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NEW-HAMPSHIRE CORRESPONDENCE. Letter from Hon. Josiah BUTLER.
So. DEERFIELD, N. H., Aug. 26, 1846. EBEN. MERIAM, Esq.
Dear Sir-Your letter of the 22d ult. making enquiries in regard to certain explosions, which have taken place in Deerfield and have been continued for several years, I will briefly answer.
1st.“ Whether the reports are always during the night ?" 20. “Whether they are continuous or abrupt?".
4th. “Whether they can be traced so as to determine that the convulsion appears in one direction from one person, and in the opposite direction of another person living at a distance of several miles, so that the origin can be located between the two ?"
1. The reports have been heard in the day time as often, and more so than in the night. An explosion about one and a half years since caused the stone walls and a cellar wall to fall, and shook and jarred the earth and buildings. Last November, another shock building, window-glass, stoves inhouses, opening inner doors, and caused clocks to strike irregularly and tumbled stone walls within twenty rods of my house on the south road in Deerfield, and greatly alarmed the inhabitants. Another explosion the first of July last, which was succeeded, as rapidly as a field piece would be discharged, by ten or more lesser erports, was about midnight, and aroused every one from sleep. These three reports were the loudest that have ever been heard. The explosions have increased within the last two years, and have been heard in winter as well as in other seasons of the year.
2. They are generally abrupt, and very much resembling the blasting of rocks, and have been felt from two to three miles by the jar of buildings at the same instant they are heard ; but one or two of the greatest appeared to the subscriber and some others, continuous, something like the earthquake, which was heard yesterday. the 25th inst., at 5 o'clock in the morning, in this state, and, as I learn, in some, if not all parts of Massachusetts striking the easterly end of the house, and passing off from the north east to the south
The earth and buildings, by the shock last November were agitated, or shook more than by the earthquake yesterday.
3. These explosions are heard in all parts of the town and slso in some of the adjacent towns, especially in the northerly part of the town of Candia, to the extent of 15 to 6 miles in every direction from the place where the reports are supposed to originate, On the southerly part of Deerfield near the south road, so called, the explosions are the loudest, and the jar of the buildings is felt more than in any other part of the town, and I have therefore concluded that the reports are produced by some cause existing between or near the mountains and the south road. The mountains spoken of by a "Native of Deerfield," are on the line or between Nottingham and Deerfield, and the sounds are scarcely heard at the centre of Nottingham, three miles east of the mountains. On the west of these mountains at about two miles west from the mountains and near a small river called Lamprey river, the explosions are the greatest or loudest and most felt. The south road passes over a ridge of land three miles south west of the mountains. The shock in November last, which tumbled down a strong wall on the south road, was about as great near the said river as on the south road. The location of the explosions cannot be determined by the sound so correctly as by the jar of the earth and buildings. The jar is not felt more than three miles, but the reports are heard from 5 to 6 miles in every direction from the place where the explosions are supposed to take place, or from whence the sounds appear to come. About 50 years ago, iron ore was dug near the Lamprey river, but whether there is any combustible matter in the earth which causes these explosions I do not know. Respectfully yours,
From the Portsmouth Journal.
The following is received from an authentic source, and may be relied on as strictly accurate :
Mr. Editor,—During the last twelve years, certain curious, not to say alarming, phenomena, in the town
of Deerfield, N. H., have excited the fears of the in- river. The Lamprey is a very small stream in Deerhabitants, and we think, should ere this, have attract- field. There is a small branch of this stream about ed the attention of the scientific. These are reports
a mile North of the South road, where the explosion or explosions in the ground, apparently of a volcanic was greater than elsewhere, in November," 1845. or gaseous nature. When first heard, they were at
From all the information I have obtained, the explotributed to the blasting of rocks in Manchester, a new
sions have been greater or heavier, at the junction of town, some ten miles distant; but from the frequency
this branch with the main stream, about two miles of the reports at all hours in the night, as well as the
from the South road, than at any other point in Deerday; from the consideration that they were so loud, field. In the town of Candia through which another and were heard in all seasons, winter as well as sum- small stream, (whose source is Martin's Pond in mer-it was soon concluded that they had some other Deerfield,) runs one and a half miles from the South origin. The explosions, if they may be so called, road, and empties into the Lamprey, in Raymond. commenced on a ridge of land running. S. E. and N. In the vicinity of this branch, the shakes have been W., some five miles in length, and principally on that
heard and felt, but three miles South from this little portion called the South Road. They have, how- stream they are seldom heard and never felt. It is ever, extended, and are now heard in a northerly di- now nine years next month, since these explosions rection, The sounds have become louder, and dur
were first heard in Deerfield, not 12 years as mening the last Fall, or the present Spring or Summer, as
tioned by a writer in the “Portsmouth Journal," but many as twenty have been heard in one night. Many
for several years they were not heard in other towns. of them jar the houses and ground perceptibly, so
The explosions, however, have become more fremuch so, that a child whose balance is not steady,
quent, and are louder than formerly, and might not will role from one side to the other. They are as loud
have been noticed in other places as they now are. as a heavy cannon fired near the house with no reverberation, and little role. Last Fall, some of the was in the night of the first day of July ?” I caninhabitants were riding in a wagon when an explo
not ascertain from any means in my power. It was
the first of the month.
2d. Whether the town is healthy, &c. ?". It is of the way, and a second after, upon the other. The considered very
healthy, and containing several aged stone wall of an unfinished cellar also fell in. This people, 3 or 4, between 90 and 100, and many becan be attested by many witnesses. There is no re
tween 80 and 90 years of age. The population of the gularity in these reports, as they are heard at inter
town is under 2000. vals of the day, a week, and sometimes of months;
3d. There are not any electric fish in the Lamprey but for the last year, they have become very com
river, unless eels are so called.
4th. Whether the shakes affect the water in the mon, and are heard every week, more or less. Deerfield, lies in lat. 45° 8'; long. 71° 12', on
wells ?" I have never heard. Pumps are much in the highest land between Portsmouth and Concord. use in Deerfield. The elevation of the summit, has been found by
5th. Whether the shakes felt at Newburyport in measurement, in the late railroad surveys, to be
May, are the same as those felt here ?" I do not nearly 600 feet. The town is surrounded by hills on
know, nor cannot ascertain. We have explosions On the N. W., are the Putaccoway
every month, and almost every week. Mountains, having three peaks, whose average height
6th. No light has been discovered at, or about the is 853 feet. On the North side is Saddleback Moun
time of the shocks. tain, 1032 feet above the level of the sea; and on the
7th. The average depth of our wells on the South West, a spur of Catamount. The town has never
side, is about 25 feet, but on the plains and in the been geologically examined, excepting in the State
Valley, near the streams, it is much less. They do survey of Dr. Jackson, and his observations were con
not terminate in rock generally. fined to the above mentioned Mountains, to consist
8th. As to the state of the weather, or atmosphere, mainly of scienate, granite, mica, slate, and a dyke preceding and succeeding the shocks, I do not know. of greenstone trap, crossing the summit of the Lower
I have never observed any material change, except in Pataccoway, dividing it into two parts.
