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The cost of the machinery and buildings, £36,000.
Two other Engines of equal size and power are now being constructed by Messrs. Harvey, of Hayle, and Messrs. Fox & Co., of Perran, in Cornwall, who also manufactured the Leegh water: no higher encomium can be passed upon those establishments, than the simple fact of their being entrusted, with the manufacture of these, the three largest Engines in the world.
The united action of the three Engines will discharge about 2,800,000 tons of water per twenty-four
hours; and, allowing for contingencies, the Lake will be be pumped out in about 400 days, at a total cost, including the price of the Engines, buildings, &c., not exceeding £140,000. By the old system of Sieam Engines the cost would have exceeded £240,000; and to do the same work in four years by wind, would require 114 first rate windmills at a cost of £308,000. The annual cost of keeping the Lake drained by wind would have been £6,100; by the old system of steam engines £10,000; and by the improved system but £4,500.
of their work. Accordingly, they determined to erect three gigantic Steam engines (from the designs of their engineers, Messrs. Joseph Gibbs and Arthur Dean, of London, of a peculiar construction.
The first of these Engines, called the Leeghwater, was completed last year, and has been experimentally worked during several months. The result has been most satisfactory to the Commissioners-the consumption of coal has been reduced to two and a half pounds per horse power, per hour, or one-sixth part only of the average consumption of the ordinary draining Engines; nor has the performance of the Engine, as regards the quantity of water lifted, been less successful; it will raise 112 tons of water 10 feet high at each stroke, and is capable of discharging 1,000,000 tons in 254 hours.
It is impossible to foresee the luture results of this great improvement in the economy of Steam-engine for lifting great bodies of water to a comparatively small height; it will completely revolutionize the present system of drainage in the Netherlands; and in the South of Europe and the Tropics may be productive of enormous benefits, it applied to the irrigation of lands bordering the rivers, which, in the dry scason, are frequently ten or twelve feet below the level of the surrounding country.
A short description of the Leeghwater Engine may prove interesting to our readers; we have, therefore, engraved a diagram of the Engine and Pumps. It has two steam cylinders, one of 84 inches in diameer (A,) placed within another of 144 inches diameter (B B;) both are fitted with pisions; the outer piston is of course annular, and the two pistons are united to a great cross-head, or cap, C, which is furnished with a guide rod, or spindle (C;) both pistons and cross-head are fitted with iron plates, and together, with parts of the Engine attached, have an effective weight of nearly 90 tons.
The Engine House is a circular tower, on the walls of which are arranged 11 large cast iron balance-beams, which radiate from the centre of the Engine. Their inner ends, furnished with rollers, are brought under the circular body of the great cap, and their outer ends are connected to the pistons of 11 pumps of 63 inches diameter each ; the stroke of both ends is 10 feet; and the discharge from the pumps 66 cubic metres, or tons, of water per stroke.
The action of the Engine is very simple: it is on the high-pressure-expansive-condensing principle.
The steam is admitted first beneath the small piston; and the dead weight of 90 tons is lifted, carrying with it the inner end of the pump balances D, and of course allowing the piston to descend in the pumps E.
The equilibrium valve then opens, and the steam in A passes round to the upper suface of the small, and annular piston; puts the former in a state of equilibrium, and presses with two-thirds of its force upon the annular piston, beneath which a vacuum is always maintained-thus, the down stroke of the Engine, and the elevation of the pump pistons (F) and water, is produced by the joint action of the descending dead weight in the cap and pistons, and the pressure of steam on the annular piston.
The steam is expanded from six to eight times its original volume.
The Engine has two air pumps, of 40 inches di. ameter, and 5 feet stroke each.
The water is listed by the pumps into the Canal H, from which it passes off towards the sea sluices,
The total weight of iron employed for the Engine, pumps, &c., is 640 tons.
The Blind SAILOR AND HIS Faithful Dog.There | nals. The falls of rain has been light and the weais frequently to be seen upon the steps of the Park ther has been warm, both operating together, are the Theatre a blind sailor and his faithful dog lying cause of the low state of water. beside him. The dog leads his blind master to these steps and watches him while he remains there. The STORM AT ALEXANDRIA.—There was a severe storm blind sailor has a small box filled with cigars for at Alexandria, D. C., on Saturday, the 7th, the tide sale with a label upon it, saying that he is a blind rose very high, and two new buildings were blown sailor, that he has a little family to support and begs down by the wind. the buyer to deal honestly with him. It is instructive to the numan mind to dwell upon this exhibition of ca
TAONDER AND LIGHTNING.-There is not to be nine fidelity, and it is bumbling at the same time to found on record an instance of loss of human life human pride. The dog seems fully sensible of his
by lightning in a building or vessel protected by a charge, and truly taithful in the discharge of his du. ty. A few pennies dropped in the blind sailor's box
metallic lightning conductor, nor in a building draws from the faithful animal a look full of mean
stored with iron. The fact requires no argument. ing, for it has an indescribable expression of grati
SAVINGS OF LABOR.—The deposites in the Savings tude.
