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10, 56}; 11, 581; 12, 60; 1,59; 2,571; 3, 57; 4,58; 5, 56; 6, 54: 7, 54: 8, 54. 9, 55; 10, 55.
Thursday, 12th, 5, A. M., 52; 6, 52; 7,52, 8.53; 9, 55; 10, 55; 11, 55; 12, 548; 1, 55; 2,54 1-2; 3, 53, 4, 54; 5, 54; 6,54; 7,53 1-2; 8, 53 1-2; 9.53.
Friday, 13th, 6, 51; 7,51, 8, 50; 9,50; 10, 51; 11, 52, 1, 51; 2, 51; 3, 52; 4, 42; 5, 51; 6,50 12, 7,50; 8, 50; 9, 50. Equilibrium.
Saturday, 14th, 6, 50; 7, 50; 8,50. End of Equilibrium. 9, 52; 10, 53 ; 11, 54; 12, 54 1-2; 1,55; 2, 55; 3, 55; 4, 54; 5, 53; 6, 53; 7, 51; 8, 52 1-2; 9, 53; 10, 53: 11,43.
Sunday, 15th, 6, 52 1-2; 7, 52 1.2; 8, 52 1-2; 9, 52 1-2. Vibration half of one degree from Equilibrium. 10, 53; 11, 53 1-2; 12, 53; 1,53; 2, 54; 3, 55; 4, 51; 5, 53; 6, 53; 7, 51; 8, 52 1-2; 9, 53; 10, 53;
North of that point. This morning, before suprise, there were mountain-clouds in the East, West, North and South."
The Montreal Transcript of October 31, copies from the Quebec Mercury as follows:-"The Season has also become threatening: since the 23d inst. the country has been covered with snow which has continued to fall more or less every day since, with the thermometer several degrees below freezing.The caule now subsist on fodder, and ploughing has ceased. Should the present state of the weather continue, there will be the loss of about ibree week's food for cattle throughout the country, a diminution of the produce of the dairy, the loss of many days of fall ploughing, and an increased consumption of fuel, besides ihe partial interruption of lown outdoor work, and the danger of numerous vessels not being loaded in time to get away, or being forced to sail at 100 late a period. We still hope that we shall have a favorable change, as the first snows rarely Jie on the ground. The whole season has, however, been extraordinary.”
The Record ai Flatbush shows an Equilibrium state of the atinosphere on the night of the 23d of Octoher, at Morris's, in Wall street, New York, a vi. bration of one degree. At Syracuse, by Mr. Conkey's record, the vibration was two degrees during the night of the 23d of October, and a light fleecy snow fell there al 2 o'clock, P. M., on the 23d. At sunrise the lemperature was 22°, and next morning sunrise 41o. At 3, P. M., 23d, 36o. Ai Brooklyn, at sunrise of 231, 33°, and ai 3, P. M., 45°:
These records accord most wonderlully. The phenomenon inay be classed among those convul. sions which have been so frequent in our almosphere the present year, although differing in many respects from all of them.
Welnesday, Nov. 4th, 6, A. M., 604. Rain has been falling since the evening of the 31st., with intermissions, up to this morning, and with a prospect of continuance. The Equilibrium state of the atmosphere, it will be seen by the above record, has been very extensive, and strongly marked. During that of the 31st October, and Ist of November, the temperature of the Earth, the Water, and the atmosphere, were equal, and at 49 1-2, during part of which time the smallest of my meteoric wires in the apparatus connecting the Earth, the Air, and the Water, and connecting the lin, the copper, the iron and the zinc, all presenting a line of iwo hundred lineal feet, carried the water upon their surfaces from the great loadstone balance with an evenness that was wonderful indeed.
I received Mr. Cunkey's elaborate record of his meteorlogical observations made at the State Salines for October, yesterday, at the foot of which he appends a note in the words following:
“ You will observe by examining this record, that an Equilibrium commenced October 31, as follows: 1 P. M., temperature 450; 3, 45; 9, 45. Nov. 1, 30 minutes to 1 A. M., 45. Sunrise, 42; 7 A. M., 42; 8, 42; 9, 42; 10, 411; 11,43; 12, 43; 1, 43; 2, 421; 3, 43; 4, 43; 5, 43; 6, 44. Rain commenced falling 30 minutes pasi I, A. M., and at sunrise had fallen 33-100 of an inch; it commenced again at 9, A. M., and rained steadily all day.” By Dr. Strong's record at Flatbush, L. I., it appears that an Equilibrium existed there at 6, P. M., of Oct. 31, and was still running on the morning of Nov. Ist. By Morris' Register, in Wall Street, New York, an Equilibrium was running at 6, P. M., of the 31st of Oct., and was running until pa st noon of the first of No. vember. The temperature Flatbush, wa at 500 --at Morris', 520-on Brooklyn Heights, 4910-at Syracuse, 450. All local as to different temperatures, but general as to fixedness of temperature.
Wednesday, November 4, 7 A. M., 62 1-20; 8, 63; 9, 65; 10, 64; 12, 61 1-2; 1, 60; 2, 59 1-2; 3, 58; 4, 60, 5, 58 1-2; 6, 55; 7, 54 1.2; 8, 54; 9, 53 1-2; 10, 53.
Thursday, November 5, 6 A. M., 50; 7, 52; 8, 54; 9, 55; 10, 55; 11, 59; 12, 60; 1, 60; 2, 62; 3, 61; 4, 60; 5, 59; 6, 57; 7, 56; 8, 55; 9, 54; 10, 54.
Friday, November 6, 6 A. M., 54; 7, 54; 8, 51;termination of 11 hours Equilibrium-9, 55; 10, 55 1-2; 11, 57; 12, 55; 1, 56; 2, 57; 3, 56; 4, 56; 5, 55; 6, 55; 7, 54; 8, 54; 9, 53; 10, 54; 11, 54.
Saturday, November 7, 6, A. M., 53; 7, 52 1-2, 8, 54; 9, 54; 10, 55; 11, 56; 12, 55; 1, 56; 2, 56; 3, 56; 4, 55 1-2; 5, 55 1-2; 6, 55 1-2; 7, 55 1-2; 8, 55 1-2 9,55.
