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SNOW STORMS.–At Syracuse, snow fell on the 20th, 220, 24th, 25th, 26th and 29th November, in all, about 14 inches. At Saltville, on the 25th, 2 inches, and snow in sight on the Clinch Mountain on the morning of the 20th. At Brooklyn snow fell on the 25th and 29th November, in all about three inches,
BURNING OF THE PACKET SHIP THOMAS
P. COPE, BY LIGHTNING. Some further particulars of the loss of the Thos. P. Cope, may not be unacceptable to your readers. These I learned from Mrs. L., of Philadelphia, who, with her four little children, were cabin passengers on board the unfortunate vessel. The ship was struck by lightning on Sunday, the 29th ult., at 61-2 P. M., at which time most of the passengers had retired, or were about doing so. The mainmast being the attraction, it was instantly on fire, while, at the same time, the fluid descended into the hold, and communicated itself to the coinbustible cargo. A scene of terrible confusion at once commenced which was, however, speedily quieted by the cool and decided conduct of Capt. Miercken. The mainmast was cut away, carrying with it the mizzen mast and everything forward but the stump of the toremast. The steerage passengers were got upon deck, though in such haste that they were unable to save their clothing, and many were thus exposed to the storm in their night dresses. So great was the haste necessary, that one little child was forgotten before the hatches were caulked down, that the flames might it possible be smothered. All the other passengers were eventually saved. Every precaution was used to keep the flames under, but in vain. But the measures which were adopted proved successful in preserving life. The decks were kept constantly wet, and occasionally holes were board in them, and water turned down. For the first night, men, women and children were exposed to a violent storm of snow and sleet, and it would be difficult to imagine a more distressing sight than poor Mrs. L. with her infant and other children thus exposed. As soon as circumstances would permit, the women and children were got into the forecastle, though it was impossible to remain in such a crowded situation long at a time. The crew and male passengers were of course obliged to keep the decks day and night, and it is said that Capt. Miercken, whose conduct was admirable throughout, never quilled the deck. In this situation the ship remained until the next Saturday afternoon, the decks growing hotter, thus giving evidence of the increasing fire, and threatening all with a horrible death. Several sails were seen during this time, but at a great distance. On Saturday, just as hope was giving place to despair, they fell in with the British bark “Emigrant,” Capt. Taber, bound to St. Johns, N. B. Although short of provisions and water, Capt. Taber could not hesitate in regard to his duty. He commenced transferring them on board on Saturday evening, and when his work was hall done, darkness and a gale set in. The feelings of Capt. Miercken and those who remained on board may not be described. The fear that the flames would burst out upon them at any instant, and that the gale might separate the vessels, must have constantly preyed upon them.
But the dawn of morning shewed their succour near at hand, and they soon joined their companions. As they left, the hatches were taken off, and the noble ship was soon wrapped in flames. The conduct of Capt. Taber is spoken of in the highest terms. He, with his crew, cheerfully went upon the same allowance, of a half pint of water each, which was all that could be afforded to his numerous guests. A few days alterwards, the “ Washington Irving,”a Boston packet, Capt. Caldwell, homeward bound, hove in sight. Capt. C. cheersully took them all on board, and supplied the emigrants with prorisions and water. Capt. Taber had made them as comfortable as his limited means would allow, but when on board the Washington Irving, they felt, as it were, once more at home. The unremiting attentions of Capt. Caldwell will never be forgotten, They were just such as every one who knows that gentleman would have expected of him, and one can scarcely conceive of a purer satislaction than he must enjoy in being the instrument of Providence in feeding the hungry and caring for the destilute, abundantly able as he was to do, from the liberal manner in which the owner of the Boston packels always supplies his vessels. On Sunday morning the Washington Irving arrived in Boston, and I gleaned these particulars from Mrs. L. on board the boat.
R. The following is a list of the passengers in the Washington Irving;
Marshall Flagg, Esq., of Worcester; Dr. Alex. Nelson, of Albany; Mr. Francis Walker and wife, of Manchester, N. H.; Rev. Mr. Halcombe, of Nova Scotia ; and 60 steerage passengers. Also Capt. Henry F. Miercken, Messrs. George Dodd, Isaac Walton; Mrs. Mary Loughridge, four chil. dren and servant; officers, crew and filiy steerage passengers, all from the packet ship Thomas P. Cope, of Philadelphia, destroyed by fire at sea.-N. Y. Express.
ANOTHER ACCOUNT. PACKET SHIP DESTROYED BY LIGHTNING.-NO LIGHTNING CONDUCTER!!
Ship THOMAS P. COPE.-One of the crew of this vessel intorms us that the day on which the ship was struck by lightning, the wind was fair and blew strong from N. W. until about 4 P. M., when the sky became obscured with dark and heavy clouds, threatening a storm. In half an hour afterwards, all hands were called to shorten sail, which they continued doing until the ship hove to under a closereefed main topsail, the wind blowing a gale, accompanied with hail and snow, thunder and lightning. About half past 6 P. M., the ship seemed wrapped in fire for an instant, when an explosion loud and terrible, shook her fore and aft, and left the eyes of the main rigging on fire. The electric Auid exploded on the main cap, then darted along the main topsail sheels into the hold, and probably was conducted through the sides of the vessel by some of the copper bolts.
Men were immediately sent aloft and water passed to them to put out the fire, but before they could effect their purpose the rigging was consumed and the mast began to totier; therefore, in order to save themselves, they descended to the deck again. The lanyards of the weather rigging had been cut, and as the vessel rolled to leeward, the mast went over the side about lour feet above the deck, without having been cut away. It took with it the mizenmainmast close to the rigging, and all the afteryards,
and also carried away the foretopsail yard. The foresail, which bad been blown away while shortning sail, was replaced by bending a foreiopsa il reefed, under which the ship was again hove to, with the weather clew hauled up.