Institutions in this State, the product of Industry, the CHARITABLE SOCIETIES.–Good men, whose hearts savings of labor, exceed in amount all the specie are filled with the milk of human kindness are in all the monied Institutions in the Staie. anxious to promote all benevolent objects, and we see the names of such individuals among the patrons of The PROSPERITY OF THE PEOPLE OF MASSAUAUChristian Societies. It is ofien that a humble suf
SETTS.—The wealth of the people of Massachusetts ferer will make an application to an individual for
is the result of their industry and frugality. Massaaid who would nut apply to a charitable society and
chusetts has no mines of either gold or silver, (save kiod-hearted people should not turn away such ap
that newly discovered gold mine in Dedham) and plicants with ihe reply that they must apply to the
yet the people are more wealthy than those of the society. A kind word to the humble and distressed
richest mining district of the world--are more intel applicant, and a little reliet, will not only gladden ligent, and possess more enjoyments. the heart of the applicant, but it will at the same time sosten the pillow of the person giving relief, will add
Rock Mills.-Mills for grinding rock are of great to lengih of days and afford in the evening of life use to the farmers Mr. Bogardus, No. 40 Eldridge sensations that all the riches of earth beside would street, constructs small mills for grinding rock that be inadequate to purchase.
are capable of reducing hard rock to an impalpable
powder. There are several species of rock which it WATER OF THE RIVER AT ST. LAWRENCE.—The ground as fine as flour and thrown into a hill of corn, Kingston, Upper Canada Chronicle stales that the a handful in each hill, will be equal in value with water of the River St. Lawrence is three feet and manure. The rock now lyin's waste on the farms five inches lower than it was ten years ago, and that in the United States, exceed in real value all the if it continues to fall it may seriously affect the ca- gold mines in the world.
October 30, 1846. E. Meriam, Esq.- Dear Sir :-In my two letters, observations on meteorology and concerning the earthquakes of 1811-12 were made, and in this I will extend my remarks to the phenomena of tides as connected with almospheric changes.
The most ancient astrologists Currectly assumed that motion of atoms or masses represenled nol the direcl allractile, or rejectile forces singly, but was an exponent of the uncancelled differences constantly arising between those forces inherently attaching to all malter.
By the action of those opposing laws it is rendered impossible that any iwo foreign globes can into contact without their prior dissolution into elas.
Between all substances near or remote dependencies exist and the motion of the moon impresses i he carth in all its parts, nor can antipodes move on the earth without transfers however insensibly, of elecro-magnetic influences between them.
Were the axis of the earth a bollow cylinder, an iron rod extending through, might remain poised and if an iron ring reaching round the atmosphere were suspended on the poles, the ring would accompany the moon and sun's place as lides do, alan eclipse.
Needles suspended on such a ring indicate latitude by dipping and a chronomeleri ndicale longirude by observing ihe ring's position.
Such rud and rings would contain points strongly polarized while their centcs migbı prosent the opposile lendency in a duplex degree.
The la v oť gravity hypothecates the attainment of absolute repletion, while the electro dispersire tendencies search after entire negation, but during the arranged ascondeney of gravity over the suce of our globe, neither of these extremes can be consummated,
Something approximating ihe extinction of matter happens, when steam deflagrates, or the lightning decomposing the inoi:luse in the Aak, rends il with a suduen expanse anıt sequential collapse.
Electro. Magnetic relations probably compose the chiel media of columnar intercourse between sun and sun and world and world through all the sky, distances serving perhaps as paths for intelligent action, as it were, along Telegraphic wires.
Wherever the concentrative and the dispersive laws equally govern any substance, it is usually gaseous anii elastic as it indisposed to become either more eiherial or more solid.
There are inany nebulæ or flocculent misis in the skies which at last disappear streaming through the heavens with electric velocity.
Are such æriform comets aliment for sins or do they derive support from the latter until filled lo become planets ?
These clouds are supposed to form nucleal masses whose orbits aliain less and less eccentricity until they become denizens of some solar system.
In 1811 | wildessed the rapid approach ol the brushy tailed comet to the sun, wbich apa parently interchanged polarizing tendencies with ihai Luminary and retreated with like velocity, describing the lines of an acute angle.
Its nucleus was said to be about 2760 miles in di. ameler, and its presence, as people supposed, porlended war pestilence and earthquakes.
The late comet of 1843 should have the elements of its mution compared with that of A. D. 1220 and 1402 having a periodicily of 88 years, pert:aps alternately with 83 year period.
I saw the comet of 1843 on March 20,61h, 7th, 11th ard 171h, at which last date iis luminous proboscis was 80 or 90 degrees in length and on 24th extending above Sirius.
On the 23th the luminous stream was very dim and early in April disappeared from view.
It is said to have appeared in December and in January a surprizing brilliance belonged to the sun, giving a l'urning sensation like the summer heat.
Stormy black thunder-clouds froin the south were succeeded by heavy snow-storms from the ponih.
lo March and April the tiiights of evening and morning were of loo long duration, and so loily were several thin strala of clouds thall concluded the cometary stream bad left for our air, part of its wispy electric lighis as it passed swilily near our earth.
The mean temperature of March was 32 degrees, lat. 35, long. 9 degrees.
Could thal coinet, after partial dissolution, have executed several revolutions in the sun's deep almosphere and atier reversing all its affinities with the sun, was cast off with electro-magnetic lights such as were witnessed ?
The rapid Alight of cometary streamers in void space and the subsequent retreat of such vapors back to the comet, indicate an enlarged action of some law opposed to gravitation or else an action, inconsistent with the unity that ought to aliach to that pervading influence.
It the world could become suddenly extinct leaving ils revolving atmosphere, no collapse would necessarily ensue, but if the rotation were doubled, the polar parts advancing upon the equatorial
To illustrate these laws by the phenomena of our tides, I may assume that if the sun and moon's substance were formed into a hollow sphere surrounding the earth, no inequalities of iide could arise,
But aside from solar interference, the greatest ride is yielded when the moon acts with the grčatest obliquiry through the equatorial plane or longest diameier of ihe earth.
