a The late rapid increase of population and the ame

long and constant migration and renewal of the pure liorating processes for advancing the political and

Germanic blood along the western coasts, so that I social condition of all mankind demand the occupa

judge your apprehensions of the deterioration of the tion of all lands and climates adapted to the general

Saxon blood in the west will be as groundless as it good. A few marauding hunters claiming the regions

has proved according to some French Savans that the froin the Californian Peninsula to Beerings Straits

races of all animals rapidly deteriorated upon the must allow others to add value to the lands and

American contenent.* forests and waters, to breath the free air and to open

Within the next twenty years our population will

be doubled and the reasons which has within a short ports and roads adapted to advancing the interests of all.

period cast into the Mississippi valley ten millions of Whilst all Mexico is destined to be the cumulative

souls will in no great lapse of years place twenty milreservoir of the free Moorish family of this continent,

lions beyond the Rocky Mountains. No country has it is quite as certain that millions of the Tatar, the prospered more than England during the three last Chinese and Malayan varieties of men must seek re

centuries and her colonial system is well known to generation and christianity along the western wilds of

have been the chief means of advancement to all her our continent and among the Polynesian fields of the power. Pacific.

Even grant that an independent republic will at The cheap products by slave labor in Brazil and last exist beyond the Rocky Mountains, is it not of the United States is an instrument in the hands of an vast moment to rear it up under our tuition, with our all wise providence, more potent for civilizing and language, our principles and our system of trade and christianizing all the world in a short period to come, manufactures. How else can a proper system of railthan all the ecclesiastic and all the money power of roads and other interior relations be preserved ?--thie the earth united to effect the same purpose. The occupation of the Western Ports as surely commands tobacco, leather, hats, raw cotton, coffee, sugar, rice- the trade of China and of Polynesia and dismantles corn and meat yielded by slave labor, under the pes- English marine in that quarter as any event that has tilential air of bounteous soils are supplied to stea, not been verified. If a nation will not send forth mers of the land and ocean so cheap as to arrest the young hives the parent home must sink and die by finger labor of all semicivilised and crowded tribes reason of its own want of common foresight. The and nations. Pins, needles, hosiery, blue and checked genious of our institutions requires a broad verge for cottons and all manufactures, spring forth by the en- the action of disappointed and pent up spirits. We chanted million fingered steam apparatus of a few cannot have standing armies to keep down turbulent factories. Every thing of the social or political cha- migratory spirits.


* # # #

other publishers having agreed to accept it, we de deduct.

$218 60




198 45

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The Commissioners for Widening the

Bloomindale Road from TwentyFifth street to the intersection of the Seventh Avenue,

To EDWARD Ewry, Dr. For 193 days' work for self and assistant, in making

the necessary surveys, profiles, rule maps, damages maps, and benefit maps, at $4 per day.... $792 00

City and County of New-York, ss. : - I, Edward Ewen, do solemnly swear, that the above amount of $792, is just and true.

EDWARD EWEN. Sworn, at the City of New-York, this? 29th May, 1846, before me,

D. M. COWDREY, Commissioner of Deeds,

cation of the Mayor, Aldermen, and Commonality of City of New-York, relative to opening a certain new street, laid out under and by virtue of an act of the Legislature of the State of New-York, entitled “ An Act to lay out a new street in the Twelfth and Sixteenth wards of the city of New York, and to keep open a part of the Bloomingdale Road in said city," passed April 16, 1846.

Take Notice, that the costs and charges in the above entitled matter will be taxed by the Circuit Judge of the First Circuit, at his office, in the City Hall of the city of New-York, on the Twenty-sixth day of September, instant, at nine o'clock in the foreDated September 1846.

J. W. C. LEVERIDGE, Commissioners.

J. Leveridge, Attorney.

City and County of New York, ss. Wm. Burroughs Jr. being duly sworn, says that he is a clerk in the office of the Morning News, a daily paper, printed and published in the City of New York, and that the charge of one hundred ninety-eight 45-100 is correct and true.