In the mean time the passengers rushed on deck, declaring the ship was on fire below; and one poor woman, Mrs. McNeal, while saving an infant child, left below a little girl five years old, who was suffo. cated by the smoke! The mothers agony was heartrending in the extrene. Still the gale blew with unabated fury; the lightning flashed, the thunder rolled, and the snow and hail descended with bitter violence. The hands were employed in pouring water down into the belween decks, for the purpose of extinguishing the fire; but this had no other effect than to keep it under, without extinguishing it. A rafi composed of studding sail booms, and other spars was constructed, and the boals were got in readiness, whenever it should be necessary to abandon the vessel. Pouring water into the hold, and pumping it out again was the principal occupation of all bands until they were rescued by the ship Emigrant, as reported yesterday. The ship had not any lightning conducters on board!! The captain saved his chronometors, instruments and clothing, and the crew a part of their effects, but the poor steerage passengers lost their all, and are now entirely destitute, and are worthy objects of charity.-Boston Transcript.
Schr. Agawam, Frazer, which left N. York at 83 A. M. on the 29th ult., while reducing sail about 33 P. M., was struck by a heavy squall, and immediately after by a sudden gust of whirlwind, which capsized her; the captain and crew got upon the vessel's side, and with great difficulty, took a lady passenger (Mrs. Hine,) out of the cabin-by this time it was blowing a heavy gale; the captain was washeu overboard with the lady, while sopporting her; they reached !he wreck again, however, and when pearly exhausted, were taken off by the brig Wm. Davis, from N. York for New Orleans, and the lady taken on board, but all means for reviving her failed. She was frozen to death. The Captain and crew were quite exhausted, and in another hour would have perished. The W. D. was afterwards spoken by the brig L. Peters, and the captain and crew were transferred to ibat vessel. The L. P. arrived at Philadelphia on the 7ıb.—Jour of Commerce Dec. 14. The Germ of the storm may be seen in the following
account of an
EARTHQUAKE. The New York Sun of January 1, 1847 contains the following:
EARTHQUAKE.—A smart shock of an earthquake occurred at Porto Rico on the 28th of November which did no considerable damage beyond shaking down some chimneys. Two or three slight shocks followed.
The City of Porto Rico is in the Island of that name.
Porto Rico, one of the West India Islands, lies between lat. 17 deg. 55 min, and 18 deg. 30 min North, and Long. 55 deg. 40 min. and 67 deg. 20 min. West. Length about 100 miles, breadth about 38. A mous. tain ranging east and west, runs through the centre of the Island, the highest point of which is at its North-eastern extremity; altitude 3000 feet.
The Brooklyn Star of Dec. 1, 1846 contains my record of the state of the atmosphere of the 28th, 29th and part of 30th November, as follows:
" THE WEATHER.—The almosphere continues in the extraordinary state last noticed. The highest localities distant from each other, showing the state of the atmosphere the day succeeding the earthquake at Porto Rico to have been variously affected, but that of Sallville, upon the mountains of Va., at the altitude of 1882 to have had a perfect earthquake equilibrium; for when the thermometor was first examined at sunrise the equilibrium was already commenred; at Brooklyn, Long Island, two equilibriums with two lightning storms one of which was mixed with snow, a very unusual occurrence. On the morning of the 29th, at hall past three o'clock a singular uoise was heard, I was a woke out of sleep by it, as were also the members of my family. Other persons in Brooklyn heard the same sound. In New York one person stated to me tha: she saw the reflection of two bright lights in succession, but heard no sound. I called upon the person in charge of the Ferry, and who was at the terry gate at that time, and he said it was a heavy clap of thunder. Hisopportunities of observir.g were the besi, being half an hour before and after. Al Syracuse the variation from an equilibrium was but iwo degrees for twelve hours on the 29th.
temperature marked by the meteoric wires on Saturday, was 55 deg. 11 A. M. to 12; Sunday, 54 from I to 3 P.M.; and at the latter hour the Equilibrium was broken by lightning, which came down mixed with snow and rain. The thunder and lightning was 35 minutes in passing, during which the meteoric wires denoted a fall of temperature of six degrees, to 48, and then commenced rising, and at five o'clock was at 514, at six, fell 10 48 again, and at seven rose to 49, at which it remained till eight, at nine fell to 48, and at ten to 48, at which it remained at the time I prepared this record, seven o'clock Monday morning, Nov. 30. Saturday morning, eighi to nine, 50 deg.; ai ten, 503, at which it remained till next morning at six, this forming two Equilibriums. Rain tell the early part of Saturday morning before and after sunrise. The ordinary Thermometor ranged as follows: the highest on Saturday was from two to three, P. M.. 48; at pine, 421, and the same next morning at six. Sunday al one P. M., 49, the highest during the day; at three, when the first thunder was heard, 47, and in thirty-eiglit minutes fell to 39; at five rose to 40, and again fell to 39 at six; at nine, 37, at which it remained till seven this morning. Here are two Equilibriumis, both indicating an atmospheric disturbance at a distance."
Thus it will be seen that the accuracy of my ob. servations are again confirmed.
There was a thunder storm passed. Brooklyn Heights, on the morning of the 29th Nov, at half past three o'clock.
At Saltville, South Western Mountains of Virginia, altitude 1882, Lat. 36 deg. 22 min., Long 81 deg. 53 min. 24 sec., the weather was calm. On the evening of the 27th, and morning of the 28th, scattering clouds, wind S. W., and at sunrise the atmosphere commenced in an equilibrium state, and continued in that state for cleven hours.
South-WESTERN MODALTNISLOVA} Mr. Spencer in his letter to me, dated Nuv. 29th, 1846, says : To day, (Sunday) it was 53f deg. at 6 this morning, where it remained in equilibrium, without the slightest variation until half past four this afternoon. At five it fell to 51 deg., and now, near ten in the evening, it stands at forty deg. The day has been delightfully mild and pleasant.
Mr Milnor, in his letter to me also dated at Saltville, Dec. 6th, states, that the night of Nov. 29th was calm, scattering clouds at sunrise of 291h, wind S. W., two days previous (the 27th,) pigeons were flying south.