Wherefore it may be inferred that the opponent tendencies of gravitation and repellence originale tides during inchoate effuris at equations, belween home conservative and foreign disturbing forres.
The earth and moon each emanale a conic column of relations concentrating upon their joint pirot of motion, but at the same time, ihe pariicles of both orbs preserve stronger action convergent on their own respective true centres.
The movement of water is an equipoising atiempt to provide against the accruing differences between the home and foreign influences upon the same matter and hence an altitude of 40 feei tide, near the Arctic Circle, when the moon's declination is 28 degrees from the plane of the equator, would be resolved into a tide ot 20 feel, were ihe moon's action coincident with that plane.
In every case ot vides, it happens that the sides of the earth and the moon next each other grant an ascendency to the foreign attractions over the reciprocal repellent actiun, but on the exterior sides the at. tractions, are counteracted because the mutual repel. lences have no opposition from the exterior direction, to their action.
This elevation of tides equally in opposite direciions is therefore no paradox else we could not find the magnetic allractive and repellent attribu'es coetaneously resident in the same mariner's needle, yet, in the one case !he resulis are very diminutive and in the other very magnificent.
The solar hear, form of ocean beds, sea-currents and other causes which might disturbelecir.-galvanic forces in the earth's crusi, may and do n.odity lidal phenomena.
The sun's tropical influence whilst advancing round the world induces winds, clouds and many chemical effecis which for the time widely aiffer 1rom results in arctic regions.
In the tropics springs flow by force of these causes but in the arctic circles water becomes solid and yet equal amounts of water can be evaporated in either region and at every point it should be remembered, the hail or any growing apple became uplified before falling to the ground by gravity.
It is certain that all those classes of properties termed calorific, luminous, gravitating or elastic, or any designated as electro-magnetic-effluence are actual subjects of intangible law and d) even become vivjfied instruinents for manitesting moral capacities.
By living organization, spirituosity attains devel. opement and seizing upon simple instinctive percep. tions tests the soundness of verities and by careful collocations reaches remote deductions in rationalism. The inferior animals enjoy many instinctive capacities for koowing in common with the human race, but man only posesses an interior self capable of employing simple instinctive conceptions for abstruse reasoning.
would force the latter to expand and a circular plane might result.
Hihen ihe rotating velocity were again doubled the central parts passing toward the enlarging exterior would form a ring and yet the periods of rota. tion mighi remain the same, the space iraversed by any radius being always proportionate to the time.
By means of sufficient distance from a pivot, one pound may counierpoise one hundred, and other bodies out of the way every two orbs must find a point berween them at which their relations being equivolents, the motion of one, in any direction, involves motion of the other in the opposite way, presenting by necessity circularily or spiralily of orbits.
The positive and negative parts of magoetized needles, cast into collission, sbew the principles of circular equipoise.
But sin foreign agencies prevent two bodies from defining a stationary distance and then preserving it without change, the like influence may primarily give extreme eccentricity to æritorm productions, which streaming millions of miles as they pass, may, Irom the action of a thiru like influence, sud. denly lose that eccentrie action by exchanges of negalive and positive or more properly attractile and rejectile properties atijmes of greatest proximity.
An ærilorm comet sometimes strikes its course as if for the sun's centre or edge of his disc, when instantly changing jis polarities, as do sireains of light, gravity, and caloricity, the course of travel is reversed, leaving the sun, with as much vebemence as lightening leaves a cloud.
In order righily to apprehend the force and control of nature's laws these unust be examined into as operative in all stales of matter and of all efficient stales of properties before and after constituency of a living body or of a world.
Having in a desultory way, stated the foregoing facts and opinions, I may deduce the following principles as indicating general laws.
The first law embraces gravitating or aggregative tendencies among aloms and globes and is conservative,
The second law antagonistic of the first decomposes and finally destroys all configurations, even vulgarding the extinction of gas into etherial sameness. Of course both these imply a primordial origin
The third law pervades organic living attributes whereby the two preceding laws, to some extent, are aided, and in other respecis subdued.
The fourth law attaches to spiritized morals with that auto-pulsive-subsislence which ascending above The straial state of being, seems necessarily to be ever-during in all the principles of conscious identity.
The two last laws are merely alluded to, and the two first seem to embrace all the varieties of altractjve and repellaut attributes belonging to inanimate maller.
Under every condition of inanimate substance the motion of mailer is a direct exponent of uncompensated balances subsisting between the iwo first des. cribed laws or classes of relations congeneral with malter.
Because motion of matter is a product, grades of velociiy must always represent the alternating as. cendancy of the one law over the other, as well be. tween adjacent atoms, as between remote masses in the same system.
The tendency to depart from a right line is there. fore a sequence of opposing central and centrifugal excitations craving an absolute equation rarely allainable.
Under approximale contact gravitation sustains atoms against the segregart aplitudes, which would indefinitely expand the same.
Alier every extensive dispersion of atoms or globes, the aggregative law finds ultimate ascendan. cy, and a nucleal beginning gains superambrient materials which war with each other, till most convenient affinities being finished, comparative quiescence is allained as now appears on ihe face of our globe.