one shock which took place on the 12th of this month, These few observations have been made in the
between the setting of the sun and dark. It was then hope that they will draw the attention of the scienti- extremely warm, cloudy, and the atmosphere rather fic, who, if they can show some natural cause for oppressive. 80 curious a fact, will calm the fears of the inha- This shock was the greatest that we have bad since bitants, and satisfy many of the curious.
the first of July. It jarred some houses, and was A NATIVE OF DEERFIEL).
heard at a great distance. In Epping about 12 miles easterly, it was heard and felt by many of the inha
bitants near the Lamprey river. There have been N. H., September 21st 1846.
several explosions since the 12th instant, but they
were very light, and not noticed much by very many Dear Sir,-Yours of the 15th inst., I have just re- of the inhabitants. It was continuousa rumbling ceived, and hasten an answer. Since I wrote to you sound but of short duration—not more than two or on the 26th ult., I received several numbers of the three seconds. This shake was not so great, or did Municipal Gazette," and one copy of the “ New
not jar the earth so much, as the three others of which York Farmer and Mechanic," in which there was an
I informed you in my former letter. We have had account of the earthquake of the 25th August last, numerous shakes which were light, and not regarded and which I sent to Concord, N. H., to have publish
by the people generally, being like, or similar to the ed, but it has not yet appeared. In these papers I blasting of rocks in the vicinity. I am inclined to 'found much interesting and instructive matter, and believe that the shakes have been more extensive you will be pleased to accept my thanks for them.
than has been supposed, and think, that those, which In regard to the several enquiries in your last, I
were heard at Newburyport, were produced by the will answer as far as I am able. Since writing to you same cause which occasioned them in Deerfield, as I on the 26th ult., I have made enquiries in the towns heard them at or about the 30th of May last. We and places, I find that the explosions, about which I shall hereafter critically observe any explosions then wrote, were more extensively heard and felt which may take place, and it may be in my power than I mentioned in the letter. Instead of 5 or 6
to give you more particular and correct information miles from a common centre—the supposed location concerning them. ' I hope it will be in your power of their origin. I learn that they have been frequent- to visit this region, and make some geological obserly heard for one or two years past, in the town of vations. If you have a map of New Hampshire you Lee, situate on the Lamprey River, about 16 miles will see the relative situation of the several towns North East from this place, also in Epping on the same which I have named, and may find the small streams river, about 12 miles East, and at Pittsfield, 16 miles to which I have referred. Could you have heard the North of this, on the Suncook river, which empties principal shakes, and have made some observations into the Merrimack river at Pembroke. Whether as to the state of the atmosphere here, you would the earth was shaken in those places as in Deerfield, doubtless, have been able to have expressed an opiniand how long since they have been heard in those on as to the disturbing cause which exists in this places, I have not yet ascertained. I find that the region.
Yours very respectfully, shakes have not only been heard, but felt within the
JOSIAH BUTLER. last year, much farther than I had been informed, N. B.-By a neighbor. The explosion in July, was especially in the neighborhood of the Lamprey river; the 10th, about 5 o'clock. The South road is over a and that they have not been beard very far from the ridge 150 to 200 feet above the Lamprey river.
Letter from Hon. Josian BUTLER.
South DEERFIELD, N. H., Dec. 23, 1846. Dear Sir,-Be pleased to accept my sincere thanks for the several numbers of the New York Farmer & Mechanic, one of the best and most useful newspapers printed in the United States, which you have been so kind as to send me.
Since I wrote to you last, a letter has been addressed to me by Dudley Leavitt Esq. of this State, and published in the “Congregational Journal,” accounting for the shakes in Deerfield, and I have answered it in the "Exeter News Letter." I send by the same mail, which takes this letter, both of these papers in one envelope or wrapper to you, and hope you will read D. Leavitt's letter, and especially my reply in the NewsLetter, as it contains further and more information than I have heretofore communicated to you, or the public.
Also since I wrote the reply to D. Leavitt, which was published in the “ News Letter," I have been informed that the shakes which have been heard and felt in Deerfield, within the two last years, were heard at the Bow Pond in the town, now called Strafford, and also in Barnstead, on the Suncook River, and in Northwood, near the Waters in that town.
With high respect, I have the honor of being your friend,
JOSIAH BUTLER. E. MERIAM, Esq.
From the Congregational Journal. Letter from Dudley LEAVITT, Esq., of NewHampshire, to Hon. Josiah BUTLER, of So, Deer. field :
THE DEERFIELD PHENOMENA, To the Hon. Josiaw BUTLER:
Dear Sir,- Readiug in the papers the correspondence between you and Mr. Meriam, of N.Y., relative to the
Deerfield Phenomena," induced me to address to you the following remarks, on the same subject :
In investigating the causes of things, the principles of philosophy require,
1. That we must be careful not to admit more causes of natural things than what are true, and suffi. cient to explain the phenomena.
2. We must always assign the same causes for the same effects.
3. Propositions and conclusions, deduced from actual experiments, must be considered true and accurate, notwithstanding any hypothesis to the contrary.
The cause of the explosions and tremulous motions in the earth at Deerfield, which have excited in the mind of some a considerable degree of wonder, if not alarm, was undoubtedly the spontaneous combustion of hydrogen gas (inflammable air) generated in the earth, and fired by a spark or flame produced by the chemical action of certain different substances on each other. The effect produced by the ignition of hydrogen gas, either above or below the earth's surface, is nearly, if not exactly, similar to that of gunpowder, which may be satisfactorily shown by the following
Experiment.-If a quantity of clean iron-filings, or small new iron-nails, be put into a clean glass phial, and as much clean cold water be poured into the phial as will just cover the iron, and then about onefourth of the quantity of water, of strong sulphuric acid (oil of vitriol) that has been kept from the air, in a clean glass vessel, be poured into the glass containing the iron and water, a sudden and rapid ebul. lition will take place; the outside of the phial will feel very warm if touched or grasped with the hand, and inflammable air will be produced in the (uncorked) phial, and ascend out of the mouth of the phial as long the gas will explode, sometimes with a consid. erable noise, and the effect of the explosion will sometimes break the phial. Cases may happen, however, where little or no common air has found its way into the phial to mix with the gas, a small brush of light will be kindled on one side of the mouth of the phial or bottle, and blaze for some time, without any explosion. I have myself found, and most electricians and chemists know, that when the inflammableair pistol is charged with hydrogen gas, and fired by the electric spark, the report is like that produced by the firing of gunpowder, as was before stated. It may thus be demonstrated that if a considerable
quantity of inflammable air or hydrogen gas be confined in the earth, and take fire there, an explosion and report will be the consequence, which will jar or shake the earrth to a considerable distance. A like effect has been observed to be produced by blasting a rock at the bottom of a well eighteen or twenty feet deep. Such an occurrence came under my own observation within a few weeks. I was sitting in a room about half a unile from where a blast was made in a well. The report was loud, and the concussion jarrred the house very considerably. I inquired of my neighbor how much powder he put in for a charge, and he told me to commonly put in from a quarter to half a pound. But it must not be inferred that when the explosions here treated are often repeated, or nearly continuous, they all proceed from the same vein or reservoir of gas; there are probably many of them at no great distance from one another, generated and set on fire in the earth by the fermentation of a moist mixture of iron ore and sulphureous matter which was found blended together in various places, in small or large quantities. If the locality of a vein or fountain of gas in the earth could be ascertained, and if practicable to bore to it, the gas would ascend above the earth, as silently and harmlessly as the lightning descends from a cloud to the earth, when conducted by the electric rod. Respectfully, your obd't serv't,
DUDLEY LEAVITT. Meredith, (N. H.) Oct. 28, 1846.