Morning of 30th, at sunrise lemperature down to 26 deg. being a fall of 27} deg. in fourteen hours.
Mr. Conkey, in a letter to me dated Syracuse of Dec. 6, states the temperature at Syracuse on the morning of Nov. 291h, al 30 deg, nine A. M., 37 deg.--three, P. M., 38 deg., and nine, P. M., 36 deg., vibration but two degrees in twelve hours, morning of 30th, at sunrise, 30 deg. Snow with rain at intervals on the 29th. Lunar Halo of night of 28th.
My niece, Miss Mary Sirong, writes w me (from Cobourg, U. C., which is situated on the northern shore of Lake Ontario,) that the weather during Sunday the 29th Nov., was very pleasant, rain tell the previous evening, temperature at eight, A. M. 29th, 401; 10, 421 ; 11, 43}; two P. M., 463; at twelve midnight, 360 ;--next day 30th, wind blew hard. Temperature eight A. M., 35 deg. Thus I present observations made at four different
EARTHQUAKES. The Exeter, N. H., News Letter of Dec. 21stcontains a letter addressed by the Hon. Josiah But. ler of Deerfield, to Dudley Leavitt, Esq., of Mere dith, New Hampshire, in which he says that an earthquake was felt in that region, at 9 P. M., on the 29th of October; another in the night of the 31st of October; another at about 2 o'clock in the night of the 12th of November; and another at twenty mine utes before eight P. M. on the 2d of December. It will be Jemembered that a rain storm set in here on the 31st of October, and lasted till November 4th; another rain storm commenced Nov. 12th, and lasted till the 16th, and another rain storm commenced with the first moment of the morning of the 3d of December, and lasted eight hours. The Farmer and Mechanic of Nov.5th, contains my observations made upon Brooklyn Heights, from Oct. 281h to Nov. 4th, in which I say:
“ Wednesday, Nov. 4th, 6 A. M., 601 deg. Rain has been falling since the evening of the 31st, with intermissions up to the time of my writing, and with a prospect of a continuation. The equilibrium state of the atmosphere, it will be seen, by the above reconil, has been very extensive, and strongly mark, ed. During that of the 31st of October and 1st of November, the temperature of the earth, the air and the water, were equal, and at 491 deg.; during which time the smallest of my meteoric wires in the apparatus connecting the earth, the air and the water, and connecting the tin, the copper, the iron and the zinc, all presenting a line of two hundred lineal feet carried the water upon their surface from the great load stone balance with an evenness which was wonderful indeed." I have not time to copy further from this record-the reader can refer to his files of this paper.
The Farmer and Mechanic of Nov. 19th, contains my record of equilibriums on the 13th, 14th, 15th, and 16th, corresponding with the earthquake on the night of the 12th, and the Farmer and Me. chanic of Dec. 3d, and 10th, contains my record of Equilibriums of the 2d 3d 41h and 5th, corresponde ing with the earthquake of the 2d December.
Mild Weather in January.-The Sun says:—A butterfly in January! We learn from a gentleman residing in Newark, that on Saturday, the 2d instant, his children brought in from the garden a large and handsome butterfly, as lively as though it had got abroad in June, instead of January. But this is not the only indication of the Spring like weather which we have had for some days. The common house fly has appeared in large numbers, and spring birds are seen around the country:
Dr. A. McCall, says in a letter dated on the mountatn of Southwestern Virginia--Dec. 26, as follows Before closing I must mention a remarkable state of the thermometer since the strong south-west wind, from 6 to 12 o'clock last night, af. ter which the degree of 54 deg. continued, as I was told, from then till 8 o'oclock this morning."
EARTHQUAKE IN CHINA.—The Journal of Commerce, of January 4, contains the following extract of a letter from Shanghai, China. “We had a severe shock of an Earthquake on the 4th of August, at 4 o'clock in the morning, which alarmed us not a little. We were all driven from our beds "Chop, Chop." There was a shock at Ningpo at the same time, and it is said these shocks are very unusual in that region."
The Brooklyn Evening Star of Monday, August 10, contains my memorandum of my meteorlogical record and remarks, dated at 5 o'clock that morning, as follows :
"The Weather.—The peculiar state of the atmosphere for the last 48 hours, evidences a disturbance at a distance. The atmosphere, here, was in the same peculiar state on the 8th, 9th and 10th of May, of the present year.
Accounts from abroad may explain the phenomena, as to the state of the at. mosphere here on Saturday and Sunday, as they did that of the 8th, 9th and 10th of May.
" Long Island, extending as it does from south-west to north. east a length of about one hundred and forty miles, by ten to twenty miles in width, may be regarded as a large terestrial needle, and Brooklyn Heights my place of observation, as one of its poles; hence the peculiar sensitiveness of its atmo. sphere, being in the great electric current."
There was an equilibrium at Flatbush, Long Island, on the 4th and 5th of August.
On the Sth of May an earthquake occurred at Memphis, Tennesee.
Ningpo, China, is in N. Lat. 29 deg. 55 min., East Long, 121 deg. 17 min. It is the most distant of any earthquake from my place of observation, which I have recorded as occur. ring during the year 1846, and the length of time the greatest between the occurrence of the earthquake and the peculiar state of the atmosphire here (thus recorded in the Brooklyn Star). Thunder storm accompanied by hail and wind, at Rockville, Md., Balt;more city, Philadelphia, Warren, Mass., and Windsor, Maine, immediately followed, and a U. S. ship of war put back to Pensacola, from fear of a storm, having on board a bearer of despatches to Mexico, E. MERIAN.
RISE AND Fall OF LAKE ONTARIO.-Mr. W. Owsten, keeper of the Light at the Light House on Gull Island, about two miles from the Northern Shore, between Port Hope and Cobourg, Upper Canada, in a letter dated Dec. 15th, 1846, to E. Meriam, says, that in October of 1846, the Lake commenced rising, and still continued on the rise when the light was discontinued at the close of navigation, Dec. 6th. In August 1846, between the state of the water and June 29, 1840, was two feet and four inches at least. In August, 1846, for the first time since he had charge of the Light, he could walk around the lower, the rock upon which it stands being perfectly dry.