Globes are definite in form and in number at any given time and although ever creating, cannot fill immensity, nor if advancing, as must be the case, loward one center, do all reach there before passing
October 5th, 1846. E. Meriam, Esq.
Dear Sir:-In my last letter I laid down some general laws apparently attaching to malier and ever yielding certain specific results instead of chance medley effects or absurd contradic:ions.
The failure of globes in given systems to express perfections of space and time ratios in their motions so far from showing any detect, do actually constitute mathematical data for surprising attainments regarding the unitary excellence of the celestial mechanism.
Of this character are the long equations of our planetary dependencies, embracing under the wing, groups of lesser aberations bearing against other currents of detalcations and all searching for the ultimates of adjustment,
The line of 47 degrees of apparent circuit described on the northern sky by the telluric axis around the mean north pole during the long period of 25,000 years is not owing to all the starry vault revolviog around our solar system, but it is the product of certain changes of the solar system in its own home positions.
William and John F. Herschell both assert that the stars near Zetta Hercules on the northern confines of the Zodiac seem to recede from each other, while in the opposile point of the Heavens, the stars apparently approximale one center.
Hence it is inferred that the solar system is advancing to the first and removes away from the other point.
The sun does in fact move spirally around a pyramidal or columnar expanse of the sky whose di. rection extends coincident with the plane of Saturn's equator or nearly so and in its spirations down that column towards some remole gaol spire seems to be completed during one whole cycle of our equinoctial precasion.
According to this assumption, the plane bisecting Zela Hercules and the corresponding opposite point of the star vault, must cut the plane of Saturn's equator at a specific angle, while the line of bisection indicates the mean direction of the column round which the sun is moving.
The semi-diameter of that column may be ten billions of miles and the suns path probably ascends it at an angle of 52 to 66 degrees, coursing at the present time toward Zela Hercules, at a departure of aboul 28 degrees from the plane of the earth's equa. lor and the velocity of solar motion must be fully three times that of the earth.
These hypothocations involvethe fact that all Heliacal constitutions embrace two or more reciprocal suns, as necessarily belonging to every sun's system, our own as well as others.
Now, it may be possible that six thousand years ago, the axillary north pole of the earth was directed to a point 90 degrees eastward from the present place among the stars, and therefore, 6,000 years hereafter, the mean axillar line extended among the stars must point ninety degrees west of its present northern position.
Other star systems executing similar revolutions are so remote as not materially to interrupt our sun or be seen by our imperfect inspections.
But the principles hereby involved are not lelt to conjecture as Herschell and Struve's late researches abundantly prove.
They say many related stars give contrasted light and commonly the bigger star has a red orange hue while the smaller is blue or greenish as in iola ot cancer and Gamma of Andromeda both being double stars.
Eta of Cassiopea presents a big while star with a small one o: ruddy purple and in other parts of the sky are stars red as blood of which color in the time of Abraham was Anulis which now is very whiie.
Herschell says the iwo stars No. 61 Cygni for 50 years have been 15 seconds apart while their posi. lion among adjacent stars has shisted four minutes and 23 seconds or 54 seconds annually; so also Mu Cassiopea moves 34 seconds and others change yearly.
Hence arose the ancient opinion that when two suns became incubative one soon lost its light as Phaeton's did in the moist constellation of the Bear.
Herschell states Omicron Ceti revolves with a dark and a bright side every 334 days being brightest 14 days and for 'three months losing light, again acquires brilliance for three months, in the same apparent rotation on its own axis.
Algols luster increases 21 days and then in 3 hours is above halt reduced and Goodrick thinks large dark belts cause this phenomenon.
Delta Cephie gives variable light every 5} days, and Bela Lyra in 6j as Goodrick observed in 1784, and Pigot the same year reported Siame Antonei at 7 days.
Herschell reports Alphe Hercules at 60 days and Harding states Serpentes varies its light in 180 daytimes.
Fabricius gives 324 days to Omicron Ceti; Mr. Kirch 396 days to Chi Cygni, and Mardi gives 494 days to a star in Hydra, while Janson assigns 18 years to No. 34 Cygni.
About 125 years before Christ Hipparchus saw a new star which caused him to draw up a new catalogue of the stars and in A. D. 329 a star bright as Venus shined forth for three weeks near to Alphi Aquilla and then disappeared.
In 1839, I observed near Sirius a flaring star and arriving at Sparta by stage found many persons exainining it and calling it the “dancing star," and I could not detect it a few days afterward.
In A. D. 965, 1264 and 1572 a brilliant star appeared between Cepheus and Casenpea and on the 11th Nov. 1573 it again suddenly shone out, so as to alIract public notice, but was dim in December and disap peared in March, 1574 says Tycho Brahe.
On 10th March 1604, a star in Serpentarius became visible till Oct. 1605 and A. D. 1670; in the Swan's Head was one that varied much for two years thereafter and was no more seen.
On 9ih May, 1828, Hersehell found 42 Virginis had disappeared nor has it since appeared.
The ancient Job speaks of the 7 stars, but now only six are visible.
The chief stars are cast into classes for the sake of convenience as follows, viz:
The first class contains 20 stars whose light is rated ai 100. The second class 40 stars whose light is rated at
the third class 120 stars whose light is rated at 12; the 4th class 480 stars whose light is rated at 6; the 5th class 2400 stars whose light is rated at 2; and the 6th 14,400 stars whose light is rated at 1; nearly all which are astronomically registered.
Besides these are six other classes of Telescopic stars.