W. BOROUGHS, Jr. Sworn before me this Ist day of June, 1846,

Wr. H. GRISWOLD, Com'r of Deeds. J. Leveridge, Esq.

To the New York COMMERCIAL ADVERTISER, Dr. 1845. Aug. 7-To advertising new street, 12th and 16th Waris, $2, 205,

$8 60 City and County of New York, 88.: Thomas E. Gaison being duly sworn, says that the amount on the other side is correct. THOMAS E. Gaison. Sworn before me this 1st June, 1846,

Joseph STRONG, Commissioner of Deeds.

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Commrs. on Bloomindale Road,

To R. C. Rook, Dr. 1845. May 21. 1 bottle of Red Ink,

1 com. Pens,

qr, cap Book Paper,

Sept 10.3
cap Paper,

75 1846.

1 qr. cap. $ fa. Jan. 11. 3 qrs. folio post, ruled to pat, 75 2 25 Aprl 17. 2 grs. foolscap Book,

1 00 1 do. Paper ruled $ cts.

6 25

qrs, ruled


Before the Hon. J. W. EDMONDS, Circuit Judge

of the First Circuit at his Chambers in the City Hall of the City of New York.

In Re. Bloomingdale Road. NOTICE OF TAXATION.


Charles A. Whitney and others, Com'rs,

To John F. Trow & Co. Dr. 1845. May 31.-To 100 Circulars for Commissioners Bloomingdale Road,

$2 25

John Leveridge, Esq.

To the EVENING Post, Dr. 1845. Aug. 7-To adv. Bloomingdale Road, 8.66 2p 200

8 60 1846. Feb. 20- (legal charge $442.80) 60t 75 00 March 25

6.25 21p 11t 6 25 April 20—

17.20 4f 20t 17 20 Legal charge $464.85 agreed upon.

$207 05 City and County of New York, ss.: On this the first day of June, 1846, before me came Jas. A. How, who being duly sworn, says that he is the principal clerk in the office of the Evening Post, published in the City of New-York, and that the sum of four hun. dred and sevonty-four dollars 85-100 charged on the other side is the legal charge for said advertisements, but that the sum of two hundred and seven 05-100 is the amount agreed upon with the Commissioners for said advertisements, and that the snm of two hun. dred and soven 05-100 is correct and true.

J. A. How. Sworn before mo this 2d day of June, 1846.

JULIUS SHERWOOD, Com'r of Deeds.

New-York, August 29, 1845. Commissioners for Bloomingdale Road, Messrs. W. P. Hallett and others,

To Morning News, Dr. For publishing notice : a new street, 2 sqrs 20t,

$8 60 City and County of New-York. 88.: William Burroughs, Jr. being duly sworn, says that he is a clerk in the office of the Morning News, and that the written bill of eight 60-100 dollars is correct and true.

WILLIAM BURROUGHS, Jun. Sworn before me this 1st day of June, 1846.

William H. GRISWOLD, Com'r of Deeds.

Widening and Opening Bloomingdale Road,}

SURVEYOR'S BILL, ALLOWED. This affidavit shows that he is not the samne Ewen that was engaged in the other surveys, and that the service has been performed. The other Surveyors certify as to the value of the services.

COMMISSIONERS BILL. These affidavits state distinctly the service of 148 days of six hours each, and there is nothing against this but surmise, and even that surmise is answered by the fact that they were first appointed in May Term. rendered some service before September, and also rendered service after 20th February, and their Book of Minutes produced before me. shows the particular days.

Room hire is deducted by the Commssioners, the rest allowed as charged.

COLLECTORS FEES, ALLOWED The amount was not disputed and the Statute is explicit in charging the owners benefitted, the expense of making and collecting the assesmeut. Appraisers and Printers Bill, unquestioned.

ATTORNEYS BILL. This is charged according to the Rev. Stat. which was repealed by the act of 1840, which makes no provision for these services. I confess I had my doubts, still under the act of 1839 the attorney was entitled to a compensation, and the only question was as to the rate at which it should be measured. The law of 1839, and the rule of the Supreme Court adopted thereon contemplated the " Existing laws,' that is, the Revenue Statute, as the standard, and as the Superior Court have allowed that rule to stand more than six years since the passage of the act of 1840, I suppose they intend it shall so operate, and I govern myself accordingly.