From the Exeter News-Letter. Reply of the Hon. Josian BUTLER to D. LEAVITT, Esq: To DUDLEY LEAVITT, Esq. :
Dear sir,- In your letter of the 28th of October last, addressed to me in the “Congregational Jour. nal,” relative to the explosions which have taken place in Deerfield, you say that “they are produced by the spontaneous combustion of hydrogen gas generated in the earth, and fired by a spark or flame produced by the chemical action of certain substances on each other."
Since the date of your letter, we have had several shakes, four of which I heard and particularly noticed. The first occurred at nine of the clock in the evening of the 29th of October last. Being in the street near my house, I observed that the explosion came from the east, or rather north of east, and passed off to the southwest. It was a rumbling noise, and continued from two to four seconds, resembling heavy and distant thunder, and jarred the earth and several build. ings, as represented to me by some of my neighbors. It was heard by several of the inhabitants in Epping, near the Lamprey River, and about ten miles east from this place, and was as heavy at that place as in this and other parts of Deerfield and Candia. It appeared to be deep in the earth. The next shake took place in the night of the 31st of October last. Another occurred about two of the clock in the night of the 12th of November, and the fourth twenty minutes before eight of the clock in the evening of 2d of December inst. ; but these last shakes were not so heavy as the first. Before, and at the time these explosions took place, there was a perfect calm in the atmosphere, and rain followed the last. I presume you have not been inforined of the frequency, extent and violence of some of the shakes, especially of those which occurred in May and November, 1845, which I described in my correspondence with Mr. Meriam, of the City of New-York.
It is now over nine years since we first noticed the shakes in Deerfield. In 1838, we had several severe skakes, but none so heavy as those which took place in May and November, 1845, and another in July last. We have had a greater number during the two last years than in former years, and they have become more violent or severe. The earthquake which took place at five of the clock in the morning of the 25th of August last, and which was felt in several towns on Connecticut River, in Massachusetts, in Portland and Gardner in the State of Maine, and in Keene, Ply. mouth, and many other towns in this State, was not Bo heavy in Deerfield, as one of our shakes, which took place on the 24th of November, 1845, in the af. ternoon, when stone walls were seen to fall by many persons,
and a tremolous motion was felt in every house on the south part of Deerfield. In my house, the windows, stoves and doors were shaken, and it
caused the clock to strike. The shake in May, 1845, was equally severe; and another, in July last at two, of the o'clock in the night of the 10th, woke nearly all the inhabitants of the town. These shakes which have occurred within the two last years, have been heard in Lee, in Epping on the Lamprey River, and in Pittsfield, nearly twenty miles from this place.
I have ascertained that the shakes were heard very distinctly, and sometimes felt on and near the Lam. prey River and its tributaries, and on the Suncook River, but they were heard only a few miles from the rivers and ponds. I have also ascertained that three wells about three-fourths of a mile east of the Lamprey River, were disturbed this year. when, or about the time, the shake took place in July. Though two of these wells terminate in rock, the water was found to be muddy. The water in one of the wells was suddenly changed, and for some time after the tasto and smell of the water was very offensive, so much so that the family have not used it in cooking. From the account given me by the family of the water after boiling it, I think it must be strongly impregnated with iron and sulphur.
The shakes have occurred in every season of the year, and in the day-time as well as in the night, and often preceding storms; and several of the explosions would have been denominated earthquakes, had they been as extensive as the earthquake of the 25th of August last.
I have found in the History of Newbury port, that the earthquakes which have taken place there and its vicinity in 1838, and almost every year since to this time, were very similar to some of our shakes. Very many of the earthquakes in Newburyport are described as light explosions resembling thunder. In 1638 and in 1727, the earthquakes in that town threw down the tops of chimnies, opened the earth in some places, and threw up sand near the river, and were felt in Boston, but many of them are represented as light. There was an earthquake on the 30th of May last, in Newburyport, which was felt at Haverhill, Salem, Hampton and Gloucester, as I have been informed by Dr. Perkins; but I can find no account of that earthquake being heard in other towns, or at a great distance. I learn also from Dr. Perklns, that a shock of an earthquake was felt in Salem and the neighboring towns in 1821, but not noticed in the Newburyport papers; and also that three shocks were felt in Boston in 1836, but not noticed in Newburyport.
I do not pretend to much knowledge of Geology or Chemistry, but I cannot concur with you in the opinion that all the shakes which we had in Deerfield are produced by hydrogen gas in the earth. I have supposed, as the shakes here are heard and felt most near our streams and ponds, that they might be caused by the electric fluid in the earth, or by steam generated by subterranean fires, as earthquakes are supposed to be produced. Had not our shakes have caused an undulatory or tremutous motion of the earth, I should not question your theory. I do not apprehend any danger from the explosions which have or may occur at Deerfield, but I am desirous of ascertaining the cause, and shall be pleased to hear your opinion, and the opinion of other scientific men on the facts I have related, and which can be verified by many witnesses. Dec. 16, 1846.
SIMULTANEOUS CONVULSIONS IN THE EAST.
We present below two accounts of convulsions in the East. In the Red Sea, near the Straits of Babelmandel, in lat. 15° 7' North, long. 42° 12'¡East and at Pisa, in Tuscany, in lat. 43° 43' 11," North, long. 10° 24' East. The former at about 10 A. M., the latter at little before 1 P. M. Saddle Island, in the Red Sea, is 31' 41' East and 28° 36' 11" South of Pisa, as the difference in long. will make the difference in time between about 10 A. M. and a little before 1 P. M. These two localities are about 2,500 miles apart.
On the 12th of August, at between 1 and 2 P. M., the shock of an Earthquake was felt at Fincastle Va., attended by a bright meteor in the atmosphere which was seen to explode.