Within apparent distances of 30 seconds above
500 related stars are found, and at greater distances apart still more related stars are known to exist.
Castor and ils companion are about 5 seconds apart, while the companions of Atlas, Phidam, Gamma, Coronis, Zeta Hercules, Tau and Lamda Ophinci with others are less than one second apart.
Sir. Wm. Herschell concluded some double stars had motions about a common void center, or else it involved a change of place in regard to our solar system, wholly inconsistent with the phenomena of The yearly parallox of the stars.
It may hereafier appear that all stars are not so remote that a triangulation based on the earth's orbit cannot appreciably measure their distance, otherwise what would be the velocity of those binary stars which revolve at so short dates, cn the assumption that they are above 20 billions of miles or 1000 billions distant from us?
In round numbers radius is to the sine of one second asiwo hundred thousand to one and this exceeds the radius of the earth (four thousand miles) as twenty-four thousand is to a unit.
Visual errors arising from certain properties in light to be presently alluded lo, probably interposes the only real obstacles to ascertaining distances by the paralactic method of measurement.
Herschell assigned to Castor and its adjunct star a period of 334 years only, for one revolution and to Gamma Virginis, at first six seconds and now less than one apart, he gives 708 years and to Gamma Leonis 1200 years has been assigned.
Sigma Coronis has its revolution in 286 years, Castor 282 and 70 Ophinci, named Aselepias, has 80 years; Xi Ursi 58 years; Zeta Cancer 55 years, and Ela Coronis only 43 years.
Mayer and Bradley 1756 and 1718 stated the places of Gamma Virginis which aided the estimates concerning ils perihelion in August, 1834.
Since Dr. Herschell examined Ela Coronis it passed its perihelion and will soon complete one revolution, 'says Sir. John F. Herschell by evidence, as clear as that demonstrating Saturn's revolution, and the terms of the long elypse proves the same laws of motion there prevail, as in our solar systein.
During such perihelions the allendant planets may receive damages as perhaps Juno, Pallas, Vesta and Minerva once did, under like ciicum stances, in our system.
According to the Hermaic Symbols all related stars describe opposing spirals continuing onward and not relurning into the same places, after the fashion of the figure of eight bandage but at every perehelion may not pass equally near.
The Egyptian opinion was that every 12,175 years alternate fire and water destroyed the face of our globe and this implies a trine of Coparcipary suns.
Josephus asscribes 10 Noah the opinion of such periodic destructions and his descendants by way of securing their archives built a pyramid of brick as best suited to securing against fire and another stone pyramid more enduring under the action of water.
The sybils speak of the centralizing influence of the sun over its dependant orbs and Macrobus stales all things were in obeyance to that luminary.
Josephus refers to 12 globes deriving order from the same source and the Patriarch Abraham is reported to have demonstrated to the Damascenes the one Creator of all things from the regulated movements of all the celestial bodies.
Homer also makes allusion to the views of Atlas who held that cones of properties extend between
all globes upon which in their oroits they remain poised.
Orpheus conceived that by successions limited creations always manitested the subsisting state of an unity, the product of one auihor toward whom all things were moving.
Euripides says“Thou sell-sprung Being that dost all en/old And in thine arms dost Heavens whirling fabric Who art encircled with resplendent light (hold And yet liest mantled o'er in shady night, Around whom the exultant fires Dance glancing round, in constant spires.”
In allusion to interchanges of sun-light the Poet Milton says
“ With their attendant worlds thou wilt descry
The fitness of the progressing spire over any other curve for graduating velocity is apparent in the movements of the common steam governor and by analogy it would seem that any two approaching bodies of libe mass would thus best guard and graduate their velocities or it one be il greaiest mass the centre of relations is transferred toward the larger.
The Hermaic system assumed a munad at rest, then a new atom loward which the first tended and then a triad produced, caused a departure from rectilinear motion.
Pythagoris' point without dimensions represented the monad principle, the duad of positions indicated the line without breadth and a triad of positions described superficies without depth, while a quartern of positions, being a prismatic cone, exhibited a solid.
Metaphisically christians allude to analagous relations between the father, son and their communicant understanding.
The Platonists saw in the one Primeval principle the definite monad and the duad was its conscient seinblance, whilst both communicated through a third means.
It was these abstruse speculations that paved the way for the spiritized metemsichosis system of Egypt and soon bewildered the Pythagorean astronomy and mathematics.
The astronomy of Pythagoris esteemed the moon to move spirally about the earth's path and not by epicycle leaps as Ptolemy taught.
In each year the moon by its own proper motion advances near eighteen millions of miles, upon a radius of 240,000 miles long but in the same time the earth carries forward the moon above 540 millions of miles, so stretching out the lunar path, that it is always concave toward the sun and on like principles the sun bears on ward the earth whilst in its yearly orbit.
Herschell says in a zone crossing the gallaxy nearly al right angles are many well defined rings of wispy light and some resembling floculent dust.
Where Virgo, Coma Berinice and the Big Beare are crossed, are seen concentric star bands like our milky way.
Presipe exhibits stars of a sun-system of vast extert that moves spirally in a direction opposite to the course of our sun and without some such correlative support as that system might give to our sun, how can the equinoctial precession be explainedf?
Near Nu Aquarius also is a dark body of great
size, whose passage through our regions of the skies may be connected with solar motions.
It is possible that periodically all suns become opake and are for the time illuminated by their own planets and, this interchange might be many times repeated before their date for extinction has arrived.