Sunday, November 8, 6 A. M., 53; 7, 54; 8, 53 1-2; 9, 53; 10, 56; 11, 57; 12, 56; 1, 55; 2, 55; 3, 55; 4, 55, 5, 55; 6, 55; 7, 55; 8, 55; 9, 55; 10, 55; 11, 55; 12, 55. Equilibrium of 12 hours.
Monday, November 9, 6 A. M., 54; 7, 54; 8, 55; 9, 55; 10, 54; 11, 54; 12, 55; 1, 55 1-2; 2, 57; 3, 56; 4, 56; 5, 57; 6, 55; 7, 51; 8, 55; 9, 54; 10, 55; 11, 55;
Monday, 16th, 6 A. M., 520 ; 7, 52; 8, 52; 9, vibration of one degree from Equilibrium, 53 ; 10, 53, 11, 55; 12, 55 1.2; 1, 56 1.2; 2, 55 1-2, 3, 54; 4, 53; 5, 54; 6, 53; 7, 52; 8, 52; 9, 53; 10, 53.
Tuesday, 17th, 6 A. M., 51; 7,52; 8, 53; 9,54; 10, 54 1-2; 11; 55 1-2; 12, 57; 1, 58; 2, 60; 3, 60; 4, 58; 5, 57; 6, 54; 7, 53; 8, 52; 9, 50; 10, 48 1-2; 11, 48 1.2.
Wednesday, 18th, 6 A. M., 49. Vibration of hall a degree from an Equilibrium.
Auroreal lights illuminated the northern section of the atmosphere on Saturday evening, Nov. 14, and also on Monday evening, Nov. 16.
On the evening of the 11th, there was a rise in temperature after sunset, also on the 13th, 14th, and 16th. The highest temperature during the week ending this morning was 600, and the lowest 500.
Fall of Rain.-At Syracuse, Onondago County, New York, the rain guage kept by Mr. Conkey, marked the fall of rain at that locality at five inches and seventy-five hundredths of an inch, during the month of September:—Thus, while rain was falling freely at that locality, other places farıber nortii, as well as places farther south, were suffering greatly from drought. Mr. Conkey's record for October, shows a fall of rain at Syracuse of three inches and ninety-five hundredths of an inch during that month. The record kept by Dr. Strong, at the Erasmus Hall Academy, Flatbush, Long Island, shows a fall of rain during the whole month of September of but nine-hundredths part of one inch, and during the month of October of but one inch and seventy-two hu
of an inch. On Sunday, November 1, and Monday, November 2, the rain which fell at Flatbush, Long Island, measured one inch and 30.100 of an inch.
The fall, as noted at the New York Hospital from Saturday, October 31st, 3, P. M., 10 Tuesday, Nov. 3, 9, P.M., was three inches and 60-100 of an inch.
Atmospheric Phenomenon. A correspondent of the Florida Sentinel, states that on the 23d ult., about mid-day, a strange rumbling noise was heard at Tallahassee, in the heavens, resembling distant tbunder or the rolling of cars on a railroad, or more nearly, the discharge of steam under water. The air was perfectly calm, the sky cloudless, though the atmosphere was filled, as common at this season, with a dull, misiy hazethermometer about 70 or 800. It appeared very dislant in the upper regions, though the sound somewhat resembled that of an earthquake, or the whir. ring noise of large birds descending very suddenly, and continued from a quarter !o half a minule. The course of the noise was from North to South, and continued in that di. ection, gradually retreating: The Sentinel says:-"Had it been cloudy, it certainly would have passed off as distant thunder; and had it occurred in the night, there would have been a long train of light, or of blazing sparks."— True Sun, Nov. 10.
The New York Farmer and Mechanic of October 29, contains my meteorological record for one week including the 23d of October, from which I copy as follows:-“At 6 o'clock, P. M., Friday, October 23, the temperature tell three degrees, and remained in in an equilibrium stale until aller 6 o'clock on Saturday morning, with !wo vibrations of half a degree each at 8 and 9 on Friday evening.” The Brooklyn Evening Star of October 24, contains my communication as follows:-"THE WEATHER.- The highesi temperature yesterday was 470, al 6 o'clock, P. M. It is not olien that the temperalure rises als ter sunset. Ac 7 o'clock the lemperature was 44", being a sudden fall of 3o. Il vibrated the next hour half a degree, and was for a little time at 44 1-2. It again vibrated and reached 45, at which it remained unul near 7 this morning ; thus forming an Earth. quake Equilibrium! Snow tell yesterday at a long distance to the West of us, and afterwards to the
Tuesday, November 10, 6 A. M., 53; 7, 53, 8, 56; 9, 58; 10, 57; 11, 59; 12, 59 1-2; 1, 60; 2, 62; 3, 61; 4, 61 1.2; 5, 59; 6, 58 1-2; 7, 58 1-2; 8, 58; 9, 58;
Hoops FOR LARGE Vats, TUBS, AND CAsks.-Hoops made of round iron are more economical than flat for the reason that they cost less to shape them, present less surface to rust and are stronger. Vessels having a great flare should be hooped with round iron. The round hoop will accomodale itself to the flare of the vessel.
GRATES FOR BURNING Coal.-Grates for burning coal should be set as near the hearth as possible, and a depression should be made in the rear part of the hearih for the cinders and ashes. A grale set in this way will give out beat to warm the feet, whereas a grate set 8 or 10 inches from the hearth, the tire heats the limbs higher up.
A New Comet was discovered at Rome about 8 o'clock in the evening of the 230 Sept. It was allvancing rapidly in a western direciion towards the aquator, parallel with Tarr in Ursa Major. It is nebulous, and throws very little light.
Comparative Meteorology. ATMOSPHERE OF Tue Rucky MOUNTAINS. -Lieut. Freemont made a tour across the Rocky Mountains in 1842, 1813 and 1814, (luring whi: h he kept a meteorological journal, which was published with his report, by order of Congress, a printed copy of which I have now before me.