An Equilibrium commenced on Brooklyn Heights
the evening of August 12, at before 9 o'clock, and frame. The agitation continued evidently in a horilasted till near 7 next morning, and for the two next
zontal direction, going and coming, but with extreine
violence. In this horrible situation the plastering days storms of lightning, hail, wind and rain traversed
began to fall from the ceiling. The cries which arose an extensive surface, ranging from Natches, in Miss- from the neighbouring houses augmented the horror issippi to Portsmouth, New-Hampshire. Several per- of the scene. There was one moment when I thought
the city could be swallowed up. Then, impelled by sons were killed by lightning, and great damage
an instructive feeling, I mounted the window seat in done by the hail and wind.
order to jump into the garden, but a remnant of reRECENT VOLCANO IN THE RED SEA. flection held me back, and by degrees the ground
became tranquil. “A volcano in the Red Sea just bursting into action,
As soon as the shock was over I went out of the was discovered on the 14th of August from on board the steamer Victoria, then on her upward voyage to
Museum and found the streets filled with people, who
wore in their countenance the traces of the terror Suea. The morning of the day in question was cloudy, and the atmosphere close and oppressive,
which they had suffered. Every where reigned that without anything to indicate the approach of the squall
silence of which Tacitics speaks, which seizes the that so speedily followed. About ten a.m., thick
people when agitated by a common feeling. masses of vapour were seen to extend along the
After having assured myself of the safety of the horizon from NW to sw. when a singularly vivid
persons who are most dear to me my first thought was flash of lightning was followed by the rolling of distant
for the Comparrile de Pise the leaning tower, I ran to
see how it was. but distinct thunder. The steamer was at this time
What was my surprise to see it abreast of the Zeboyer Islands, when smoke was ob
standing and firm. What a spectacle it must have served to issue in a thin spiral columu from what is set
presented in that fearful moment. People who had down as Saddlo Island on the chart, lat. 15 deg. 7 m
an opportunity to observe it during the shock tell me north long. 42 deg. 12 m. east. When little moro
that its balancing was a terrible thing to behold, but than three miles off, the officers of the steamers ob
before examining the effects of the earthquake let us
see what was its direction and duration. served a large mass of sulphurous-looking smoke taking the place of the vapour originally described ;
The first motion of the earth was manifestly vibraa sudden and violent squall then burst upon them,
tory: there came a violent undulatory motion, which which obstructed their view. These phenomena are
lasted to the end of the shock, except a slight lessen. all characteristic of the usual concomitants of vol.
ing of the action towards the middle of it which canic disturbance. Instructions have been given to
finished by one doubly violent. The horizontal dihave surveys taken, and a careful examination made
rection must have been the saving of Pisa. I oball around, as nothing is more likely than that uphea
served it in the most distinct manner possible. If
the sectical shocks had had the same intensity, the vals may have occurred and shallows been created,
effects of the disaster would have been much more or that this may only be one of a series of similar phenomena now in prospect or progress. The Ze
deplorable. boyer Lslands, and indeed the greater part of the emi- As to the duration of the oscilliation counting from nences along the shore of Arabia from Aden to well the moment where the distant rumbling was heard, I up the Red Sea are of volcanic origin. Jibbel Teer, think from twenty five to thirty seconds, some perstill so conspicuously marked with the characteristics Bons reduce it to twelve or fifteen seconds, but those of a recent volcano, is said to have been seen smok- date it only from the moment when the shock was ing by the officers of the survey in 1832. We trust
most sensible felt. If the inhabitants of the country that this is not the herald of the resumption of active visited by the earthquake are questioned as to the duoperations amongst the Red Sea and Arabian vol. ration of the agitation, they all answer, half a minuto canoes."
more or less. EARTHQUAKE AT PISA.
It was to be dreaded that the phenomenon would M. Pilla, Geologist to the University of Pisa, states
not cease with the first shock. Two motions were as follows:
afterwards felt distinctly, but of a more public kind. The day, the 14th ofJAugust, opened at Pisa serene
A great part of the population passed the night foland tranquil, like those which had preceded it. At lowing in the squares and streets, overpowered at the noon I was as usual in the Museum of Natural His- sad news, which constantly was brought in from tory of the university, and in the Hall of Mineralogy,
neighbouring places. where I was occupied in classing the minerals. In The disasters the city of Pisa has suffered are slight this Hall are several windows looking towards the in comparison with that they might have been. No plain in the side of the sea, and over the interior of the one perished. The roof of the Church of St. Micity, I felt a suffocating heat, accompanied by an inex- chael's is ruined, but without injury to any person. pressibly painful sensation, I attributed this pheno- If it had happened the next day at the same hour menon to the air of Pisa, which is heavy for my con- there would have been many lives lost. A cross fell stitution, and which made me say several times to the from the dome. The Campo Santo suffered some keeper of the Museum. “ The air of Pisa is on fire to- slight injury. The Comparrile (Leaning Tower) is day." Never prophecy was more suddenly realized. unhurt. It remains to be discovered by examinaAt a few minutes before one I was alone in the Hall. tion whether its inclination has become greater. The atmosphere was perfectly calm when I began to Finally, there is not a building in Pisa which has not hear a sound which came rapidly from the sea coast. been more or less damaged and cracked. The impression I felt was like that of a boisterous
Letters from Leghorn and Florence describe the wind advancing towards the city, but reflecting on the
earthquake to have been still more terrible in those impossibility of such a phenomena occurring so sud- cities and the surrounding country. At Volentena a denly in the midst of the preceding calm, I began to State Prison was thrown dowa, burying several of the fear some accident. I cannot better describe this
prisoners under its ruins. Some of the accounts from noise than in a line of our divine poet
Florence say that from thirty to forty persons had Il fracasso. d, an suon gien di spavento,
perished in that neighbourhood, and more than a
thousand were wounded. The Grand Duke of TusMy suspicions were soon verified. The noise kept
cany and his government have shown great zeal in advancing with even increasing force, and suddenly assisting the sufferers and repairing the injuries prothe hall began to tremble. To this vibration succeeded duced by the earthquake. The Court which was in a violent agitation in a horizontal direction, accom- Sienne has returned to Florence. The Great Dake panied by a norrible rumbling, accustomed to those immediately visited the scene of the disaster, and phenomena, which are not rare in my country. (Mr. subscriptions has been opened for the benefit of the Pilla is a Neapolitan.) After several unsteady motions families who have been afflicted.- Boston Daily AdI ran to one of the windows which opened on the vertiser, Sept. 23. garden of the neighbouring house, and there I was witness of one of the most terrible spectacles which are ever offered to the eye of man. The houses about
THE EARTHQUAKE IN ITALY. were shaken in a dreadful manner. The trees in the The Earthquake at Florence and other places, so garden by their motion announced the violent agita- briefly referred to in the English papers, received by tion of the atmosphere; these motions joined to those of the Hall, in which I was, gave me a sectigo which
the Cambria, appears to have been a serious affair. In compelled me to support myself against the window a letter written to the Boston Journal, by Mr. Hel.
logy, one of the American Artists in Italy, the following description of the phenomena is given :
“On the 14th of August, there was a violent shock of an earthquake here. I was engaged at the Royal Gallery at the time, (one o'clock P. M.,) and as it is a high building, standing most upon columns, the shock was frightful, for we all stood for the moment gazing speechless at each other, waiting for the timo that we must be precipitated into eternity. The building rocked, and shook and grumbled for a space of several seconds, and the pictures were sliding and beating against the walls. No damage has been done in Florence, but accounts are sad enough from several other places in Tuscany.