The clerk is entitled to only 50 cents for entering a rule, whether it is ten or ten hundred folio long. To enter these rules must cost the State $40 or $50 at least, but if they choose to do it for 50 cents, the owners will not complain. That item is deducted.

COUNSEL FEES. I know nothing about the amount of service rendered or necessary. The counsel for the Corporation makes oath to the correctness of the charges, and thers acquainted with the nature of the business confirm him. Against this, I have nothing but surmise, and to that I cannot yield in opposition to the evidence before me.

In the matter of Widening the Bloomingdale Road

from 25th Street to 7th Avenue...... feet.

To JOHN CARR & ISAAC LEWIS. May 28. 1846—To services in the above matter as appraisers,

$50 00 City and County of New-York, ss : Isaac Lucas be. ing duly sworn, saith that he and John Carr were employed by the Commissioners in the above matter as appraisers, and that the foregoing sum of fifty dol. lars is a reasonable and proper charge for such services therein.

ISAAC Lucas. Sworn to before me this 28th day of May, 1846,

ALF. MONTGOMERY, Com'r of Deeds.

New-York, May 18, 1846.
Commissioners of Estimate,
Messrs. Hallett, Leveridge, & Whitney.

1845 To New-York Daily Express, Dr. August 7, 1846. To advertising applica

tion to open and widen Bloomingdale
road, 1st 20 days notice,

$8 60 Feb. To advertising that Commissioners

had completed their assessment &c.
60 days,

175 00
March To advertising for objections, 10

6 25 April To advertising the 2nd 20 days notice,

17 20 June 20. To advertising 14 days notice taxation of costs,

4 95 City and County of New-York, ss. Kneeland Townsend, in the office of the New-York Daily Ex. press, being duly sworn, says, that the above bill for advertising in the matter of opening and widening Bloomingdale road, amounts to two hundred and seven dollars and five cents, is correct, and further he says not, also the additional item of four dollars and ninety-five cents. Sworn this 20th day of June, 1846, before me,


Commissioner of Deeds,
John Leveridge, Esq.,
W. P. Hallett,
J. W.C. Leveridge, Commissioners.
Chas. A. Whitney,

To the office of the Gazette & Times, Dr.
Feb. 20. To advertising Bloom-

ingdale Road, 26 f 600 $442 20 $175 00 March 20 24f 5t

6 25 April 20 4 f 200

$17 20 State of New York, ss. On the first day of June, 18 46, before me, came Henry G. Evans, who being duly sworn says, that he is the publisher of the Gazetto and Times a Daily Newspaper, published in the City of Now-York, and that the above bill of one hundred and ninety eight 45-100 dollars, is correct according

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The charges in the bill dated Feb. 20, 1846, was pub

lished with an understanding between the Commissioners and the publisher of the News, that the price to be paid shall not exceed that which other offices should agree to publish it for. The Commissioners having settled upon $175, and the

6 00


tified copy,

40 80

Do, affidavit of John Turuer as to

notice having been put up and copy, 75; oath ,12}; copy of notice to annex, 371:

1 25

1 25 To posting the first 20 days hand

bills, daily, for 20 days, and the 60 days' handbills, for 60 days, daily, making 80 days, at 50-100 per day, 40 00 40 00

May Term, 1846. Motion to confirm report, as amended, 62 625 Brief att'y and counsel fee, on motion

to commissioners, same being opposed,

3 623 3 624 The Court overruled the objection,

except as to taxation of costs, and
directed the costs to be taxed, and
confirmation to stand over until

July term, for that purpose.
Do, rule therein, fol. 3 and copy,
Clerk entering rule and for certified

Copy of rule as certified to serve on
Ř. Mott, Esq.,

375 2 37$ Clerk of the Supreme Court entering

original report, fol. 10, 37, and for certified copy thereof,

:37 38 Clerk of the Supreme Court entering

original report, as amended, fol.