His observations, in August, 1843, were made letween norih latitude 410 23m. 8s., and north latitude 420 36ın. 56s.; and belween West Longitude 1060 16.n. 54s. and 1110 46 in. Os. The allilude above the level of the Gull of Mexico, was from 4.666 feet, the lowest to 8.234 feet, the highest.
On the 1st day of August, the altitude of his place of observation was 7.178 feet; temperature at sun. set, 620, and next morning at sunrise 520–difference 100.
At Brooklyn, N. York, Lat. 400 41m. 50s. Norih, Long. 730 59 m. 30s. West, altitude above the sea, 65 feet, the temperature at sunset, Aug. 1, was 700, and at sunrise next morning, 660, difference 4o.
On the 3d of Augusi, Lieul. Freemont reached an altitude of 8.314 teet, temperature 33o at sunrise, 680 at 9, A. M., 66 at sunset, and 38 at sunrise next morning. Difference between supset and sunrise 28.
At Brooklyn, on the 3d, the highest temperature was 760, at sunset 68, and next morning at sunrise 61. Difference 70 between sunset and sunrise.
On the morning of August, 12, altitude of Lieut. Freemoni's place of observation 6.720 feet, temperature 31. In the evening of that day he had an alti. tude of 7 221 feet and a temperature at sunset of 52, and next morning at sunrise 26-fall of 26% water froze in the lodge during the night. There he left the last waters running toward the rising sun, and travelled toward those running toward the setting sun.
The temperature at Brooklyn, on the 12th, at sunrise, was 61o; noon 81, sunset 76, and sunrise next morning 77, being a rise of one degree in the night. Thus, while the thermometer tell 26 and 6 degrees below the freezing point on the dividing ridge between the walers of the Atlantic and Pacific, the temperature at Brooklyn rose une degree—a wonderful contrast.
On the 14th of August, Lieut. Freemont had an altitude of 6 941 feet, with a temperature at noon of 86° ; at sunset an altitude of 6,667 feet, and a temperature of 75, and next morning at sunrise 31-difference between noon and sunrise next morning 52, and between sunset and suprise ol 41.
At Brooklyn, on the 14th, the temperature at noon was 79°, at sunset 77, and sunrise next morning 71 -difference between noon of 14th and sunrise of 151h, 8°, and between sunset and sunrise 6.
On the 20th of August at 10 minules pasi 4, P. M., Licutenant Freemont was upon the high lands be. tween the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, altitude 8.234 feet-a lightning cloud was visible in the East, a high wind was blowing from the North, temperature of the air was 79, and next morning at sunrise was 43–difference 36.
Lieutenant Maury, of the Hydrographical Office, Washington Ciry, in a letter to me in October, 1843, states that 2 inches and 788.1000 of an inch of rain tell on the 20th of August, 1843, at Washington City.
At Brooklyn the temperature was 77° at noon of the 20th of August, 75 at sunset, and 73 next morn. ing at sunrise, and but 03.100 of an inch of rain fell -difference between noon of 20th and sunrise of 21st, 4.
On the 21st of August, Lieul. Freemout was at an. altitude of 6 185 feet, temperature at noon 89°, at sunset 65, and at sunrise next morning 36. Thun. der storm ai a distance. Difference belween noon of 21st and sunrise of 22.1 53, and between sunset of 21st and sunrise of 224 29.
Ai Washington City, three-fourths of an inch or rain fell on the 21st of August, 1843.
At Brooklyn, 54.100 of an inch of rain tell that day, and the temperature at noon was 78°, and at sunset 72, and next morning at sunrise 69- differ. ence belween noon of 21st and sunset of 221 9, and between sunset and sunrise 3.
On the 221, Lieut. Freemont was at an altitude of 6 281, temperature al noon 84°, atmosphere smoky, and at sunrise next morning temperature 47—difference 37.
At Washington City, 180.1000 of an inch of rain fell on the 221, and at Brooklyn, NINE INCHES AND thirteen hundredths of an inch of rain fell between half past 3, A. M., and 12, M. on the 22d, the greatest rain ever known there. Temperature at sunrise 69, at noon 73, and at sunset 72, and the same of the morning of the 23d, thus forming an Equilibrium.
On the 23d, at sunset, Lieut. Freemont made no record of temperature, bui un the 24th at noon, he doled the altitude at 6.290 feet and the temperature at 75°, in three quarters of an hour after at 74, and at sunset 56. at an altitude of 5.843 feet, and the morning of the 25th at sunrise 45, being a fall of but 110 during the night. At noon on the 25th, altitude 5 841, temperature 72; at sunset 5.738 feet altitude; temperatnre 62, and next morning a. sunrise down to 28, or 4 degrees below the freezing point—change during the night 34. The afternoon of the 25th, Lieut. Freemont crossed a large field ot salt, several inches deep, and on the morning of the 25th, he examined the celebrated springs called the “Beer SPRINGS," one of which had a temperature of 56, another of 87, and the steam hole near it, 81.
At Brooklyn, the temperature on the 231, 21th, 251h and 26th was as follows:-noon, 231, 78°; sundown, 74; 21th, sunrise, 63; noon, 76; sunsel, 74; 25th, sunrise, 67; noon, 78; sunsel, 74; 261h, sunrise 70; noon, 78; sunsel, 76; and next morning, 70 at sunrise. The 230 10 271h, both inclusive, fair weather.
On the 28th, 291h and 30th, Lieut. Freemont records thunder storms, at his encampments, at night, accompanied by rain. The temperature of the atmosphere and altitude on these days was as follows: 28th, altitude 5.142 feet, siinrise, temperature 55; 2, P. M., 78, altitude, 4.764 feet; sunset, 65, altitude, 4.681 feet. Thunder storm and rain. Next morn. ing, at sunrise of 29th, temperature 54, being a fall of 11 degrees during the night; noon, 71; altitude, 5.561 teel; 1, P. M., aliitade, 5.595 feet, temperature 76. No sunset observation, but next morning at sunrise, 39—a thunder storm during the night, fall of temperature from half past 1, P. M., to next morning at sunrise, 37. On the 30th, at noon, temperature, 67, altitude, 5.169 feet; half past 1, P. M., temperature 73; altitude, 5.228 feet; sunset, temperature, 64, altitu le, 4.723 feet; and next morning at sunrise, 44; a thunder storm during the night-fall of 20°.