The centre, or seat of the earthquake, was in the localities of the Due. Vicarati di Rali and Rosignano, bordering upon the Maremma. The greatest disasters occurred in the territories of Orcivno, Hisparbelle, Monticudajo, Guardestallo, Gocenzana and Nivago, and the distruction has extended to the cities in the neighbourhood, doing more or less damage according to their distances from the centre. Leghorn, Pisa, and Volterra, have received considerable injury; the first (Leghorn) scarcely contains one house that is not cracked, and some more are so much injured that they are deserted, and will no doubt, be pulled down. "The Governor's house, and San Mareo Hotel, seem to have been injured most. I wonder the Hotel did not fall into a mass of ruins, for when I was there last June, I could scarcely sleep when there was a high wind, on account of the fear which the shaking of the houses occasioned.
After the shock ceased the inhabitants ran into the streets, or knelt down in prayer in their door-ways, and you can form no idea of the consternation unless you could hear an Italian eye-witness relate it. Soon after the earthquake multitudes of people were on their way to Monto Nero, to which the crowd were hurrying, men, women and children, to offer their vows and prayers and thanks. The distance is about five miles from Leghorn, and you can imagine what an exciting scene presented itself on a hot summer's afternoon in this moving mass of terror-stricken beings of all classes, high and low, rich and poor, making their way to the shrine of the Madonna, to supplicate her protection from further danger, and to render thanks for their present miraculous escape. During that night hundreds of the citizens staid out in the open fields for safety. Many slept, or rather staid upon the ships in the harbor for safety. It is somewhat astonishing that the famous leaning tower of Pisa, still stands a noble monument of the skill of the architect, which, neither the elements nor the earthquakes of the last six or seven hundred years, have been able to overthrow. The little town of Oricinao has been entirely destroyed, one house only remaining, one hundred and fifty wounded persons have been taken to the hospital at Pisa, from the surrounding country ; and it said that forty died on their way thither. We have no exact accounts of the number who have perished in this dreadful visitation. It is certain that about eighty have been destroyed.
The Ganfalonier, of Florence, has implored and obtained permission of the Grand Duke to ask donations from the citizens in favor of the distressed families of those who may need assistance. This was done also some two years since, on the occasion of the great flood of the Arno, and great good resulted, as I have no doubt it will in the present instance ; for the Italians are very liberal in giving of their means to the assistance of their unfortunate countrymen.
I have often thought that if one of our American cities should be so unfortunate as to be visited with such an earthquake as this, scarcely a single house would remain ; but one vast pile ot ruins would alone mark ihe spot where once a city stood. The thought is awful, but it should be a warning to all those who run up buildings four and five stories high with walls scarcely a foot in thickness. From fire, the inhabitants may escape and take a part of their property with them, but from such a shock as Leghorn has just received scarcely an inhabitant of one of our cities would be left to tell the tale of wo. May the Almighty protect us and teach us wisdom enough at least to preserve our lives by all such means as he has placed in our power.—Journal of Commerce, of Sept. 23.
THE LATE EARTHQUAKE IN ITALY.-In the districts of Dariand, Rosignano, in the centre of the shocks, where the etfects were most disastrous,
houses were thrown down, villages half destroyed, wells dried up, others filled with mud, masses of water appearing and disappearing, in various spots, bituminous waters left on the surface, and those who were not actually buried in the ruins, severely hurt and wounded, and the generality reduced to misery and destitution by the loss of all. About 40 indivi. duals are ascertained to have perished, and more than double that number seriously injured, and generally in the head, who have been removed to the hospital of Pisa and Leghorn.
Whole villages have been thrown down in the Sautia, Lorenzana, Asciano, and Casciano, the centre of the oscillating motion, and about five leagues from Leghorn. At Voltera, a government prison fell, bury, ing several prisoners. The number of persons killed are stated to be, in all the districts, 88, and 140 wounded, of which 58 seriously. The effects of the shock extended to Pisa. The vaulted roof of the old Church of St. Michael, fell at the first shock.. The congregation had just left the building after divine service.
What a mass,
LONG ISLAND CORRESPONDENCE. Letters from BENJAMIN F. THOMPSON, Esq., the
Historian of Long Island.
HEMPSTEAD, Dec. 25, 1846. EBEN. MERIAM, Esq.
My Dear Sir I cannot deny myself the pleasure of telling you how much I was instructed and gratified with the short interview, which myself and friend Bolton had with you on Tuesday last. Your theory of the atmosphere and the phenomena of elec-. tricity and galvanism, appears to me, as not only extremely ingenious, but in strict accordance with the principles and operations of nature.
I have certainly much reason to regret not to have made your acquaintance sooner, as I have thus missed many and great advantages, which might have been derived from your spirit of research, and diligent observations upon every thing presented to your view.
You could, and doubtless would, have essentially aided my researches into the geology of this island, by which the account contained in my history, might have been rendered more full and satisfactory.
I have looked over two numbers of your “ Municipal Gazette" with very great pleasure, and cannot but think you will have rendered services which cannot fail hereafter of being greatly and extensively appreciated.
The ancient documents (in relation to the city of New-York) published in these numbers, exhibit your diligence, and a thorough acquaintance with the history of olden times.
I shall be happy to see you here, at your convenience, and will thank you for any document or facts ancient or modern, which may contribute to make a subsequent edition of my History of Long Island more valuable.