The Orphic system assumed that the counselling spirits so fram d the mundane egg that its progeny casting away ancient exuviæ acquires new beauties as it spirally advances without the use of feet.
It was supposed too, suns remotely placed, reciprocated simulacra or properly semblances, which meeting on the way formed marital alliances whereby these imageries became invested with rudiments, that at first exherial, became gaseous and chaotic and fluid and solid and when the Prime spirit so ordered, the shell bursting many organic animals came fortb.
Orbs that stand so related as to have their iplervening equations to fall within the body of either (as the moon's does in the earth's mass) would in the Hermaic sense be incapable of any cosmogenic purposes.
The Arabian Alchemy always having its laboratory within the earth's control erred in supposing melals could be created or transmuled.
But like disabilities may not attach to the luminosities appearing ball way between binary or lernary star systems.
It is no derogation from the creating energies of the first cause of all being to admit that flowering trees or two animals adapted to generation may yield embryos or similar constitution and likeness lo themselves,
That these principles were admitted among the Pythagorean ancient astrologists admits of little cavil, but, why, the Creator uses instrumentalities for continuing his material works may not be learned during the present state of man's existence.
Snould observation show tha: the earth's axis ex. tended, describes a Serpentine line along a space of the northern sky forty-seven degrees in breadih, at the rate of 52 seconds per'annum, the time necessary to complete the entire revolution would correspond with the period of the equinoctial recession.
The Egyyprian Astrologists asserted that in a period of 48, 697 mean terrene years the sun rising and the selling would be twice reversed, apparently calling for circuity of polarization.
It seems most probable however that variations may be executed around a permanent mean magnetic pole.
Yet, the general centre of the material universe may not be stationary, for that would require equal. ity of cosmogeny in every direction upon the exterior and in the interior.
A conjecture might be hazarded that the shortest direction to the present exterior of creation from our world ; would be southward and below the great Megalhonic clouds.
In the mechanism of star systems it may be safely granted that as much variety prevails as we find in the types or the constitutions of the vegetable and animal kingdoms of our earth and yet special rules ot form and action pervade all, giving a certain extent of uniformity, among “the wheels working within wheels."
The varying belts of Saturn and of Herschell intimate that all appetencies for human lite are not complete; even lalmly the planet Herschel manifesed star light and also much later its moons were surposed to be self-luminous.
It all systems spirally advance toward one grand centre it must follow, that the angulations of any one spire cannot be unitorm, at distant dates, but must be ever accommodated to existing exigencies, that collisions may be avoided.
The perpetual Conservations as laid down by Laplace and Legrange, by no means, agree with the successive production and decay of the celestial mechanism.
There is no doubt our world has underwent great exterior changes by too near contact with some foreign visitant and these land marks on future inqui. ry may indicat: the time and the direction whence the same danger will arise.
Should our seas rise into vapors twenty or thirty thousand miles deep as on Comets nearing the sun, our then ipmerfect globe would be cast upon a new axis of diurnal rotation and during the slow replacements of the waters many rough mutations would cause overflows, leaving geologic monuments such as are every where offered of some ancient catastrophe.
According to the best Egyptic astronomic chronology as given by Eusebius and others the present constitution of the globe had existed during one and a half precessions of the equinoxes representing thir. ty-six thousand five hundred and twenty-five years.
At the close of this period man was placed on the earth and to the present year, the precession bave passed over the signs Gemini, Taurus and Aries and has entered 52 1-2 minutes into the constella. tion Pisces.
Now according to the same computation of time the period since Adam's creation is 6,147 years to this current year, which agrees well with the Mosaic date of that event.
This duration will under the circumstances account for the geological crust of the earth and the six grand quadratures of time in one and a half precessions, were the six periods symbolyzed, in the Adamic creation, during six diurnal rotations of the world.
The seventh period lately closed and during all man's history some great physical or moral exhibition has been predicted, when the solar precession should leave the constellation or Star-Houses of Aries.
The precession of the equinoxes set off from Capricornus under Ecpyrosis, or chaotic fiery state, mentioned by Seneca and Pliny and during 6,087 years traversed 90 degrees to Libra.
Dark vapors now hung over the earth and the chaotic elements became consolidated.
During the 21 Era of 6,087 years the precession passed to Gemini and the earth's crust received de. posites of Gneis, hornblend, clay, slate, and stratified metamorphia rocks making provision for vegetation.
During the 31 Era of 6,037 years mica schist and its affinitive rocks were deposited and the salurian and other rocks and light appeared.
During the 4th Era of 6,087 years the arching ring 'above held waters above from the waters below un. til these windows poured down the flood of water.
The dry land was seen and the early orders of plants appeared.
The inoon and sun marked the seasons and trilo. bites, Shellfish, Sauriens and Paledogic beasts apppareil.
During the 5th 6,087 years the ecpyrosis appeeared, again breaking up the order and destroying the li'e of all things.
The seas evaporated and the upper crusts of the rocks were infracted and variously dispersed.
The moon also gave out great heat as a sun and possibly had a higher declination than after the return of the vapors and a settled order of things were regained,
The 6th Era of 6,087 years was during the precission from Libra to Gemini when man was created.
In the early part of this period the Lias and Oolite deposils and the proper tertiary system were made.
The 7th Era of 6,147 years has been finished to this date embracing all the history of man.
In regard to time keeping according to the equinoctial precesions I have some curious ancient facis to offer in my next leller.