DEATH OF Aged Persons. - The Newport, R. I. Mercury gives the ages of 13 persons who have died there in 1846 ; the aggregate of whose ages 1393 years, being an average of 82 years.
ATMOSPHERIC. The Brooklyn Evening Star, of Dec. 28, contains a commu. nication signed E. M. and dated the morning of that day which says,
“The state of the aamosphere for the last 36 hours denote a disturbance at a distance. With the electric wires there was an equilibrium on Saturday evening from 8 o'clock till 8 o'clock next morninu, and Sunday evening from 5 o'clock to 6 o'clock this morning. On Saturday evening chaia clouds passed in the electric current for several hours.' TENNESSEE CORRESPONDENCL.
Was it an Earthquake! A writer in the Albany Argus states, that on Monday night, about half past eleven o'clock, he was stariled by a succession of brilliant flashes, like lightning, and about five minutes afterwards he heard a continuous rumbling, like distant thunder, which continued for at least five seconds, and then died away. Several persons heard it, and upon the hill its concussion was so strong that people sitting in their dwellings, felt a jar like that produced by the firing of a cannon at a distance; many thought it was an earthquake, others that it was thunder or the report of some tremendous explusion. On the same evening, a resident on Staten Island observed a similar (probably the same) appearance in the heavens, which he described as a large ball of light, brighter than the moon, and having a stream of fire or less pure light in its wake. He made the hour, however, about 9 o'clock, and did not observe either sound or vibration, as mentioned by the correspond-ent of the Argus. The object took a southerly direction, and travelleil with rapidity, but illuminated the heavens for some time.
From the Brooklyn Star of Monday, Jan. 7. A currespondent, signing himself Wm. H. W***, writes us that he, in company with others, saw on the night mentioned above, while standing at the Fulton Ferry, near the Franklin House, a very bright light, with a tail of crimson red trailing after it, travelling with great velocity through the heavens. It appeared in a northerly direction from here at first, and travelled south till out of sight. From the Brooklyn Evening Star of Tuesday, Jan. 12.
The Weather. " There was a sudden fall of temperature of 3 degrees, at 9 o'clock last evening,-both wires and thermometer. This morning at 7, the thermometer is is 1510, and the wires have vibrated but half a degree, while the thermometer has since 9 last evening, fallen 610."
The Weather. The temperature from 3 P. M. yesterday to 8 o'clock this morning, has vibrated but one degree by he thermometer, and has been most of the time in Equilibrium. The wires have vibrated but 3 degrees since 10 o'clock yesterday morning, and has been much in Equilibrium. A distant disturbance is thus indicated.
E. M. Thursday morning, January 14.
I had not seen the newspaper accounts of the earthquake at Albany, on Monday night, when these nolices were written, for the situation of my family precluded it.
The depression of 3 degrees in both the wires and thermometer, on Monday evening at 9 o'clock, is the usual earthquake depression heretofore several times observed, and the disagreement of the thermometer with the wires the rest of the night, the wires being nearly in Equilibrium, and the thermometer falling 61o, is a strong evidence of the great accuracy of the wires. We shall probably hear of earthquakes at a great distance. The response of this shock noticed above. E. M.
CONVULSION IN LAKE ONTARIO. I received this evening four newspapers from a3 many different correspondents, containing an account of a convulsion in Lake Ontario, on Friday, January 8th. The following is a copy :
Alarming Occurrence. The writer of the following letter will accept our thanks for his communication : To the Editor of the Coburg Star.
Grafton Steam Mills.
Grafton Harbor, Saturday, Jan. 9. SIR, -A most singular phenomenon occurred at this place yesterday afternoon about 3 o'clock, which may be thought worth a place in your paper. The Lake was calm, and the wind in the North, when suddenly the Lake receded from the shore in one im. mense wave, upwards of 350 teel, leaving the beach perfectly dry for that distance; it seemed to gather itself into a vast cone, and immediately returned in one unbroken wave four feet higher than it usually ia, burying the wharf completely, and overflowing iis usual boundaries upwards of a hundred yards, sweeping everything before it, accompanied by a dreadful noise. This happened 8 or 9 different times, gradu. ally decreasing in violence until the Lake resumed its usual appearance. You know the position of the wharf yourself, and you would hardly credii the lact that at ihe end of the whars, where there is generally 12 feet 6 inches of water, admitting the largest sleamboat, there was only two feel of water left; and on its return the water stood a loot deep in the engine bouse, which is over two hundred yards from the beach. Do you suppose this singular phenomenon was general, or do you suppose it might possibly be connecied with some volcanic action working its way to the surface of this particular place? The only sufferer here was Mr. Davis, whose boat lay, as he supposed, high and dry alongside the harbor Company's scow, which latter was listed bodily, and weni smash on the top of the boat.
I remain, Sir, your obed't serv't,
Miller Gration Steam Mills. Our readers will remember that in 1845, we chronicled an occurrence similar to the above, as having taben place in our own harbor. The same convulsion that affected the Lake at Graston Harbor on Friday, ran along the coast from that place to Port Hope. It was, however, unattended with the heavy thundering sound heard at Gration.
We know the writer of the above letter, and place every confidence in his statement. We bave also received a confirmatory letter fron the proprietor of the Grafton Steam Mills, A. G. Allan, Esq.
Grallon is upon the northern shore of Lake Ontario, between Cobourg and Colbourne. I examined this locality in 1844, and found immense bodies of fossiliferons bituminous lime stone, at some former period volcanic action was very disastrous at this locality,destroying whatever bad life in the water,and embalming the whole in bilumen, I have more than a hundred weight of fossils which I collected from this neighborhood. Mr. Stewarı Sirong writes from Colbourne, January 17, that the Lake rose pine feet, carrying off tences and doing great damage.