I hope this will find your family convalescent, and rejoicing in the expectation of speedy restoration to health. I am, dear sir, very respectfully you
Benj. F. THOMPSON. P. S.-I shall be gratified to hear from you at any time.
tion of every careful observer, to wit: the water-worn from you at any time, when you have leisure and in-
Your very obed't serv't,
Ben. F. THOMPSOX. terponds; no matter to what depth you dig for water, the same internal evidence of its oceanic origin demonstrates that this portion of the island has been
RACUSE CORRESPONDENCE. made from the sea, or that the sea in which it was
A LETTER from Lyman W. CONKEY, Esq. once submerged had retired therefrom. Nothing like a rock in situ, is found upon this side, but on the
SYRACUSE, January 6, 1847. north side of the ridge, angular stones are found, sand
E. Meriam, Esq, stones, granite, and great variety of conglomerates. Im- Dear Sir-Your letter of Dec. 26th was duly receivmense boulders are also seen upon the highest points ed, and inclosed was a letter to E. Marks, Esq., superthroughout the island—but I have not the means of intendent of the Onandago Salines, which was deliascertaining the sub-stratum of the island as excava- vered as requested. I also received from you several tions and borings have only been extended as far as ne- papers, for which accept my thanks. I observed in cessary for the obtaining of water-the existence of the “ New-York Farmer and Mechanic" of Dec. 17, lignites far beyond the surface, of bodies of trees found 1846, under the head of “ The Weather," that you at the depth of 100 feet and more, and in a sound have noted the temperature of the atmosphere for state, are curious facts, requiring more light to explain, eight days ending Dec. 15th; also noted the degrees than has yet been shed upon the subject. You will of the Meteoric Magnetic Electric Wires." This find numerous instances of this in my work, and it instrument I am unacqnainted with, but suppose it would afford me much pleasure to have your specu- gives you the degrees of electricity which gathers in lation upon so curious a subject. In some places the atmosphere. I have often thought that electricity where the sand is finest and whitest, the most beauti- had much to do with storms. In summer during tho fulclays, resembling ochres are found, which are manu- hottest weather when the barometer fluctuates but factured on the spot, or transported to New York, little, storms gather and are many times accompanied Boston and other places to be made into various arti- || by electricity, which when very active seems to excles of pottery-below the clay-beds, we find sand ert a powerful influence upon the temperature of the again to a great depth, but as the centre springs inter- atmosphere, many times depressing it and causing tervene, it is impossible, without incurring great ex- heavy rains to fall when the due point is high, July pense, to ascertain whether the island stands upon a 20, 1845, we were visited at this place with a very rocky basis or not. At Oysterpond, which is gene- severe rain storm in which electricity was unusually rally free from stones, Mr. Latham, from a single active with heavy thunder. This storm commenced boulder on his farm, made 80 rods of heavy stone wall, at 9 o'clock, P. M. and lasted about five hours with a and he thinks enough if the same was left in the dew point of 72 degrees, which is about the highest ground to have made 20 rods more.
degree reached at this place. The barometer fell for a single stone! I know of three or four others in during the storm 25-100 inch. and the depth of the different places, either of which (if in this village) rain which fell was 2 50-100 inch. Sept. 5th it comwould be worth hundreds of dollars for building ma- menced raining at 7 o'clock, P. M. and rained about terials.
two hours, barometer fluctuating only 6-100 inch du. The fact of one kind of timber succeeding another
ring the day ; electricity was very active, rain meais fully illustrated upon many parts of the island, par
sured 70-100 inch. July 11, 1846, rain commenced ticularly in places which have been burnt over, by
falling at 4 o'clock, P. M. with a high due point and the extensive conflagration so often occurring through lightning active, barometer fluctuating 4-100 inch, the central parts of the island. In these cases oak
rain fell 50-100 inch. Sept. 3d. Dew point high, elecgenerally follows, pine, and pine and red cedar follow
tricity very active with heavy thunder, the mercury
in the barometer fell 10-100 inch, rain measured oak. But in places where the timber is cut off, and suffered to sprout again from the stumps, no material
1 85-100 inch. Many such storms occur during the change is visible. Your theory of Long Island, being
summer months, showing conclusively that when a great natural magnet, is not only in my opinion
a cloud becomes highly charged with electricity, and highly ingenious, but true and capable of being de
during a thunder storms when it passes from the clouds monstrated. Nothing is more common than to witness
to the earth it depresses the temperature of the atmothe most constant and vivid flashes of lightning, and
sphere, thereby causing much of its vapor to condense loud thunder to the north and south of us, while the
upon the same principle that it condenses by being island itself escapes their effects altogether. The
carried up by moving columns of air as indicated by currents must, therefore, as you suppose, be conduct
the barometer. Tuesday, Dec. 15th. My barometer ed along the sound and the shore of the ocean, in con
indicated an equilibrium of atmosphere, standing at sequence of the vapor constantly existing in their lo
29 70-100 inch for about twenty-four hours, at the end calities. I think the geology of King's county, and
of which time it rose 6-100 inch. Dec. 16th. Abont that of Newtown and Flushing, more interesting, and
noon it commenced falling with fair indications of a
snow-storm. 17th. In the morning the telegraph anpresents greater variety than any other part of this island. The north shore from Williamsburgh to Hemp
nounced that a snow-storm had commenced in Newsted harbor, is in many respects like the opposite
York city. This storm reached Albany in the evencoast of the sound, preventing a similar soil and the
ing of the same day ; Uticaat 1 o'clock, A. M. on the same natural features.
18th, and Syracuse about 9 o'clock, A. M. of the same
day, and moved on toward the week at the rate of If it shall become well established, that anthracite about twelve miles an hour. The barometer fell at coal-ashes, willanswer as a manure upon the great plains this place during the storm one inch. The depth of of the island, the value of our lands (of this descrip- snow which fell at New-York and Albany during this tion) will be increased six-fold, and nothing, but the storm, I was not able to learn. In Utica it fell about difficulty of obtaining water, can impede a speedy im- | eighteen inches, Syracuse fourteen inches, and less in provement of them. This town alone has from 10,000 depth as it moved west. Sunday, Dec. 20th. About to 15,000 acres of land, which the plough has never noon the telegraph announced, that in New-York city touched, and capable, by proper cultivation, of pro- the storm was over, and the sky clear, while at Syraducing an immense quantity of grain and grass, cuse, at the same time, it was snowing as fast as at any thereby adding to our agricultural riches, and sustain- time during the storm. If those persons who are ening three-fold our population at present. Chemistry gaged in taking meteorological observations at the has caused a revolution in the old systems of farming, different telegraph stations on the line from Newand is doubtless destined to effect still greater changes, York, Boston, and from there to Buffalo, would furnboth as to facilities of cultivation, and the increase of ish each station with the observations taken twice or product without some most important revolution in three times a day, I have no doubt but that the prothis respect, Long Island must cease to be an agri- prietors would allow them to be transmitted, free of cultural country, for in the old modes of raising hay charge, thereby enabling them to be published daily. and grain she cannot compete with the towns upon It would be a very useful record to all concerned, and the North river, and places made accessible by rail- I hope that the matter may be considered. roads, &c. I was pleased to hear of the improved
Respectfully yours, condition of the health of your excellent wife and
LYMAN W. CONKEY. daughter, and sincerely hope they may soon be re- P. S.—You will do me a favor by writing and giving stored to health, I shall be glad to see you, or hear me your views in relation to thunder storms, whether
HEMPSTEAD, Jan. 6, 1847. Eben. MERIAM, Esq.