Now, whether it is in the soil, the atmosphere or manure, I am not chemist enough to determine; but this I do know; that where I used coal ashes, I had polatoes of the first quality, and where I used manure, they were of the worst quality.
I lave made diligent inquiry among my neighbors, and find that whenever the manure came in contact with the potatoes, they invariably rotted; but where they were planted without manure, and where the manure was spread and ploughed in, they invariably had good crops.
I have, therefore, come in this conclusion: that strong manure, in contact with the polato, is rank poison.
I believe that if the ground is well prepared, and the manure well ploughed in, so that it will not come in contact with the potatoes, we should have far belier crops.
If the above information will be of any benefit to the public, I shall be satisfied in contributing this small mite to their use.
I remain, gentlemen,
sunrise, 29.36; 9, A. M., 29.30; 2, P. M., 28.76; and at 9, P. M., 2896. The temperature at 9, P.M., of the 12th, 58, and continued at that and in an Equilibrium state until after 7, P. M., of the 13th.
The dew point on the 13th, at sunrise, 50, and at 3 P. M., 57. Rain fell on the 13th, from half past 5 A. M., lo half past 7 P. M., and to the depth of one inch and 60.000 ot an inch. On the 10th, the wind blew from the Norih all day; on the 111b, East all day; on the 12th, South all day; on the 13th, wind SE. at sunrise, and at 9 A. M., East at 3 P. M.The wind shifted West at 7 P. M., blowing a perfect gale. Thermometer at 58, Barometer at 1 P. M., 29.00; 3 P. M., 28.76; 4 P. M., 28.64; 5 P. M.,
6 B. M., 28.44; 7 P. M., 28.44; 8 P. M., 28 66; 9 P. M., 28.86; 10 P. M., 28.96. Heavy frost on the 11th. Clouds light cirrus al 3 P. M. The dew point on the ilih was down to 28. The mean temperature of the 10th, was 45 25; 11th, 47.50 1215, 55.50; 13ih, 56. 50; 13th, 48.25. The 'altitude of place of observation at Syracuse, 400 feet above the sea.
The New York Herald contains accounts from Havana, Cuba, as follows:-Hurricane commenced al 10, P. M., of the 10th ult.— wind NE.-Barometer 29, 68-temperature 80; 12, midnight Barometer 29, 50; October 10. 4 A. M., Barometer 29, 24, tem. perature 80; 6 A. M., Barometer 29, 14, wind NE. and NW.; 9 A. M., Barometer 29, 05, wind at its height till hall past ten, temperature 79; halt past 10, Barometer 27, 74, wind north, 11 A. M., wind NW. and squalls; 12 M., wind NW. and WNW: Barometer 28, 35; 2 P. M., Baromeler 28, 91, wind WNW. and West; 4 P. M., Barometer 29, 23, temperature 80; 6 P. M., Barometer 29. 30.
There was an Earthquake Equilibrium observed on Brooklyn Heighibs on the 6th and 7th of October, and an Equilibrium had commenced running on the night of the 12th of October,"and was broken in the night time by an extraordinary rise of temperature of four degrees. There was an Equilibrium at Syracuse on the 12h and 13th of great duration. It will be seen by the state of the thermometer, noted at Havana, ihal there was but one vibration of one degree mentioned; had the temperature been stated every hour, we should have been able to make accurate comparisons.
As soon as I receive accounts from Sallville and from beyond Cuba, I shall be able to present a map of this storm. Violent storms are ofien preceded by Earthquakes, but rarely if ever accompany earth. quakes, unless they be ligbining storms.
you the result.
Coal Ashes--a Remedy for the Potato
Roti The following interesting letter was recently read before the Brooklyn Natural History Society, on the subject of the polato disease, as it is the result of cx. periment we would suggest to our agricultural readers a particular attention to the subjeci. If coal ashes should prove a successful remedy for the potato rot, a market will be opened for a vast quantity of whai is now, in our towns and cities, entirely useless.
HARTFORD, November 2, 1846. To the Society of Natu 'al History, Brooklyn, N. Y.
GENTLEMEN,—The last time that I had the honor of attending your meeting, I promised to give you the result of my experimenis in the cultivation of the polalo. I have finished my crop, and will now give
About the first of April last I prepared two acres of ground for an early crop. A part of the field was a strong sandy loam; the other part, a strong clay soil. About one half I manured in ihe hill with good, rich, barn yard manure. The potatoes grew finely.
I commenced digging them about the first of July; and finer potatoes I never saw.
In the course of ten oi filleen days I found them very badly affected with the rol;—so much so, that I gave up digging them, thinking it better to let them rut in the ground than to dig them and lose all my labor; fur the disea se was so prevalent here that palatoes would not sell at any price. I let them remain till last month, and on digging them, I found at least three quarters of the entire crop were completely decayer.
Hall of the other part of the field I manured in the hill with coal ashes, putting about half a shovelfull to the hill,
I found on digging at different times through the summer, that there were no rotlen polaloes to be found where the coal ashes were.
To see how it would work, I let them remain till alter I had gathered the other part of the field; and to my great astonishment, on digging them, I must say that I never saw finer potatoes than these were: there were no rotten ones among them: they were all sound and very large, yielding at the rate of iwo hundred bushels to the acre; the rest of the field not yielding more than forty.
The next rows on each side of the coal ashes were badly rotted, while those planted with coal ashes were of the very best.