The Brooklyn Star of January 9, has my recorded observation as tollows:
THE WEATHER.—The temperature this morning at 5 o'clock, 130-wires 430, both have been in Equilibrium. Saturday Morning, January 9.
E. M. The numerous convulsions I have chronicled in the Farmer and Mechanic for a year past, sustain most wonderfully the suggestion of the great disturbance of our Earth. Monday, Jan. 25, 1847.
November 20th, 1846. E. MERIAM, Esq.
Dear Sir: I assumed in a former letter that the motion of two dependent globes is always more or less spiral and never in pure circles; also that motion is the expression not of centripetal or of centrifugal tendencies, but always represents the uncancelled difference, in every subsisting case between these aptitudes of atoms or globes.
Any two equal masses spirally advancing atound a common central line have their radii to describe, like areas in given time; but if the masses are udequal the toci ofihe less body by increased speed describe areas apportionate to the greater mass with its minor velocity in given time.
Centripetal forces operating without an opponent force in the same body, among its loms collectively, or between foreign dependent orbs would lead all malier with increasing velocity toward an ultimale immobile centre.
However numerous may be atoms or worlds, every one being knite cannot fill expanse in any given time, for the future will continue, as well as a still broader space and however enlarged are the bounds of the creation some one point must always be more central than any other points, ibus for ever giving unity of order instead of confusion among stellar arrangements,
On the other hand il centrifugal action received no check the arranged creation around us would, by infinite dispersion, lose its qualities of law in the abyss of eiherial sameness.
if the dispersive tendencies were for an instant withdrawn from our air and seas and the crust of the earth, a sudden and inconceivable collapsing torce would be succeeded the next instant by explosion.
Nebulosities in the heavens for long periods exhibit to us groups of neutrality between these laws, while luminous expansions of cometarysubstance, suddenly over billions of cubic miles, indicale intense dispersive force, but on the planets a strong preponderance of gravity prevails.
Oiber circumstances aitaching to rotation of a globe being equal, it may be inferred that in proportion to ascendancy of gravity among its own particles will be the rotary velocity.
The axiom that attraction of gravitation is graduated by a primeval impulse of molion, apart from the constitution granted to matter itself, is no less hypothetical than is our asssumption that motion always indicales unadju: led differences belween dispersive and attractive relations of the atoms or globes under the circumstances and for the time subsisting
Nor does the one or the other hypothecation derogate from the Copernican established truths, more than a change of letters would impair the demonstration of a theorem in Euclid ; yei, in every physical research it is best that causes and effects should as far as possible be considered and placed in their
I cannot conceive that inatter of itself esteemed 10 be inert, can have more tendency to advance in a direct line than by any other course, nor can I believe its momentum ever represents inore than the efficient means directing orbitual advance require.
Whilst it may be admitted that matter without properties is inert, yet since no such state of mailer has ever been cognizable and as we know the properties of matter are incessantly efficient and do constitute affilliated as well as warring classes of powers denominated laws why not conceive of these properties and describe them as cognate-atomic states of being ?
In a general sense gravitation implies the collective attractions jointly emadating from and connecting masses of matter remotely situated, but at minule distances the same relations exist among atoms, modified it is true by the constant elective affini. ties which are pulling to pieces the works of its more orderly compeer.
So also in a collective sense the dispersive or eclectic law composes a vast conclave of united for ces not only keeping the almosphere and the seas and the entire crust of the earth in constant antago
Hot WEATHER ON THE MOUNTAINS OF VI A. On the 31st of December the temperature at Salt. ville was 7110, and on the 1st of January 70..-At Syracuse on the 31st Dec. temperature 440.
Distic action against the stilling infuences of gravi. tation, but disturbing the interior earth, there causes earthquakes and sending forih columns of light to the moon and ihe sun, seeks for mastery in all quar. ters and through every distance.
This law of dispersion it is, which forces columnar emanations of light from the sun to all his planets and to distant s:ars along all the paths of gravitation, and without which enlarged action every sun, under gravilaling protection alone, would soon veil ils lights forever.
Bui if atoms under control of the laws indicated, can thus evolve and again merge sundry properties with absolute veriry and without reference to human cognizance, it is a fair inference that groups of law or classified properties springing from matter, may, under certain circumstances, noi only have separate subsistence, but may reacı on matter ; and over and above this, can form alliances offen. sive and defensive among abstract assemblies of each other both near and far off from glotular masses.
Now, is the materialist and the sceptic, upon enquiring fairly into the powers granted to Physical being shall find abstract law directly ruling dead atoms, how can he cavil that spirituosity should employ living organic senses in ihe demonstrations of moral beauties upon analagous principles ?
In the foregoing observations I have repeated some positions taken in a former letter with a design to state them with more clearness and I will devole the remainder of this letter to :he remarks | promised upon the ancient modes of time-keeping.
I do not however, mean a critical inquiry, but merely to set forth the general views proving that the human race have not occupied the earth above 6,247 years of past time.
The history of man with no little obscurity reaches back to the Adamic Epoch when the recession of the Equinoxes entered the twin constellation of Gemini and as fable indicates, Cancer the Crab retrogading carried backward all the starry firnament.
Since then it is astronomically certain the reces. sion of the equinoxes has passed over Gemini, Taurus and Aries and has now entered ihe fourth constellation called Pisces.
During this perion the long diameter of the earths orbit has actually changed its direction in regard to the starry vault, above ninety degrees of the Zodiac belt.
This is a mean annual difference of one twentyfour thousand three hundred and forty-eighth share of that circle according to ancient Pythagorean calculations.
This recession causes a falsification in nautical tables of star longitudes equal to nearly a mile of sea surface annually and rendering new estimates or corrections, every few years, essential for the safety of mariners.
This recession is ascribed by J. F. Herschell and other eminent astronomers of our day, as it was by the astrologists three thousand years ago to an ai. vance of our Solar system, causing the equinox to vary its position or line of place in reference to remote stars at the present raie of 50 1-4 seconds yearly.