My Dear Sir—I duly received your interesting and instructive letter of the 26th ult. and sincerely thank you for the same, as well as the additional numbers of the Municipal Gazette, a work highly creditable to the conductor and calculated to diffuse much useful information, in addition to the many statistical details which fill its pages. It seems you have not only been a considerable traveller, but a close observer of the phenomena of nature; and being somewhat of an enthusiast in science, with your eyes and ears open, it could not but happen, that you should have a vast fund of useful knowledge. In relation to the geology of Long Island, it is not in my power to add any thing material to what is contained in the first volume of my history, compiled as it was from every source of intelligence upon the subject, which came within the circle of my inquiry, to this is added whatever I had acquired from close observation traversing on foot, every part of the island-one thing strikes
SALTVILLE : Washington1847. Va., }
my notions are erroneous in relation to vapor con- belief upon that point, that although the bird may
the skies proves that any related bodies differing in mass or in
kind of constituents, can execute a variety of movements nedensing, more freely during those storms.
cessary for adjusting their appetences, whether in near contact, plain to me the use of the electric wires, and whether poisonous kind, and to a slight extent make their meat
or at points widely separated. they are of any use to the meteorologist, and if so unwholesome to those who eat them, yet their appear- The departure of orbitual direction from a right line is a how to construct them.
ance cannot I think be made the forerunner of sequence of the one mass being greater than the other and the L. W. CONKEY. disease.
greater velocity of the lesser, demands wider spirality than the
greater, while both advance around a common central line. You will notice by my table of temperature annex- If any two mutually related stars should happen to be expressa
ed, several equilibriuws during December, that of the ly alike in all respects they might, if not disturbed by other VIRGINIA CORRESPONDENCE. 16th, continued until 11 P.M., the time of my last notice.
masses, advance toward the center of all creation in parallel
lines indefinitely, or until aitomic dispersion should happen. On the night of the 27th, the Mercury at 8 o'clock
The necessity for greater spiral eccentricity, as observed Letter from W. P. MILOR, Esq.
was 48°; 9, 47; 10, 51; 11, 54; my latest observa- in the paths of lesser orbs related to greater masses, secures tion, and at 6 and 7 o'clock next morning at 54.
periodic equations of time and place, and when well apprehended
will be acknowledged to be the only certain means to prevent January, 1847. Very likely an equilibrium all night; during that day
collisions between solids in the celestial expanse. Mr. E. MERIAM, (28t) the temperature vibrated but 4° from 6 o'clock
The spiral path of the moon round the earth and of both round Dear Sir.--I hand you herewith my Meteorological
in the morning until 11 at night; the wind during the the sun were calculated by the ancient Hercaic astronomers time blowing a gale from S.W. The weather during
for the long term of thirty-six thousand five hundred and twenty Record for the last month.
two and a half years, at the close which cycle, estimating froin the remaining three days of the month, was for the
the equinoctial recession at the first of Capricornus, these bodies On the 1st we had a light rain from daylight until
same, most extraordinary. On the 29th, the tempera- should relatively occupy the same attitudes with each other,
ture at 2 P. M. was 62.30th, at same hour 64, and but the earth and sun were expected every cycle of 24,348 years 10 A.M., cleared off in the night, wind during the
(25,200 ostensible years) to resume the same attitudes in regard 31st, at 3 P.M., 7 1-2. Such unusually mild weather day light, N.E. 2nd, rain—calm morning and night,
to each other. wind fresh, S.W., at uoon. 3rd, at 7 A. M., wind has given a Spring time appearance to several kinds
It is even boldly asserted by them that twice the Heavens fresh, S.W., continued all day. 4th, wind moderate,
of vegetation, we dread its consequence upon the have revolved around the solar system. S.W. 5th, moderate, N.E. 6th, light rain all day health of the country. The weather this month, The theory was that orbs remain poised in space upon cones of
relations extending between them and the reciprocal eminaand night, wind N.E. 7th, light rain nearly all day, (January,) is a little cooler so far, although entirely
tions were supposed to possess mitescent affinities analagous to out of season. calm. 8th, light rain all day, wind variable. 9th,
We had a sudden and hard gale of accordancrs in inusical tones, while the opposing relations rewind generally N.E., light rain all night. 10th, day
short duration on the night of the 1st from the S.W. sembling discords in musick were also affilliated. Under this The descent of our river as you suppose,
is a thrill- Theory of all the elemental properties embracing two atoms or light, wind S.W., from 2 P. M., remainder of day and
worlds were repellant, chaos of their whole constituents was innight a gale from the West. 11th, gale, a little ing one, especially for the first 50 miles—I regret I
evitable, but afterwards their period of night elapsing, a moderated wind generally, S.W. 12th, wind fresh have no means of ascertaining for your satisfaction
dawn of light and an organizing energy appeared and now the from S.W., at night calm. 13th, same. 14th, light and my own, the fall in that distance—in that space mitescent principle compromising all discrepancies arranged
the new egg or world of being. rain after dark, wind generally S.W. 15th, wind the coutents of several tributary creeks increase the
In animal aud vegetable physiology is witnessed a world of volume of water after heavy rains to a great extent, generally N.E. 16th, 2.30, P.M., commenced snow
diversified agreements and disagreements in the elementary ing, wind fresh, N.E., increased by sun-set to a gale, which in places where the fall is most rapid is pressed changes which for a while constitute tho vital structure and
manifest iis functions. moderated about midnight, 6 inches snow fell, most
into a very narrow compass, by hills of several hun-
Man's complex structure exhibits physically and intellectually in the night. 17th, 9 A.M., wind changed to S.W.,
concert and rebellion in many phasis and when some “ interior 11.30, A.M., changed again to N.E., breeze moderate the most imposing character, the velocity of the river
embodiment," fashions the truisms of mind into instruments for and the eminent peril of the passage, render a trip searching the vast empires of abstract science, then are conceiv-very stormy on Clinch Mountain in the morning. two inches snow fell during the day. 18th, light upon the Holstein extremely interesting, but far from ed the astonishing discrepencies in morals consciously attach
ing even in the same personalty. snow all day about one inch, wind S.W., at sun-set pleasant.