At Brooklyn, the temperature on the 28th, 29th and 30th, was as follows:-231h, sunrise, 73°; noon, 78; sunset 70.
29th, sunrise, fall 8, 73°; noon, 75; sunset, 75.
30h, sunrise, 67°; tall 80, noon, 81; sunset, 76; and next morning sunrise, 74-fall 20.
On the 5th of August, Lieut. Freemont's observations were frequent. Al suprise of the 4 h his alti. lude was 7,143 feet, temperaiure 380; at 32 minutes past 12, M., altitude 6,951, temperature 790; at 42 minutes past I, P. M., altitude 6.963, temperature 800. Next morning at 8 o'clock 50 minutes, temperature 610, altitude 6,727; 9 hours 50 minutes, lemperature 670, altitude 6,755; 10 hours 50 minutes, temperature 690, altitude 6,706; noon 750, altitude 6,825 ; 0 hours 50 minutes temperature 790, altitude 6,831; 1 hour 50 minutes temperature 790, altiiude 6,875; 2 hours 59 minutes temperature 77, altitude 6,871; 3 hours 50 minutes temperature 75, altitude 6,888; 4 hours 50 minutes temperature 95, in the sun, sunset temperature 70, altitude 6,743, and next morning at sunrise 46, fall 24-sunset, temperature 63, with wind East, and a thunder storm approaching.
At Brooklyn on the 4th, 5th and morning of the 6th, lenperature as follows: 41b, sunrise, 610; noon, 76; sunsel, 67–5th, sunrise, 64; noon, 72; sunset, 70, and next morning at sunrise 70, being an Equilibrium. On the 5th, rain fell for a few minu es at 1, P. M.; rain commenced at halt past 7, P. M., and continued near all night, accompanied by thunder and lightning. One inch and 90-100 of an inch of rain sell. Ai Washington City, half an inch of rain tell on the 5th.
On the 27th of July I encamped upon the pinnacle of Killington, temperature of the air at 9, P. M 470, and at 10 miles distant on the common surface, same hour in the evening 760-diíference 29o. I discharged fire arms on the pinoacle of the mountain at fixed periods which had been agreed upon to be observed by persons wear the foot of the mountain-the reports were without echo on the moun. tain top, but the sound came to the listeners and ob. servers at near ine foot of the mountain from the sides of a mountain opposite.
Lieut. Freemont, remarks that the sound of rifles upon the mountains was as loud as elsewhere, but withont reverberation. I think had he selected a high isolated peak for the experiment that he would have found that the sound was much less powerful than on the common surface.
It will be seen from these statements, above, that the change of temperature in the region travelled by Lieut. Freemont and his party were of greater extent, and more frequent, than in our almosphere on the sea board of the Atlantic, and notwithstanding These great and sudden changes his men were healthy and vigorous.
I do not find in the meteorlogical records of Lieut. Freemont any state of atmosphere recorded ducing his whole tour amounting to an Equilibrium of six hours duration, and but one case in which the lemperature approached within one degree of that state ol'atmosphere. I am inclined to the opinion from long continued observation, that during the Equili. brium slale of atmosphere more persons die than during a vibratory slale of temperature, and particularly, aged persons.
I have searched the records of Lieut. Freemont, with a view to ascertain the existence of frequent thunder storms on the ridges dividing the warers running respectively toward the two great oceans, presuming that where the respective vapors of these were touched at the same moment by a passing cloud, that a thunder or snow storm would be the offspring of the union. His notes are hardly full enough for accurate decision, still I think that as far as they go, they favor the opinion that the commingling pro duces such results.
teorology, for in this is found the plain teachings of nature,
South of the Equator, upon the American Continent, the negro by long residence becomes bleached, the white man bronzed. The white man also there diminishes in size and in intellect in less than three generations of his race.
Citizens of the United States are many of them bending their course towards the shores of the great Western Ocean-loward sundown leaving the regions thai lie loward sunrise; the nälural products ol' the soil of the newly sought country indicates to thein that it is diffi-rect from the place of their birth, and should they extensively locale west of the Rocky Mountains, two or three generations will prove to their descendants, that the climate degenerates their mental puwers, and they will regret the exchange, and so will those who inhabit the country they have lefi;
The mountain lands in our region of country are vested with an almosphere that seems lo be highly charged with invigorating properties. It is among he njuniains that are exposed to the bright sunshine tof morning, that men of greatest intellect are found. It is to the high mountain top tha! men worn down with mental labor should resort for renewed vigor of healih and intellect. Climate and atmosphere have much to do with the animal race. The rabbit and the weasel change color with the seasons in high Northern latitudes-in winter are white, in summer red.
Lieut. Freemont records the fall of rain on six dita terent days and nights during the month of August, 1813, viz: on 1st, 21 and 9ih, and the three thunder storms slated on the 28th, 29ih and 30th, during all of wbich the wind was either North, N. W., E. or N. E. The quantity of rain he records as being moderate, except on the 291h, which he notes as " considerable.” The 6th of August, during which he made, and noteil observations, nearly throughout the day, the iemperature was highest between 12 M. and 2, P. M.
The fall of rain in August, 1843, al five different localities, was as follows: Flatbush, Long Island, by Doctor Strong's guage,
15 inches 76-100 Syracuse, New York, by Mr. Conkey's do,
2 inches 15-100 Washington City, Lt. Maury's Observatory do,
6 do 989.1000 Cambridge, Mass., Director Bond's Harvard College do,
8 do 740-1000 Boston, Mass., Mr. Hall's do, 6 do 88-100
The difference in the fall of rain is very great be. tween these five localities. Bosion and Cambridge are but three miles aparı, and yet there was a great difference in the fall of rain at the two places. From the records of Lieut. Freemont, it appears probable that he experienced less rain than was noted at Syracuse, the lowest noted above.