Sir John F. Herschell sustaining a conjecture of his distinguished father states the Sun is now advancing loward Zeta Hercules, the stars of that region seeming to recede from each other, while at the opposite section of the Heavens the stars apparently approach a common centre.
If Libra be the constellation at which the Sun's orbitual motion approximates the mean rale of Periheliac recession, probably in Pisces is represen. ted the mean rate of Apheliacal recession, the whule spiration involving excentric equations analagous lo equations of time in the annual revolutions of the earth around the line of the Solar advance.
At the above rate of mean recession across three signs of the Zodiac 6,087 years would be occupied for every quadrature and if the recession has now entered Pisces 60 years, this estimate would give 6,147 years for the whole period of recession from entering Gemini to the present time, A. D. 1847.
But it is reasonably certain that the first Sethoic, or Sothic year began the 160th year of Adam and its fourth cycle of fourteen hundred and sixty true years expired A. D. 1600 ; since which iwo hundred and foriy-seven years having elapsed the entire
years are historically 6,247 since the Adamic Epoch.
Therefore if these 6,247 years be historically cor. rcct the recession must increase the arc of its motion in order to effect an entire encircling spiration during twenty-four thousand three hundred and foriy. eight years or revolutions of the earth.
Since the days of Hipparchus, who made a map of the stars, near iwo thousand years ago, the longitudes of the stars have changed from a fixed meridian about thirty degrees and when two thousand and twenty-nine years to come shall have elapsed, our polar axis should have direction to a point thirty degrees distant from its present course.
The direction of the axis must ever remain at right angles to the plain of the equator or longest diaineier of the earih and under certain compensalive mutations this plain obtains position from the Heliacal mass.
But is the greatest diameter of the Heliacal mass, in obedience to its compeer in opposing courses of orbitual motion, must occupy the same plane, then the direction of the sup's axis must traverse a spiral in 24 343 years and as a corollary so must the axis of all his planetary dependents.
If magnetic polarity of our earth be a result of differences unadjusted between the laws of dispersion and of aggregation as we have intimated, and is not governed by influences reaching the earth from be. yond the boundaries of our solar system; then also musi the magnetic poles revolve or point round the circle of the skies as well as the axis of the earth.
It seems also to be a fact that the axis of the earth as well as the phenomena of magnetic polari. zation, under the compromising agencies controlling their inovements, nulate or oscillate so as to describe serpentine lines on the north and south vault of the skies, always bounded by two lines corresponding in width of belt to the space of the tropics as demarked in the celestial expanse.
In thus alluding to axillar direction and polarity it must be borne in mind that I am describing the progression of phenomena demanding twenty-four ihousand years for completion without here setting forth the analogies that the yearly phenomena of these facts manitest.
It is possible that the more rapid motion of the earth during its yearly periheliac half of orbit abstracis somewhai from the quickness of diurnal rotation and whilst passing the aphelion balt adds relatively to rotation; for since the causes of motion must act in the agregate all complexities of submotion consume shares of the gross motive impulse altaching to one system,
li is from data supplied under the short and long equatious of planetary movements that many invaluable deductions have been made in astronomic calculations and out of such principles Le Verrier in his room of study was enabled 10 indicate the place where his new planet was found.
By similar modes of investigation it can be decided in what portions of Saturn's ring the greatest masses of matter are placed and upon the same principles it may be ascertained thai whatever atmosphere may be chemically generated on this side of our moon is soon transferred to its opposite flaitened surface-The character of its oscillations certainly indicate that its body is noio deficient in rolandity.
The late investigations by Struve, Herschell, Nichol, and others respecting Stellar connected sys. tems, will cast new lights upon the nature of cometary movements and if some comes in aeritorm states pass from solar in sular system, it will be found ihat when once nucleal or solidified their motions will be confined to that single system in which, soon afterward, they must assume planetary office and distinction.
And if it be true according to the most ancient Pythagorean philosophy that all stars move spirally about family lines progressing in space, it must tollow that the excentric spiral movements of comels obtaining perihelions only al very long intervals of time must supply data by which the course and velocity of our own solar motions may be verywearly approximated.
Although many star systems are not at those immense distances indicated by modern astronomers, yet they are sufficiently remote 10 cause the space occupied by any to appear very small, and relative. ly to us almost immoveable thereby affording as it
were stationary or starting points from which observed motions of comets may be defined.
To illustrate my suggestion, I need merely say that if the Sun revolves with one or more compeers as we see other stars do, in many parts of the sky, and it our -sun's revolution is once completed in 24,348 years, it is evident that a comet making a periodic visitation, only once in half that time, must al alternate visits, approach our sun from opposite points of ihe Heavens and for shorter times of visitation correspondent variations of approach and departure would be presented.
Doublless in the periheliac juncture of the starry systems described by ibe Herschells, many comels, arriving at such periods were, by the conflictire influe ences of the periheliac action, compelled to abandon their erratic habils and to come into the infantile rank of planets soon to be filled up for intelligent life.
I could be readily made to suppose ibat when the planet of Herschell was discovered, Le Verrier's was, and still may be, emiting auto-pulsive light.
In the above remarks, I have adverted to astronomical views more at large stated, in a previous letter to you, because the chronological principles I am about to introduce here seem to have been predicated on these very opinions whether they be truths or errors,
The Juliap Period is a conventional standard of 7,980 years so placed as that its 4,714th year falls at the beginning of the Christian Era and according 10 our chronology commenced 314 years before the Adamic epoch and extends 666 years after the 7,000th year of the world, thus affording a convenient measure with which all other eras may be compared and arranged.
The revelation of future events would be tutile, unless the recipients, without precise equations of all the movements among the globes defining our years, could use means for a reasonable approxima. iion of the day or years of fulfilmeni.
The ancient reliance placed upon prophetic announcements was the strong incentive in Palestine, Babylon and Egypt for enforcing the most accurate rules for time keeping and the entire Hebraic writings exbibit great attention to dates of events.
