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sugar, and tobacco will, we doubt not, be speedily reckoned among the valuable products of the colony, we are pretty sure that tea will never be included among its staple commodities. The labour that is required for the preparation of this plant can only be undertaken with advantage in countries like India and China, where population is abundant, and food cheap. Besides this, there is something in the nature of this plant that requires a peculiar climate, or soil, or mode of cultivation, or all of them. It has been tried in various countries and failed, and no treatment, that we have heard of, by our nurserymen, has yet succeeded in producing free and healthy plants either within doors or without.
Whatever products, however, the colony is or may be capable of yielding, it is agreed on all hands that, for some years to come, its progressive prosperity must depend mainly on the cultivation of the fine-woolled sheep, for the introduction of which it is indebted to a gentleman of the name of Mac Arthur. From three ewes and a ram, with which it appears he began the breed, his stock of pure merinos is now said to exceed two thousand; and from the produce of these he has of late years sold upwards of forty rams annually, at an average of 172. per head. His property in the colony, by grants and purchases, is said to exceed thirty thousand acres, constituting a square of seven miles nearly each side, all lying contiguous, and consisting chiefly of undulating, thinly-wooded hills, covered with a sward of fine dry native pasture, with the addition of extensive plains stretching from each bank of the river, of the most fertile quality, producing excellent wheat, and maize of the most luxuriant growth. His breed of horses and horned cattle are of the first description. He has succeeded in introducing most of the European fruits; has a spacious vineyard, from which he annually makes an increasing quantity of wine, said to be not unlike the sauterne; cultivates the English grasses, which are found to thrive well ; and this first of Australian squires keeps a pack of fox-hounds, with which he hunts the native dog and kangaroo.
On the banks of Hunter's river, and its branches, and on the fine neighbouring plains bordering on the Goulburn river, Mr. Cunningham enumerates about twenty gentlemen who, though comparatively speaking, they have but recently settled there, cannot, he thinks, reckon among them fewer than twenty thousand fine-woolled sheep. Bathurst plains, however, or, more properly speaking, downs, are, of all other parts of the colony yet discovered, the best adapted for sheep husbandry. These fine open downs, consisting of a succession of gently-swelling hills, clear of timber, and covered with luxuriant herbage, extend along the banks of the Macquarie River, on both sides, full a hundred and
twenty miles. The discovery of this transalpine region, and of the practicable passes across the Blue Mountains to it, was at the time hailed, and is still looked upon, as the most happy event for the benefit of the colonists, that could have befallen them, as, in fact, the cisalpine stripe of land had become too closely occupied to afford subsistence to the rapidly increasing live stock. • The superabundant population,' says Mr. Cunningham, and the superabundant flocks and herds poured like a torrent over the dividing barrier-ridge, inundating the fine plains and downs beyond its western base. The quantity of sheep and cattle in this territory is now immense, the greater proportion of the wool exported from the colony being furnished therefrom.' Nor is the dairy neglected; for we are told that a Mrs. Rankin, from Ayrshire, makes cheese at Bathurst little inferior to our Cheshire, and is amassing a large fortune by selling it at ninepence to a shilling a pound.
The town of Bathurst would appear, indeed, to be fast rivalling Sydney. It has already its Literary Society,' its “Classical and Mercantile Academy,' and its hunt.' The members of this association, we are told, wear green jackets, turned up with velvet, gilt buttons, with “ Bathurst Hunt” engraved upon them, and a native dog embroidered in gold upon the collar.' To such a pitch of luxury and prosperity is Bathurst grown, though six short years ago it did not possess a single respectable resident settler; the district now abounds in a wealthy population, in possession of all the comforts and luxuries of life, and of a healthy climate to enable it to enjoy them.
No better proof,' says our author, can be given of the healthfulness of Bathurst, than the fact that the only death, owing to natural causes, from the period of its first settlement, took place in 1826, after a space of twelve years.'
Many other regions, not inferior to Bathurst plains, are yet, we cannot doubt, to be discovered in this extensive and salubrious country; and we perceive with pleasure that new settlements are forming on the southern coast, by which a short and speedy communication will be maintained with the sister colonies on Diemen's land. Port Western has recently been occupied, and though the land in the immediate vicinity of the bay may not be of the first quality, yet as it has been ascertained to improve in advancing to the interior, there is little doubt that, in a short space of time, the intervening country between this port and Sydney will be planted with inhabitants. Already Jarvis and Bateman's bays have been occupied by respectable emigrants; and King George's Sound, near the south-west corner, or Cape Leuwin, commanding the entrance of Bass's Strait, has also been settled. This we consider as
a most important station ; the land about it is of good quality, and continues so the whole way to Swan river on the western coast, abounding with extensive plains of the finest grass, not inferior to Bathurst plains, with the additional advantage of hilly ranges, clothed with the finest timber for building, of the same species which occurs on the eastern coast, but of much finer growth. On this latter coast the settlers, in proceeding northerly, will speedily get within the tropic, and communicate with the new settlement on Melville Island on the northern coast, which we find is to be augmented by a corresponding settlement on some of the islands to the eastward of it. We are not aware whether these northern colonies are likely to answer the expectations of those (merchants trading to India, we believe) who strongly recommended them, with the view of drawing the Malays concerned in the extensive fishery of the Trepang on this coast, to exchange that article of consumption in China for British manufactures, instead of dealing, as at present, with the Dutch settlements. As the Malays are a cautious and suspicious people, it would be desirable, if possible, to induce some of them, with their families, and also of the Chinese, who mix with them freely at Singapore, to remove to the northern coast of New Holland, as the best means of securing the trade, and also of improving the new settlements on that coast.