With regard to temperature I will also make some statements. Mr. Conkey since I commenced this police, has been so kind as to furnish me his record. ed temperatures for August, 1843. The latitude of his place of observation is 43 deg. 1 min. Norih long. 76 deg. 15 inin West. altitude 400 feet.
From this record I gather the following: on the morning of the 8th and 27th, at sunrise, the leinperature was at 70 deg., and on the 26th at 72 deg. On the morning of 1st and 20, 52 deg.; 41h and 24th, 50 deg.; 16th, 57; 25ih, 54; and 21st, 59, the residue of the mornings of that month ranging between 60 and 69 deg.
At 9, A. M., on the mornings of the 71h, 14th and 27th, the temperature was 80 deg., the residue of the mouth ranging from 65 to 78 deg.
At 3, P. M., on the 27th, temperature 90 degrees; 13th and 17th, 87; 12th and 31st, 86; 10th, 85; 9ih and 30th, 84; 16th and 29th, 83; 7th, 181h and 281h, 82; 4th and 6th, 81, and 7th and 25th, 80. These are much higher than Brooklyn temperatures.
The evening temperature, at 9 o'clock, was on the 31st, 78 deg; 71h, 77; 171h, 26th, 2016 and 29th, 76; 12th, 13th, 14th, 16th, 181h and 30th, 74; 4th, 8th and 10th, 73, and the residue ranging from 63 to 72 deg. The lowest from the 20th to 241h both inclusive. No Equilibrium during the month.
Comparative meteorology is very instructing. The agriculturalist needs to understand its pointings, that he may cultivate such grains, plants, &c., as the climate favors, for nature has wisely arranged all these, and the agriculturist will find by close obsérvation that nature is wonderfully instructive. The valetudinarian in search of health is interested in comparative meteorology, for he would shudder at the thought of encountering a climate that presented changes of 53 degrees, within the 24 hours, when il he would take into consideration the altitude of the surface on which such a vibratory atmosphere rested, he would find on the high mountains with its ever changing temperatures, the very place where he should resort for benefit of health and mind. The physiognomist should investigate comparative me
Struck By Lightning. On Sunday afternoon last, a cloud highly charged with the electric fluid, with however but little rain, passed over ibis village, during which the dwelling house of Mr. Mann was struck by the lightning, and one of his daughters severely injured. It appears that the lighữning struck the chimney, following it to where ihe stove-pipe was inserted, thence duwn the pipe into a lower room, and glancing from the pipe, it struck Miss M. a little above the waist, on her side, thence down to her feet-through the floor into the cellar-kitchen, and through an outside door into the earth. At the point where it struck Miss Mann, it burnt a hole about the size of a dollar through her clothes, causing the flesh 10 bulge outwards. Her side and back was awfully burned. It literally tore her sleeve, and other parts of her dress, into shreds. One of her stockings, and a shoe, were torn from off her. The shook made her senseless for some time. Medical attendance was ob:ained, and the young lady, although suffering extremely, is in a fair way of recovery. No other person in the room, of whom there were several, received any injury, although they felt the effects of the shock.On the whole, this was a narrow and providential escape.- Wisconsin Beloil Messenger of Oclober.
Nov. 19, 1846. MR. E. Meriam.-Dear Sir : In my last I acknowledge the receipt of yours of 28in Aug. I have now the pleasure of noticing another favor under date of 261h Sept., with a posiscript of 2d Oct. 1 am also much indebted to you for the several papers sent me. By last mail came to hand the “Brooklyn Evening Siar," and the " Farmer and Mechanic" both excellent papers, and always welcome visitors. The Farmer and Mechanic is certainly the most valuable paper of its kind I have ever met with. Mr. Starr is most eminently successful in the conduct of his paper, and deserves great credit for the ability and zeal he shows in getting together so vast a fund of useful and entertaining maller. To the Agricul. turist and Mechanic it is particularly valuable, and no man in the union, either Artist or Agriculturist, should be without it.
I was away from home from the 11th to the 24th of last monih, and many omissions occurred in my meteorlogical record_indeed I did not intend to send it lo you, on that account, but perceived in one of your late communications in a paper sent me, that ir mighi be of some interest to you, and therefore annex it herewith. You will notice that the change in the temperature from 10, P. M. 24th Ocl., to 6 o'clock next morning, was the same at this place, as on Brooklyn Heights, viz: 100, and followed by an equilibrium on :he 251h from noon in 4, P. M.
We had also an equilibrium on Tuesday, 27th, from noon until 7, P. M., followed by a fall of temperature from 10, P. M. to 6 o'clock next morning, of 160. During that night there continued a very strong wind from S. W., about daylight it changed and blew for several hours with undiminished violence from the N. E. You will notice other equilibriums during the month. I inentioned the above because they corresponded as to date with similar phenomena given by yoursell.
The equilibrium of the 10th was succeeded by a strong wind on that night, and next morning from the N. E.
Accordirg to your theory the temperature of the present mooth has been, with us, most alarmingly Prophetic. Time will show with what truth.
The accounts you furnish of your researches in this new path are deeply interesting. The positions you have taken have been so, I may say, universally corroborated as to leave liule doubt of the intimacy between Earthquakes, Almosphere and Wind-and as may ere long, with the assiduous attention you bestow on the subject, place the system upon incontes'ible basis. I look for your communication on the subject, with eager anxiety.
In reply to some of your enquiries pot heretofore answered, I refer you to a communication from Gen. P. C. Johnston, ot Abingdon. That gentleman estimates the altitude of this place at 1782 feet above tide water. He has also politely furnished me with the heighth of several points in the main valley route leading from Wythe C. H. to Abingdon, which are as follows:
Wythe C. H. 2,290, distance to Abingdon 56 miles, course about W. S.W.
Mt. Airy, Wythe Co. 2,553, distance to Abingdon 44 miles, course about W.S. W.