212, and for certified copy thereof, 30 19 Do. affidavit of commissioners, fol. 2 and copy, 75; 3 oaths, 37);

1 121 Do. affidavit to appraiser's bill, fol. 1

37} Oath, 123,

12, 169 19

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to agreement entered into between the Proprietor of the said Gazette and Times, and the Commissioners mentioned in 'said bill. Sworn to before me this first day of June, 1846.

HERRY G. Evans. F. A. How, Commissioner of Deeds. Mr. J. W. C. Leveridge, New York, Sept. 22, 1845.

To Folger and Sutton, Dr.,
To printing and furnishing 200 letter

sheets application for reports in 12th
and 16th wards,

$3.25 SUPREME COURT. In the matter of the application

of The Mayor, Alderman and Common. alty of the City of New York, relative to opening a certain new street, laid out under and by virtue of an act of the Legislature of the People of the | J. LEVERIDGE, State of New-York, entitled “ An act Attorney and to lay out a New Street, in the Twelfth Counsel. and Sixteenth Wards of the City of New-York, and to keep open a part of

Costs. the Bloomingdale Road, in said City," passed April 16, 1838. Retaining fee.

$ 3 621 Dft. petition, fol. 75 and copy, 28 28 Counsel perusing and amending, 1 25 33 155 P. of dft. as to commissioners to an

nex to petition fol. 2, copy and oath, 87 Copy of petition and affidavit to file, 9 68 Motion to appoint commissioners, 62 Brief and fee on motion to appoint commissioners,

3 62 Do. rule appointing commissioners, fol. 67 and copy,

25 12 Counsel perusing and amending, 1 25 Paid clerk entering rule and for cer

4 82 Notice to the commissioners of their appointment,

146 741 At the May Term, 1845, F. S. Kin

pey, Esq., upon affidavit and notice of motion, moved the Court to change a commissioner; brief and fee in opposing motion,

3 62.5 The name J. W. Muligan, one of

the commissioners, was striken out and W. P. Hallet substituted

by the Court. Do. rule for substitution, fol. 2 and copy,

75 Clerk entering and for certified copy, &c.,

75 1 50 Notice to W.P. Hallet of his appoint

33 00

91 and copy,

and copy,

tified copy,


Do, affidavit handbills had been posted, fol. 2 and copy,

75 Oath, 12; copy of handbills to annex to affidavit,

25 Motion made. Motion to appoint commissioners, Brief and fee on motion to appoint commissioners,

3 624 Do. rule appointing commissioners, fol. 74 and copy,

27 75 Counsel perusing and amending, 1 25 Paid clerk entering rule and for cer

5 18 Notice to the commissioners of their appointment,

75 Do. oath of commissioners, fol. 4 and copy, 1.50; oath, 123,

1 62 The commissioners proceeded to discharge their duties, and finished their estimate and assessment. Do. notice that commissioners had

completed their assessment, (pub

lished 60 days,) fol. 33 and copy, 12 374 Four copies of notice at 4.12 each, for printers,

16 50 Oue copy for printers to print handbills by,

4 12 Do. of abstract of assessment to file in street commissioner's office, fol.

34 13 Copy to file in street commissioner's office,

11 375 Do. affidavit of Jacob S. Warner, fol.

2 and copy, 75; oath 124; 87 Do. affidavit of George B. Smith, fol.