The Australian agricultural company will, in no great length of time, give a new aspect to that part of the eastern coast on which they have received a grant of one million of acres, intersected by several fine streams falling into Port Stephens.
• The fertile spot,' says the Report, on which Mr. Dawson landed, was estimated to contain about eight hundred acres, fit to grow corn of first, second, and third rate quality ; surrounded by fine sheep-hills, with fresh water in abundance. In the immediate neighbourhood adjoining the shore, are beds of oyster-shells, convertible into the finest lime, both for building and agriculture, and in such inexhaustible quantity, that in one instance they are said to cover above an acre, to the depth of several feet. The whole district is bounded on the south by a harbour, into which ships of any tonnage may enter at all seasons, and anchor in safety; it abounds with numerous kinds of excellent fish, and communicates, through the medium of its rivers and creeks, with a country well qualified to form a large and important portion of the grant.
• Port Stephens is situate in latitude 32° 40', one degree north of Sydney, and appears to consist of an outer and an inner harbour, the outer entrance being a mile in width, with a depth of thirty-six feet at low water. After passing the two headlands, the harbour expands considerably; but at the distance of ten miles from the entrance, it is contracted, and divided by an island into two channels, each about four hundred yards wide, which lead into the inner harbour: the depth
of one of these channels is seventy-two feet, of the other ninety feet, and the minimum depth of the passage for ships through both harbours, is thirty-six feet, and extends nearly to the shore, on which the first settlement has been made.'
From the latest accounts which have been received of the proceedings of this company, it would appear that their concerns are going on as prosperously as could be desired. At no great distance from the settlement, and in addition to their original million acres, they have obtained from the government a grant of five hundred acres of the coal-fields of Newcastle, which, by means of steam-engines and proper colliers from England, already arrived there, they are about to work in a systematic manner, and from which they expect to be enabled to serve not only Sydney but the whole colony, with coals at a cheap rate. Sydney alone, it is calculated, will require an annual supply of 12,000 chaldrons, and the masters of vessels proceeding to India, Batavia, the Cape, &c. who cannot at present be supplied, from the inefficient state of the workings, will be glad to take coals, not only for their own use, but on the speculation of a market for such cargoes. The establishment of steam boats, we have little doubt, will next take place; and these will be of infinite importance in the navigation of the smooth water within the reefs, along the extensive eastern coast both to the northward and southward, at such times as the periodical winds are adverse to sailing vessels.
Mr. Dawson's account of this part of the country is very encouraging to the hopes of the settlers :
• The country around Port Stephens is of a different character from the districts previously settled. It is chiefly hilly, and sometimes mountainous. There are few parts of England more beautiful to the eye. On the banks of the river Karner (natives' name) which empties itself into Port Stephen's harbour, it is not much unlike, nor much inferior in point of beauty, to the banks of the Wye. The hills in the distance, and on the banks, are less elevated than those of the Wye, but the scenery is equally varied and rich, as seen from some of the reaches of the river. The harbour, too, is a very fine and safe one, and abounds with every production of nature that can make its shores a desirable residence, Fish of all kinds known in the colony, oysters both rock and mud, in the greatest abundance, as well as lobsters and turtle, are found there. In my public letter I have stated my reasons for having determined to fix the establishment at this place, where every advantage we could have asked for appears to have been united for our first essay. The hills appear to be well adapted for sheep; enough of ground can always be found, on or near the navigable rivers and creeks running into the harbour, for cultivation, should we ultimately want more than the shores of the port can produce.'-(Private Journal.)
It appears that the importation of fine wool from New South Wales has already had the effect of lowering the prices of the usual supplies of fine wool for the English market--to such a degree indeed, that it is confidently stated the prices lately obtained will not afford a remunerating profit to the growers, under the expensive artificial treatment to which, in a climate like that of Germany, they are compelled to resort, in order to produce a staple of the requisite delicacy. It is stated in the last report of the directors of the · Australian Agricultural Company,' that, with regard to fine wool intended for the markets of Great Britain, it will be found that the average expenses of carriage from the farms in the interior of Germany, including freight from the ports of shipment and import duty here, are, in amount, equal to the costs of freight incurred by the longer voyage from New South Wales, and the other charges of conveyance from the occupied pastures of that country, situated generally within a moderate distance of the sea-coast.' And if this statement be literally and exactly correct, the wool-growers of Germany must unquestionably find themselves, in the long run, utterly unable to compete with these thriving colonists.
As to the attempts which the Australians have been making in manufactures, we cannot expect much progress, for some time to come, in that department; a great deal more, however, than the North Americans accomplished in thrice the time, has already been achieved. Their manufactures, as yet, consist chiefly of articles of the first necessity, such as are in daily and universal use. Coarse and second cloths, from their own wool, are manufactured at Botany Bay, but at a dearer rate than similar articles imported from England; these cloths, however, are represented to be stronger, and perhaps, therefore, cheaper in the end, than those with which they have to compete. Coarse woollens are made by the women confined at Paramatta, who likewise weave twills made of New Zealand flax. Many of the settlers tan their own leather, make their own shoes, and manufacture soap for their own consumption. In Sydney
In Sydney they manufacture hats, beavered with the fur of the flying squirrel, which are said to look well and to wear well, except that they become soft, and lose their shape in moist weather. Here also are carried on for sale, soap-making, tin-ware, workings in brass and iron, saddlery, harness and whip making, boot, shoe, and straw-hat making; all kinds of common pottery-ware, large jars and tubs for salting meat in, wine and water coolers, and spruce-beer bottles, are manufactured in sufficient abundance for the wants of the whole colony, and sold cheap. Carts, drays, ploughs, harrows, and other instruments of husbandry, are made of good and strong ma