Seven Mile Ford, S. Wythe Co. 1,902, distance to Abingdon 21 miles, course about W. S. W.
Abingdon, Washington Co. 1,932.
Coal ASHES FOR MANURE.—Mr. Pell, of Pelham Farm, has written a letter to the Editors of the New York Journal of Commerce, detailing the great advantages he has experienced from using Coal Ashes as a manure upon grass land.
THE GREAT GALE.-The storm in which the Atlantic made shipwreck, on Thursday, the 26th November, commenced as far to the South-west as the South-western Mountains of Virginia. At Saltville in a rain storm on the 24th and on the 25th, the wind blew a perfect hurricane from the West accompapięd by a snow storm of 24 hours duration.
Ilth, 6 A. M., 48; 7, 50; 8, 50 1-2; 9, 53: 10, 55 1-2; 11, 57 1-2. On the night of the 13th 3 inches and 9-100 of an inch of rain lell. This is all that Sallville experienced of the great gale of the 10th, 11th, 12th and 13th of October.
On the 29th of October the temperature at Saliville at 6 A. M., 228. On Brooklyn Heights same hour of same morning 360. At Syracuse 350 at sunrise. Al 3 P. M. at Sallville 62, same hour Brooklyn Heights 520. S racuse 490, Montreal, L. C. 42. The altitude of Sallville 1762 feet, Brooklyn Heights 55 feet. Syracuse 400 feet. Montreal net ascertained by me.
Barometer. The state of the barometer on the 25ih and 26th of November, the day preceding, and the day on which the steamer Atlantic was wrecked was peculiar. At Boston, Naniucker, Flatbush, New York, and Syracuse, the mercury was very low. It would be well for passengers if Captains of steamers and packet ships were to pay more attention to meteorology. The steamer Great Western, which often traverses the same path with the icebergs both day and nighi registers the temperature of the air and water but once in 24 hours, although during that 24 hours she sometimes runs 200 miles. The temperature should be registered every hour, and then it could readily be known it an iceberg was near.
Saltville, Washington Co.1,782, distance to Abingdon 16 miles, course about S. W. The following is Gen. Johnston's letter.
' ABINGDON, Oct. 12:h, 1846 "Mr. Milnor has placed in my hands Mr. Meriam's letter to him of the 28th Aug., 1846; and in regard to some of the enquiries he makes, I take pleasure in affording the following memorandum:
" The altitude of Saltville above tide water has not been ascertained, nor have I now the means of doing so, my bo'ling point thermometer being out of order. It is somewhat less than ibat of the town of Abingdon, which is 16 miles S. W. The altitude of Abiogdon is 1,932 feet, ascertained both by level. ling, and the boiling point thermometer. Salıville probably about 150 feet less, being very near the bolo tom of the valley of the north fork of Holsten river.
“Barytes is of frequent occurrence in this valley. It is most generally a sulphate. I do not know, huwever, that any specimens have been analyzed; I have supposed that some I have met with was a carbonate, because it effervescent with nitric acid. As far as yet ascertained, no metals of any particular value are closely associated with it. In some neighborhoods iron is found near it, sometimes with il-but iron is here every where. The only other ineral of any value yet found in our valley is lead; but I have not yet heard that Baryles is associated with it.”
This morning (the 19th) was ushered in with an equilibrium-my thermometer stood at 5610 when I first observed it the morning at 6 o'clock, and remained at that until 10, when it raised degree, and from that hour until 8, P. M. gradually fell to 390, at which it remained at my latest observations, at 10, P. M., viz:-6 A. M., 564; 7, 564; 8, 564; 9, 561; 10, 57; 11, 55; 12, 51}; 1, 511; 2, 49; 3, 465; 4, 44; 5, 43; 6, 42; 7, 45; 8, 39; 9, 39; 10, 39.
The morning commenced calm and cloidy, a drizling rain all day-at 10, A. M., the wind commenced blowing, viz. fresh from S. W., and continued at that the remainder of the day and all night.
Nov. 20.-Clinch mountain, in view from my house, has its summit this morning partly covered with snow, the first that has fallen in view of this place this season. I anticipate a severe spell of weather will follow,
Our farmers have just gathered to their cribs a most bountilol yield of corn, a larger crop than has been made for several years past.
My record for this month, which has been kept with more regularity than that of Oct., shall be lurnished at the expiration of ihe month. Very respectiully yours,
WM. P. MILNOR. Note.-In a note which Mr. Milnor appends to his meteorlogical tables for the monih of October, he remarks as follows: “Quantity of rain which tell during the month of October 4 inches and 60-100 of an inch. Strength of salt water 240. Wind light every day during the month excepting the night of Saturday 10th, fresh from North East, and during the morning of l11h and night of Tuesday 271h, strong wind from S. W. veered in the morning, and blew fresh North East. No thunder and lightning during the month of Oct. The 10th and I lih of Oct. the terrific gale laid waste the shipping in the har. bor of Havana and the town of Key West. The temperature at Sallville on the 10th of October was as follows: 6 A, M., 47; 7, 49; 8, 52; 9, 58; 10, 62; 11, 67 1-2; 12, 70; 1, 72; 2,72; 3, 72; 4, 72; 5,72; 6,704; 7,69; 8, 67; 9, 66; 10, 64. Sunday
The Late Floods IN FRANCE.—The French Minister of Public Works has received a general repost on the ravages commiued by the floods, from which it appears that it will require upwards of 65,000,000 francs to repair the bridges, embankments, roads, &c., which have been destroyed, and so execute the works necessary to prevent a recurrence of a similar disaster. This estimate does not comprise the amount of injury suffered by private properly.
Official documents declare that the loss of houses carried away, at Roanne alone, amounts lo two bundred; and the record of the number is daily aug. menied. Not fewer than iwo thousand persons are without food and raiment, and to this amount must be added sixty families belonging to the neighboring
SALTVILLE, WANOV. , CAL} Dear Sir:-Your esteemed favor of 26th Octuber was received by due course of mail, and would have been answered belore but for pressing engagements wbich have absorbed my lime.