King James's Version makes 1656 years before the flood and 2344 vears more to the Christian advent, according to Calmet's plan, but, under our estimale 2056 years elapsed before ihe flood and 2344 years more to the birth of Christ, making together 4,400 vears from the Adamic to the Christian epoch or 6,247 years in all, to A. D. 1847.
The Septuagint version gives 2242 years antideluvian being 14 years less than Josephus makes the same because he allows 187 years to Lamech and 182 to Methusela as does the Hebrew Version.
The Septuagint and Josephus both assign 100 years to Adam ani 100 to Seth more than the Hebrew and as to Adam, Seth, Lamech and Methuselah I esteem the lalier lo be correct.
In other respects adopting the Septuagint years the time is 2056 years to the Cateclysm, alter which and prior to Abram, the Septuagint, giving 100 years more to che several Patriarchs than does the Hebrew copy, produces an erroneous excess of 802 years, which added to the 200 years of excess before the food makes 1002 years of error to the birth of Abraham.
The Samaritan estimale before the flood is 1367 years, but, embracing the Septuagint 802 years of error from the flood to the Exodus, as well as the 853 years which actually transpired, the whole term 10 the Exudus is thus made 3022 years, while the actual time is 110 years less, or 2912 years in all.
Ater the Exodus the best constructions and comparisons of Bible and other data make 891 years in the first Babylonian captivity of the Jews and 600 years from ihat event to the beginning of the Christian Era.
Hales and Jackson including the 1002 years of Septuagint error as above explained, make the Christian Era 10 commence Anno Mundi 5,426 and 5,411 ; Others estimate the same at 4,427, or 4,305, or 4,161, while Usher makes 4,004 years.
Sedar Olim estimates 4,359, and others 4,220, or 4,184, while the Talmudists say 3761, and Rabi Lipinan only 3,616 from Adam to Christ.
Bedford made the wame time 4,007, Melanrthon 3,961, Scallegar 3,950, and among estimates derived through so many discrepant sources the mean of
4,400 years best corresponds with sound authorities.
There are in the annals of various nations detailed reigns of regular descents showing the time subsequent to the flood is 2,344 years,
But without extending these remarks further I will proceed to another branch of our subject indi. caling special principles of ancient efforts at time keeping
From the Remains of Berossus (300 B. C.) gleaned from Abydepus and Appollodorus the Chaldean partitions of time seem inade in agreement with space measures so that 60 seconds were one minute (equal to 24 of our minutes) and 60 minutes composed one day (of 24 hours,) and 60 days made one sos or two moons arbitrary; and 10 Sossi one neros equal to 600 days ; six neri one Saros 3600 days or one Patriarchal elective term; ten Seri one age of 100 years, seven ages one lesser cynic and three cynics one cynosure, or " Zodiac House," while twelve cynosures constituted one great year during which the stars revolve once around our Sun.
Abydenus says "a Saros is 3600 years," a neros 600, and a sos 60 years and yet he makes 1000 true years or 1200 patriarchal years of rule at Babylon equal to 120. Sari and therefore must have misapprehended the time given to one Saros by Berussus from whom he is quoting.
The Patriarchal year appears to have contained 300 days viz. 60 seconds iime measure being one minule; 60 minutes one hour; 24 hours one day; 30 days one arbitrary lunation; 10 moons one Sos (:00 days,) 10 Sossi one Ne 300 days; 12 Neri one Saros 100 years (the Myriad being 120 years); 7 Sari one cycle of canis Minor; 3 lesser cycles une sign or “ House" and the recession of 12 " Houses" constituted a term of 25,200 years.
In the latter day of the Jewish Theocracy the Sos, Nerus and Saros indicated different periods; and in Arabia 600 Neri denoted the 50 years jubilee lerm, while Josephus uses the same to imply a cycle of 600 years.
Eras kept on various plans could be and were equated at the close of every Sothic Era composed of 1460 true or 1461 Sothic years, as used by the civil and sacerdotal authorities in Egypt, because, only on the last day of an Olympiad ending that 1460 year cycle, was it possible that Syrius, "the Star of Nuba" could rise concurrently with the Sun upon the first day of Tholh, then about to be the initial day of a new similar cycle, as may be easily explained.
The Nabopazar Era of Assyria established 766 B. C. and afterwards used in Egypt was kept by terms ot 1461 days cach, the last day being intercallated or not counted, for the same reason we every fourth year throw upon February one leap day.
But under the Sethoic mode of time keeping no days were intercallated until the close of 1461 years when one whole year of 365+ was thrown in, thai true time might be attained in agreement with the Nabonazar Calendar.
It is an historical truth that Amasis, with Pythagoras at his Court,vetoed an attempt in his Egyptian Kingdom about 520 B. C. to substitute the Nabonazar era for the venerated and most ancient Soihoic cycle.
Paramus or Phul “the Phylactorate”-the Tasso King of Babylon, on acquiring the throne of Ninevah 774 B. C. established the Olympiads althongh in Asia Minor, for a long time, they had been used at the Olympic games in an irregular manner.
At Ninevah Pul or Phul was surnamed, Enemes. sor Ninus 2nd whose son Salmanazer the “ Thil gath Phul," "crowned of the Tigress' was “Nazar Nebo, the Prince of Baal-Samin,” which Prince on his own accession to the Assyrian throne ordained the Nabonazar era 746 B. C., the same being his first year, anrulling all other modes of time keeping and burning the salse records of anterior dates.
The Luni-Solar Cycle of 18} years, of which 120 composed 2220 years furnished rough data tu the Magians for predicting Eclipses at Babylon even so early as the beginning of the Nabonazar Era.
Suidas calls 184 years a Saros or Cycle, 120 of which he says coinposed 2222 years and says Laer. tes, records of observed eclipses exist to the number of 373 solar and 832 lunar eclipses, before Alexander invaded Asia.