I prepared another field of about two acres for a lale crop. The soil was a black strong loam, with here and there a patch of giavel. I planted a part of the field the last of May, but did not finish planting till the first week in June, owing to a long rain. Not having manure convenient, and having dry wood ashes enough for about halt of the field, I put a handfull of the ashes to each hill until all the ashes were used up. On the other part of the field I used plaster,-about half a handlull to the hi
The result was, that where I used ashes, more than ibree-fourths of the entire crop were rouen, and where the plaster was, there were no rotten ones.
The potatoes were very small, owing to the extreme wet weather when planted. Some of those planted with plaster that were on higher ground;for instance, those on the ridge, where two furrows were turned together;-were very fine and large.
The Great Gale of October. This terrific storm has left a sad record of its visitation in the destruction which marked its path.Ils approach was indicated at several places, where observations of the state of the atmosphere preceding its arrival, were made and regisiered. The Brooklyn Evening Star, of the 13th of October, which was put to press belore the storm reached here, contained my recorded observations sent to that office the morning of that day, at 7 o'clock, and were as follows:
“THE WEATHER.–The highest temperature yesterday was 620, at from 1 to 2, P. M ;-from 7 to 10, P. M., 57, and this morning, at 4 o'clock, 61, being a rise of 4 degrees during the night, a rare occurrence.”
At 6, A. M., 62: 7, 62 1-2; and at 8, 64, when rain commenced falling. The lemperature remained at 64 until 11, A, M., when it commenced rising with the rise of wind-The wind increased, at 12, 64 1-2; 1, 65; 2, 65 1-2; 3, 66; the wind commenced blowing a terrific gale, in fitful and furious blasts—the iemperature remained at 66, until 5, P. M., the wind all the time blowing a hurricane. At 6, P. M., the temperature rose lo 67, and with this rise, ihe wind abated its violence, at 7, the temperature rose to 68, and the wind continued decreasing; at 8, the temperature fell to 67, and remained at that at 9, when my observations closed for the evening, but were renewed in the morning at 4 o'clock, at which time the temperature had tallen 10 55 degrees, a depression of 12 degrees from 9 o'clock the previous evening.
At Flatbush, the temperature in the evening of October 12, was 59 degrees, and on the morning of the 13th, was 61, being a rise of 3 degrees during the night. On the 10th, at noon, the Barometer commenced rising, and was at 30.25; in the evening, at 29.30; on the 11th, al 30.40 all day; on the 12th, cominenced Talling, and continued going down until the evening of the 13th, when it reached 29 15, which is the lowest point reached in October. Flatbush is but a few feet above the level of the sea. Rain sell on the 13th to the depth of 85-100 of one inch. On the 10th, the wind was North all day; uth, North East; 12th, South; 13th, South East; and 141h, North West. Frost on the 11th.
At Syracuse, N. Y., the Barometer, at 3, P. M., on the 10ih, commenced rising, and was at 30.00; at 9, P. M., 30.02; on the 11th, at sunrise, 30.02, and the same at 9, A. M., afier which it commenced falle ing; ai 3, P. M., 29.00; at 9, P. M., 29.86; 121h, at 29.96 at sunrise, and the sainy at 9, A. M.; al 3, P. M., 29.60, and at 9, P. M., 29.52; on the 13th, at
The Weather. The temperature of the atmosphere from Wednesday, 28th of Oct., to Wednesday, the 18th of November, part of both days, inclusive, has been as follows:
Wednesday, Oct. 28, 7, A. M., 471; 8, 51; 9, 50j; 10, 50; 11, 52; 12, 481; 1, P. M., 501; 2, 514; 3, 52; 4, 49; 5, 44, 6, 42; 7, 40; 8, 39; 9, 39; 10, 38; 11, 38.
Thursday, 29, 6, A. M., 36; 7, 36; 8, 43; 9, 40; 10, 44; 11, 46; 12, 4:9; 1, P. M., 53; 2, 441; 3, 52; 4, 511; 5,53; 6, 51, 7, 50; 8, 49; 9, 48.
Friday, 3011, 6, A. M., 43; 7, 461, 8, 46; 9, 465; 10, 461; 11, 51; 12, 514; 1, P. M., 54; 2, 55. 3, 54, 4, 54; 5, 53; 6, 53; 7, 491; 8, 48; 9, 46.
Saturday, 31sı, 5, A. M., 45; 6, 45; 7, 45; 8. 45; 9, 46; 10, 465; 11, 48; 12, 491; 1, P., M., 52; 2, 53; 3, 503; 4, 51; 5, 51; 6, 50; 7, 491; 8, 491; 9, 491; 10 491; 11,491; 12, 491.
Sunday, Nov. 1st, 4, A. M., 491; 5, 491; 6, 491; 7 50; 8, 50; 9, 49}; 10, 491; 11, 49.); 12, 53; 1, P. M., 53; 2, 52; 3, 51; 4, 51; 5, 504; 6, 50; 7, 49; 8, 49; 9, 50; 10, 49; 11, 50.
Monday, Nov. 20, 6, A. M., 52; 7, 53; 8, 55; 9, 55; 10, 57; 11, 57; 12, 58; 1, 581; 2, 591; 3, 604; 4, 60; 5, 58; 6,58; 7, 59; 8, 583; 9, 59.
Tuesday, Nov. 30, 6, A. M., 591: 7, 58. 8, 60; 9. 62; 10, 62; 11, 66; 12, 66; 1, 664; 2, 67); 3, 674; 4, 675; 5, 65, 6, 63; 7, 631; 8, 61; 9, 60.