I rejoice to hear that the new Constitution of the State of New York has met with so hearty a respone by a large majority of the people. Although it is faulty in some of its features, yet as a whole it is much better ihan the old one. The political revolu. tion of the State is also extremely satisfactory. l.io noi allude simply to the benefits which may result from passing the power and patronage of the State Governinent froin one political party to another, but of the infinence which it may have upon our Na. tional councils witi reference to the mean and useless quarrel with our Mexican neighbor. It seems lo me that by this war, our pation has disgraced itself in the eyes of all civilized nations, and that it has met with an emphatic condemnation in the recent vole of New York,
Al. offensive wars I deem unjust. They belong to a barbarous age, and no nation is entitled to be deemed civilized, that engages in them, much less can they with propriety be called Christians. Christ is the “Prince of Peace,” and it is :he height of absurdity to call any one by his name, who will seize the implements of war and murder bis neighbor.
Acrepi my thanks for the papers you send me, The “Farmer and Mechanic," which I received yesterday I perceive contains additional information of the correctness of your theory concercing the re. lation between earthquakes and storms, and certain conditions of the atmosphere.
The weather with us during the fall has generally been pleasant. The past week however has been an exception. Il rained during the day on Tuesday the 24th, and on the 25th it snowed during the 24 hours, and the wind blew a perfect hurricane from the West, the thermometer stood at 38 deg. at 10, A. M., and gradually fell during the day until 5, P. M., when it reached 21 deg., where it remained slutiona. ry until 10 o'clock, when I retired. On Thursday, the 26th, the mercury seemed to be extremely fitlul during the day, scarcely remaining stationary for half an hour. It varied from 18 to 46 degrees, and on Friday morning at 6 and 7 o'clock it sank to 9 deg., but on Saturday morning from 6 to 10 v'clock, it stood at 47 deg. To day (Sunday) it was 531 deg. at six this morning, where it remained in equilibrium, without the slighiesl variation until hall past 4 this afternoon.
At five o'clock in tell to 510, and now, ten o'clock in the evening, it stands at 400. The day has been delightfully mild and pleasant. The storm of last week brought with it immense Rocks of pigeons from the north. I think it must have been severe in that region. Many of the pigeons have stopped with us lo spend this pleasant weather, and recruit ihemselves for their journey to a still more souihern climate.
The gypsum, of which you speak in your last, is found in immense quantity on the Holston river, from this place to filteen or twenty miles above. As yet discovered it does not occupy a position much above the surface of the water in the river, but it extends to an unknown depth below, and is (in most places) rather difficult of access on account of the surface water. The quality is very pure. It is quite equal 10 Nova Scotia, which it resembles in
The little commune of Epercieu, St. Paul, near Feurs, has lost forty-two houses out o' ninety-one. Upwards of foriy important domains have been ravaged between Montrond and Feurs, on the two banks of the Loire. Ai Vanchetto, all the inhabitants of the lower grounds were forced to fly; and scarcely had they escaped when their houses were inundaled. The water was in general three feet higher than in November, 1790.
The return of the waters to their proper channels and the consequent re-opening of the communications, have further disclosed the horrois of the late inundation. Of ien floods recorded between 1755 and 1845, none equalled in height and force the recent one.
The King, Queen, and Royal Family, have placed 12,000 francs al lhe disposal of the Minister of Commerce for the use of the sufferers. The journals publish many liberal subscriptions. including one from the Bank of France of 25,000 francs. The Archbishop of Paris has called on the clergy of his diocese to make collections in their Churches.
PIGEONS.—The storm of tbe 211h, 25th and 26th of November, brought immense Aucks of Pigeons 10 the South-western Mountains of Virginia. From whence did these Pigeons come ?
appearance. When it was first discovered here, it was supposed to be salt that had lost its savor, and was consequently called “dead salt." It was conse. quently regarded as worihless, and wis'ntirely neg. Jected. Bu: since it has been ascertained that it is valuable as a sertilizer, considerable quantities have been used annually, and now it is transported in wagons, filty or sixty miles. It is, however, used 10 a very limited extent, compared with what it should be, but the quantity is increasing with a knowledge of its benefits,
Mr. Milnor will forward you his meleorlogical table, for November, by the first mail after the close of the month.
Mr. Preston's new salt furnace is completed. He has adopted the plan you suggested to him, of sus. pending his kettles in cast iron plates placed upon ihe walls. It is a very neat and substantial arrangement, and he has spared no pains or expense to inake his entire entablishment as perfect and complete as possible. I am directing improvements upon the King estate.
I shall ever be pleased in hearing from you as often as you have leisure to write. Respecifully yours.
Thos. SPENCER. E. MERIAM, Esq.
EARTHQUAKE AT ALGIERS, AFRICA.-Letters from Algiers report that a frightful inundation has taken place in Algeria, from the overflowing of the river Arrach, aller very heavy rains. The village of Maison Carree was nearly swept away; and twentythree persons were known to have been drowned. Oo the night of the inundation, an earthquake was selt at Algiers.— Dale not slated.
TENESSEE CORRESPONDENCE.—Lellers from Nashville of November 22, as follows:-"Cotton, is 9 cents lb. here and the whole crop will worn out 2,155,000 Bales of 450 to each as time will prove. Corn is 30 cents delivered along the river per bushel of 52 lbs. Hay $6 per ton 22 40 lbs. Flour 5 10 5 50 per barrel 200 lbs. Tobacco 1 75 to 4 50 per 100 lbs. Pork 2 50. Lard 5 to 6 cents. Bacon best and common, mixed 3 1-2 to 5 1-2 dollars per 100 lbs. We have had white Trosts which the new leaves resisted wonderfally but had to drop off green without the autumnal yellow sear. The gentle winds from the South-west fur 30 days caused Jiule rain and the North-easters being now over after 6 day's cold, promise rather a dry season for four weeks to come.”
Oct. 151h, 1846. E. MERIAM, Esq.- Dear Sir :-1 observe in your journal numerous acts iecorded having reference lo storms, earthquakes, and o: her natural phenomena.