4 and copy, 1.50; oath, 12.; 1 62) Do. affidavit of John Ewen, fol. 3 and

copy, 1.12; and oath, 12); 1 25 Do. affidavis of 8. S. Doughty and

copy, fol. 3 and copy, 1.12; and oath, 12);

1 25 Do affidavit of Elias S. Smith, fol. 2

and copy, 75; and oath, 123; 87) Do. notice for objections, fol. 2 copy, published 21 days,

75 Four copies for printers, at 25 each, 1 00 One copy for printers to print haudbills by,

25 Objections having been made to the estimate and assessment of the commissioners, they amended same. Do. abstract of assessment as amended, fol. 91 and copy,

34 13 Copy to file in street commissioner's office,

11 375 Do. notice of amended abstract

having been filed, published 20 days, fol. 3 and copy,

1 12 Do. report of commissioners, fol. 1037 and copy,

388 88 Copy to file,

129 63 Do. report of commissioners, as amended, fol. 212 and copy,

75 50 Copy to file,

26 50 Copy of original abstract, to file in clerk's office,

11 37 Copy of amended abstract, to file in clerk's office,

11 37 Do. affidavit of publication of 60

days' notice for 4 printers, 75 each and copy, fol. 2,

3 00 Do. of affidavit of George D. Cooper as to notice having been put up 60 days, fol. 2 and copy:

75 Oath, 12); copy of notice to annex, 4.12);

4 25 Do. affidavit of John Turner as to notice haviug been put 60 days,

75 Oath, 12): copy of notice to annex, 4.12);

4 25 Do. affidavit of publication of 10

days' notice for printers aud
75 each,

3 00 Do. aliidavit of John Turner as to no

tice having been put up and copy,

75; oath, 12); notice to annex, 25 ; 1 12 Do. affidavit of publication of 20

days' notice for 4 printers and copy, at 75 each,

3 625

53 38

45 50.

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1197 785 Do. costs, fol. 22 and copy,

8 25 Copy for street commissioner's office, and also for taxation,

5 50 Copy of the bills of other expenses

for street commissioner's office, and also for taxation,

2 87 Do. notice of first taxation, fol. 2 and copy,

75 Four copies of notices for 4

newspapers, at 25 each,

1 00 Three copies to put up as handbills, 75 Putting up notices for 14 days, at 50 each day,

7 00 26 13 Do. of affidavit of John Turner, fol. 2,

50; copy thereof, 25; copy of notice to annex to affidavit, 25; oath, 12.);

1 12 Paid postage, Do. affidavits of R. V. Leveridge as

to posting, fol. 1, 25; copy, 121; oath, 12):

50 Do. affidavit of services and disburse

ments for taxation, fol. 3, 75; copy, 37; oath, 12);

1 25 Do. affidavit of J. Leveridge as to

charges in bill, fol. 4, 1.00; copy, 50; oath, 12);

1 62 Attending the taxation, 2 attendances, 50 Do. affidavit of John Turner as to,

fols. in proceedings fol. 3,75, copy 37], oath 124,

2 25 Copy of taxed bill to file with St. Commissioner,

1 25 Paid Printer for hand-bills for appli. on,

1 25 Paid Printer for hand-bills to be put up 60 days,

9 55 19 60 Printers fees for publishing notice

of taxation of costs 14 days, in 4 newspapers $4.95 each notice for 22nd June.

19 80 Do. affidavit of publication fol. 1

37] The like for three other newspapers at 37. each,

1 12.1 Motion at notice that confirmation of report completed,

3 62.) Do. of rule on motion fol. 2.50,

Clerk entering rule, and for certified copy 50,


648 37

87 90

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and copy,

Oath, 12}; motion to vacate, 62}; 75 Brief and fee on mution, $3.62; do.

rule, fol. 2 and copy, 75; 4 375 Clerk entering rule and for certified сору,

62} Serving rule on commissioners, 25 Do. petition, fol, 75, and copy,

28 13 Counsel perusing and amending, 1 25 Do. affidavit as to commissioners to annex, fol. 2 and copy,

75 Oath, 12}; copy of petition and affidavit to file,

9 50 Do. notice pursuant to statute of in

tention to apply to Court for the
appointment of commissioners for
2 and copy;

75 Copy for 4 printers, at 25 each, 1 00 Copy for printers to print handbillo by, 25 Do. affidavit of 4 printers, 2 fol. each 1 copy,

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1 12}

3 00

1 00 25 03 Do. costs for taxation fol. 2 copy, 7 50 Copy for Street Commissioners office,

2.50 Like for taxation,

2 50

3 00

3 00

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