The Chaldeans had still another mode for defining the “long cycle” of 36,5224 years because in that time so many sidereal yearly turns of the earth occur, upon the Sun as an axis, that counted as days, 100 years would thus be composed, representing the fabulous lise ol the Myrrh-ball Phoenix and twelve times this long period constituted the magnificent " Cycle of Anubis," composed of four hundred and thiriy-eight thousand two hundred and filly-four of our years.
Berossus supposes this grand cycle is 432,000 years while Cicero alludes to 470,000 years, ridiculing iis application to the history of man's experience.
It was thought the beginning of the equinoctial recession was at the fiery confines of Capricornus and thence one and a halt recessions were finished before the twin human beings were made.
The Zodiac of Tentyra and many ancient remains teach thal at every resuri ectional quadrature of the Solar recession the protecting or double divinilies” are bodily present and Seneca alludes to the watery days of this Cycle as being twelve thousand years separated from the Ecpyrosis or burning days.
Eusebius tancies that when the recession passes Aries which it has lately dune and has entered Pisces that some great change was expected and Seneca from Berossus says when the planets under Cancer come into conjunction with the sun's equinoctials, fire will consume every thing and floods atterward will occur under Capricornus bul, the meaning probably is, when the equatorial planes are in parallelism these evils will happen, 1or without an æriform dissolution first, it is not probable that all our planets can obtain lineal conjunction or apposition with the sun.
St. Peter says except those saved in the ark the antideluvians all perished by water, but ihat at the lalter times a fiery destruction will overtake the impenitent then remaining upon the earth..
The Hebrews seemed to have believed that it would be more miraculous is their Creator withheld all information regarding the future from them than that prophecies should be tendered to them.
Geologically, historically and by revelation it seems mankind have not always subsisted and it is no less reasonable that his race will not forever continue upon the earth,
To comment upon the excited and absurd conclusions to which men have ofien arrived toward the expiration of periodic predictions, would present a part of pan's frailties not very creditable.
The connection of historic events fixing and defining special periods in the several eras and times below siated is quite curious if not chronologically instructive.
The most appropriate partition of past time I think is the antidiluvian embracing 2056 years; the Post diluvian or Myocene period 1600 years reaching to the first Nabonazer year 746 B. C. and thirdly 1000 years thence succeeding to A. D. 254 which may be called the Pliocene era, chiefly to be distinguished by its martial character and diversified advances of man's civil and religious condition.
The fourth partition of time I would also make 1000 years extending from 254 A. D. to 1254 A. D. embracing the “dark ages" demanding the chivalric crusading spirit to clear the sorbonean mists from the benighted people.
Since then 1254 A. D. to 1854 A. D. a period of 600 years will have elapsed, composing a 5th era rich in historical interest and from A. D. 1854, the sixth era for future history might com ence The chief periods to which the He
brews attach importance were first the 2,056 antidiluvian ending Anno Mundi. The Post Diluvian to the Nabonazer era 1600 years duration A. M.
3,656 The current Nabonare. Era used by
Daniel for his 2,300 year period 5,956
closing 1554 Anno Domini. The fourth period, Daniel's prophetic
1290 years succeeding the last of 7,246 which now, 1000 years is unexpired.
Seven other successive periodic times may also be mentioned.
The passage of Noah from the ark 770
A.M.2,057 years afierward. The next, 1008 years to fall of the
Macrobeon Ethics in Ethiopia. The pexi, Daniel's period of 1335 years to the “ auspicious Epoch."
4,400 The next, 590 years of 666 years the
years of the man Mabomet born A. D.571 and his system established by 666 Anno Domini.
The next John's prediction of the church tribulations. 1260 years, extending to A. D. 1850
6,250 from Anno Domini 590. The last 1000 years yet to come pro- 7,250
The moral eras of man's history seein rightly divisible as follows. The first 160 years of the eratíc teaching to the beginning of the
160 Seihuic system. 1127 years Sechoic Institutes
till the iranslation of Enoch 1,287
Pyrrhonic Institutes of 2,396
Enoch 10 Melchizedic.
6,247 to the present date. 1003 years to complete the
7,250 period is A. M. The Chaldean Phrase "a time, times and hall” seems to designate the recession of one sign, of tuo signs and half a sign equal to 105 degrees change in the Zodiac longitude requiring 7,102 years for completion, but as yet only 6,247 have elapsed leaving 855 years to come, besides some apparent lee-way of the recession to be yel made up, by increased progression.
li seems to be true that acquisitions of knowledge enlarge the area of evidendy unknown things, thereby rivetting upon limited intellection, the bards of superstition, which forever cement wisdom with inquisitive toily and excessive credulity or its opposite.
Every primary idea of organic animals is palpably intuitive, representing truisms not the less real because sometimes erroneous, for, falsities are positive antagonists and not mere unproductive efflu. ents in Psychology. By intuitive ideas or truisms I mean all experimedial consciousness or ideal phantasms which have not been subjected to or had inductive offspring from the exercise of reasoning powers.
But it all ideas of animated creatures are primarily intuitive, every grade of animals must originale conceptions according to the completeness of their sensual organs upon the correct action of which they may for practical objects implicitly rely.
Hence man in common with 'inferior animals knows things within and exteriorly of his own personality intuitively-the pervading truisms are presented in the same general manner to all alike-they conceive of the same sun through organs susceptible to impressions of the same light, while interior and exterior sensorials are obedient to laws of the same common theatre.
But it does not follow from this community of surrounding media and similarity of animated lunctions, and of identity of primary iruisms that all animals are in the same grade, in reference to capacities for using the intuitive truisms which appear, as organization is more or less perfected for recipiance.
Even granting that all primitive truisms are exact counterparts of the same ideas manifested finitely in the supreme conceptions of the same objects, still it may not follow that all the inferior grades of animation must forever have perpetuity of individuality, but the inference is rather that they are of temporary subservience and subjects of possible extinction.
Be this, however, as it may, the chief proposition, sought here to be offered, is that man having ideas, of true character, derived within media common to many creatures, has within his own personality, a
The first from the Creation, 12 noch's}A. M. 1,287