I will offer for your consideration some remarks about storms that perhaps may be worih perusal.
The immediate causes inducing storms are quite complex, and much enquiry is necessary before assigning to each due weight in such atmospheric convulsions.
Chemical and electro-magnetic affinites co-operate for preserving the elements in a state suitable for storm developements,
But these ever active forces are merely compacts of certain properties congenital with atoms, and seem dependent upon more pervading influences, demanding absolute repletion or absolule pegation of atoms, at a given point, which cannot be attaina. ble within our aliosphere.
Yet it is certain the changing postures of atoms and states of properties, arise from constant efforis i attain those opposing results.
It is a truth in Physicis that the concentrative rights of maller are opposed by the dispersive rights of matter, and as one or the other compact is in. fringed, sequential motion represents the greater or lesser invasion by either class.
For example, when the volcano sends into the upper air its streaming fires, or the cometary visitant approaching near the sun disperses its atomic body one hundred millions of miles into void expanse, the dispersive law, as to these facts, has ascendency over the gravitating tendencies.
But there does remain a nucleal conservative portion which in the end reconstructs the cumet by the concentrative or yravilasing law and the motions of atoms and of their attributes, during all the dispersing and aggregating contest, represent the relative power of the combatlants.
While I would not in this paper discuss these elementary laws of the universe, their force must be acknowledged as controlling minor groups of law and of physical circumstances involved in all storm manilestations.
It is a necessary circumstance attending the globular figure of the earth that the more direct action of the sun and moon must produce during every rotation of the earth, a large fund of chemical results, within the iropics, in many respects differing from similar effects exterior us the tropical latitudes.
It is a necessary circumstance from the diversified character of material composing different paris of the earth's mass and its crust, as well as its waters and more elastic superstructures, that much variety must aliend the equations of gravitating forces alone and of electro-cheinical forces alone, as well as in effecting equilibrations between any opponent laws ope. rative at the same time.
The place of iso-lhermal lines, and lines of no magnetic variation, the direction of the latest main currents of moisture and ot aridity over the surtace of great districis, and the unchanging position of plains, mountains, valleys and frozen seas all imprint their features upon the laws controlling general and local storm commotions.
With the foregoing positions kept in view one may perhaps be better able to classify many facts which I will describe as concomitants of storms I have witnessed in past years.
I will first describe a local storm which occurred
a few miles from the Pilot or Arrarat mountain standing in a rolling district of Norib Carolina.
The mountain is of sugar loaf form rearing its apex to the heighth of 1,500 or 1,800 feet by common estimation.
A perpen licular rounded rock 300 feet high and containing about three acres of surface crowns the top of the cone and much iron and other metalic substances in the vicinity seem to excite the electrogalvanic forces during summer.
On one side of the pinnacle ibere is a crevice through which with the aid of ladders persons ascend to the top and may see the clear sun shine, over clouds pouring down rain and emilling thunders whose sound is sharp and without reverberation like the discharge of rifles.
The form of the mountain gives a hollow conic shape to the clouds ibat envelope it and sometimes ihe vapors ascending make the appearance of another cone of clouds with the base inverted, and the apex pointing to the mountain top.
Such appearance I saw and quickly these clouds assuming a whirling motion came uilting toward where I was six miles off.
The rain and hail poured as if from a water sprut, the ground trembled and elect. ic shocks being felt we soon saw a large grainery near us, was ig. nited, and a pine tree not far off, by the lighining.
Subsequently a whirlwind, from the same mountain, carried away the frame house from which I observed the storm I am dercribing, the inmates happening not to be at home.
The wind appeared as it descending from the zenith and spreading, casi over lences and sheds and prostrated trees in every course around.
I have often observed that river fogs are apt to collect upon the highest land in their neighbur hood and sometimes a cloud advancing along one mountain will cross, at right angles, to another parallel range, in great haste, even when 10 or 20 miles apart. .
Sometimes long columns of storm clouds ailvance simultaneously and a stationary point in the forward part must sustain the passing blast during the pas. sage of all the colunm so ibat is the motion is at the rale of 60 miles per hour and the storm lasts 10 hours, the primary moving column may be esteemed as six hundred miles in lengih.
The storm current usually pursues a serpentine path, but the rear portions are not obliged to run around every curve, but sometimes taking the near cut embarrass the forward paris and appear as if iwo or more storm currents were advancing at such places.
Currents of side air also frequently rush in, driv. ing alost the storm current so ibat for miles the elementury strife is high above the forest trees.
It also appears to me that in some parts of every hurricane-line of travel, it is repelled irom the earth after every free discharge of hail and water and is again electrically attracted to it, at irregular distances, often without reference to the even or uneven surface of the place over which it is moving.
The like causes operating along an ocean surface might excite a "ground suell" where the storm aclion would be lightest, while at another part of the serpentine line the impress of the winds would elevale waves, but usually the moving winds as well as the electro-magnetic appliances under and above the ocean surla,e have concurrent force in causing
A SOLEMN KNELL.-The remoant of the wreck of the Steamer Atlantic, a floating palace, still remains among the rocks of Fisher's Island supporting the ship bell, which the wind and waves toll at every heave of the surface of the briny flood. What a memento! What a monitor! How mournful the sound!
SHIPWRECK OF THE British STEAMER NORTH AMERICA.—This steamer was shipwrecked on ber passage from St. Johns, N. B., to Boston on the night of Wednesday, the 25th of November. When off Mount Desert, the wind blowing a gale from S.S.W., the steam pipe burst, she cast anchor, but the calles were subsequently cut and she drified on shore. The passengers and crew were all saved, with the exception of one fireman. Vessel and cargo a lotal loss.
COLD WEATHER SOUTH.-It will be seen by Mr. Spencer's letter from the Mountains of South-western Virginia, that the cold has been more severe there than here, for on Friday morning, the 27th of November, the thermometer was at only 9 degrees above zero tor two hours,
In September of the same year, 1806, with numer.