The superior conceptive agency in the astronomer, orders his very fresh. 19th, wind fresh all day and night from
Mr. Preston has had his new furnace for the mann
muscles to convey him to the observatory, commanding the relaS.W. 20th, still blowing from S.W., but much mo
facturing of salt in operation about one month. Its tions of gravity and the law for disentegrating masses, as well derated.
as his own mere animal appetites to become subservient to star 21st, wind moderate S.W. 22d, wind performance has fully realized his most sanguine ex
gazing. light, generally S.W., snowed all day and all night, pectation. The improvement made by Mr. Preston
A glance at such subjects shows the impolicy of forming snow disappearing very fast. 23rd, wind S. W. 24th. in this establishment, elicits the admiratiou of all who
theoretic systems out of less than a perfect koowledge of all wind variable. 25th, wind fresh S.W. 26th, wind see it. His novel mode of suspending the kettles in the principles involved, if we would expect them to be immu
table in all respects ; a pretension never claimed or intended cast iron plates, and an arch under the kettles, and moderate, S.W. 27th, wind S.W., at 10 P. M.,
to be made by Sir I. Newton, for his astronomic theories. blowing very hard, continued all day and night. 28th, have both proved very efficient when completed,
But even if the Newtonian hypothesis of gravitation enlists still blowing hard, s.w., light fall of rain at noon,
and although in operation the furnace is far from no error, still the uniform variance of opinion entertained by
finished. The whole will form a model of perfection moderate at night. 29th, a lovely day, rain at 11
his talented predecessors, now justifies careful revision and
comparison. in salt-making, not heretofore surpassed in any counP. M., wind N. E., generally, blew fresh from the S.
Admitting the Creator gives impulse in direct line to every W., in the night. 30th, another lovely day, wind try, and a pattern for those who wish to imitate. The
world and implants gravity outside of the mass to draw orbits moderate, S. W. 31st, another beautiful day, wind salt made upon this furuace is of a very superior qua- into curves, yet must the saine Creator also grant special impules
to all atomic action as a carrolary? light and changeable, at 7 P.M., faint streaks of light lity, and will compete for quantity, puriiy, and beauty,
Even, if the magnetic property epitomises gravity and the with that of any manufactory. visible in the heavens, diverging from the North as a
expanding clectric attributes rive the oak, or if in efforts at centre, and spreading half overoursky--duration half an The quantity of rain which fell during the month equation along telegraphic wires, these qualities of matter hold hour only. The sunset of night was the most impres
of December, was 2 inches and 69-100 of an inch, contests, sometimes regardless of matter and sometimes fiercely snow about 9 inches.
agitating atoms and great globes, must all enquiries' respecting .sive I ever beheld. The gorgeous colors of the West,
these phenomena be judged of only by some theoretic positions
I am indebted to you by last mail for the Journal as the king of light gave a last strong impulse to an
laid down by Newton ? That eminent inaster of science did expiring year, contrasted most strangely with the dark of Commerce, Brooklyn Star, and Farmers Mechan
not so intend to fetter his subsequent votaries in celestrometry. ic, for which, please accept my thanks. I anticipate By substituting momental tendency as the opponent of the foreboding aspect of the East, when the Moon as she peered through the fissure of a maddened cloud, the pleasure of hearing from you shortly.
gravitating law instead of admitting motion as a product ex
pressing the difference between the dispersive and aggregative looked dim as her image in a sheet of water, ashamed
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
attributes of matter, complexities of the theorems were yield.
WILLIAM P. MILNOR. to show her sickly face, while yet the Sun in splendor
ed which no intellect inferior to his own could have unravelled
and made consistent with the verities of Astronomical calculablazed, a cloud darker and more drear than all the
tions. rest, cast himself across her pale and gastly visage,
Had Newton examined the related stars with Herschell and and then the Earth was overpowered with clouds of
Struve, had he visited Davy's laboratory, or seen Frankiin's the blackest dye, forming upon us as if full of dark
December 8th, 1846. kite in the clouds, or the telegraph line or the photographic picE. MERIAM, Esq.
tures, his principle would have been made less obscure and more and angry feeling, and we turned for relief, to gaze
Dear Sir.-In my previous communications to you, I bricfly where the Sun in love and kindness kissed the referred to numerous natural phenomena and indicated some
Imponderable gravity after centralizing the sun and the earth, West, and cast a deeper blush on its quite happy
flies from the face of each body reciprocally and taking adversary propositions which if well founded would modify the received cheek, was the birthnight of a new year. Such was theory of the immediate causes of solar and planetary motions.
or peaceable possession, holds those bodies ballancing around a
common center if so, may not imponderable emination of luminthe picture on one side, the frowns of an offended I assumed that motions of atoms in chemistry and of orbs in
osity, culoricity or electricity also traverso like space after home Celestometry represent directly the uncancelled differences of Deity upbraiding millions for their misdeed and misattraction and rejection between atoms or globes, and express
duties are satisfied ? use of the many privileges bestowed at his band-on
An apple falls and the Aurora corruscates along the torrene the same iuversely according to squares of distance. the other, a smile of forgiveness and encouragement Iftwo one thousand pound balls in all respects composed alike
shadows and truly at the vestibule of telescopic scanning Lyrics
and Epics appear without light enough to read them. to better works in future. May such an admonition out of one hundred kinds of atoms be placed in space four thousand years apart, free from all other substances, let it be granted
All masses in a system all classess of systems, though varient be impressed on all hearts. On the 19th, I had the that fifty kinds of atoms in each, reciprocally agree to come
as are the leaves of Valambrosa exhibit so many analogies as to pleasure of receiving your interesting favor of the 7th. together by an attraction equal to fifty pounds, this would happen
shew unity of design and similitude of law thronghont the whole
mechanism. The multitude of pigeons which visited this locality with an accellaration duplicating as squares of distance de
The cometary gems of future suns or perhaps sometimes infanon the 27th of November last, were traversing from crease, provided the remaining fifty atoms are quiescent or offer no resistance, but if at the beginning, the appetences of
tilo parasites to supply wastes in subsisting systems fly with due North to South. The fact called my particular one class are equal to the opposing force of the other the two
electro-magnetic celerity in approximating our regions and as observation at the time. The weather was extremely bodies will remain in station.
if committiug a trespass seem to reverse their poles of headlong
motion-repellence pursuing it as fast as it met the attractive cold on their arrival, and had been for several days If however the dispersivo tendencies have fifty pounds ascen.
invitations. previous, their flight from North to South, had evi. dency over the aggregative forces then the two bodies must remove apart until an equation is attained, between their re
If two hollow india-rubber balls be compressed both will form dently been forced by the severe gale and snowciprocal attractive and repellant forces.
a round body, but will fly apart on removing the pressure, and storm of the 25th and 26th. They sojourned a day There is however no example of absolute similitude between
if very ligh they will alternately fly to and be rejected by the atoms of related globes and were they at rest, as supposed,
charged Leyden jar. or two with us, and then winged their way Southward. I had never heard that their visits were at
the slightest difference in quality or quantity must origipato I would ask what influence would concentrated magnetic forces
motion to be equalled by groater or less distance and relative have upon polarizing properties that disturb photogomic images! tended with sickness, until mentioned by you. My velocity.
The circular or rather spherical departure of lighi from a lamp, enquiries on the subject have strengthened my own All observation in the laboratory and in the wide domain of shews it does to some extent regard tho gravitating properties