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35TH CONG....1st Sess.
SENATE. When they took the census upon the tree-State people, and who strive to accomplish that end by gentlemen, yet I have my misgivings that they do side, they got the voters to sign a petition in this means absolutely shocking to the moral sense of not themselves believe in them, and as much'de Congress to allow Kansas to come in under the the people, excites no fear with me.
spise those principles as I do. I have had the forTopeka constitution. It was done at leisure. Sir, in the mad fanaticism of the North-I will tune, or misfortune, of being born and brought Every man was put down who had any claim to not say the gentleman from Ohio is included in up in a slave State. My early education was rebeing a voter. It was presented here by the that mass, but so far as his action is concerned ceived in a slave State. Nevertheless, I was never Delegate from that Territory, and is in these, it goes to accomplish the same purpose-it is taught to believe that slavery was a godly insti. words:
notorious that the great heart of the Black Re tution or a great blessing, but that it is a great "Memorial of four thousand one hundred and sevenly publican party is unfriendly to the continuation wrong, opposed to every principle of republican citizens of Kansas, asking that Kansas may be admitted into of the Union, unless they can rule it all. They government. Now, sir, if I could not gecthat edthe Union under the Topeka constitution."
had rather be the first man in a village than the ucation in a slave State, I appeal to gentlemen who Mr. LEITER. I want to know from the gen second in Rome. They had rather rule in hell have been ruised in free States, and who have been tleman if he supposes they are all the voters of than serve in heaven. “Rule or ruin” is the great educated there and taught that every man has the the Territory?
doctrine-is the great doctrine of that obnoxious God-given rights of life, liberty, and the pursuit of Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. It is the census of party.
happiness, which every other man is bound to rethe Topekaites, taken by their own party, in their But, sir, I have already said enough; and will spect, whether they would be found advocating the own way, and I take it for granted it contains all now conclude by quoting, as applicable and ap- || principle they do, were it not for the political or the voters they have got. It is not to be supposed propriate to the Black Republican party, these ganizations of the day? Were it not for power and they did not swell the number as large as they words of the infernal one lo his roaring asso political plunder, in my judgment, you could not could, and yet four thousand one hundred and ciales:
find a single man north of Mason and Dixon's seventy votes are all they have, according to their
line who would advocate the institution of slavery own showing.
To do aught good will never be our task,
as these gentlemen do. It has been but within a What argument, then, is to be derived from the
But ever to do ill our sole delight."
few years that I have heard it defended by southassertion that they have ten thousand voters in
ern statesmen as a matter of right, and never by the Territory? Why, sir, the men in buckram of
northern men, until they found the success of Falstaff are no comparison. Here is their own
Locofocoism dependent upon that course, since official testimony, presented by their own Delegale from that Territory.
SPEECH OF HON. B. F. LEITER,
which time they are its most zealous advocates.
Now, Mr. Chairman, it has been the universal But now I come to another statement of the
practice of the political parties of this country, gentleman from Ohio. Sir, I traveled through IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,
ever since their organization, to make declarations several counties in that State last fall, before the election, and I know the monstrous tales that were
May 31, 1858.
of principle, to govern them in the administration
of Government, in case of their success. The told to excite the people there against the Demo
The House being in the Committee of the Whole on the
Democratic party has ever laid down its princicratic party. But, sir, the sober second thought state of the Union
ples and platform; the Whig party has done the of that people operated, as it always will in this Mr. LEITER said:
same; and each of them has gone with those prin. country, and you may see the result by looking Mr. Chairman: My friend from Washington ciples before the people, solemnly pledged, in at the majorily with which Chase was elected Territory has devoted one hour of the time of this good faith, to administer the Government accordthen, and at the vole he got in this last election. committee to the discussion of the relations be- l ingly. I do not propose now to go further back
Mr. LEITER. Governor Chase was not elect tween the red men and the white men on the Pa in our political history than 1854, where I can ed by a inajority vote on either occasion. cific coast. I think, sir, that gentleinan succeeded successfully commence to show the hypocritical
Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. Well, that makes in proving, to the satisfaction of every gentleman l partisanship of the Locofoco party leaders, by no difference. I ask you to look at the vote he present, that the red man is tracherous; that there advocating slavery and slavery-extension in the received at the former, and the vote he received is no faith to be put in his pledges and his prom- || South, and half-way slavery and anti-slavery at at this last election. Sir, truth will always tri ises-in short, that the red man on the Pacific is the North. It is a matter known to every man, umph with the people when they come to reflect; a treacherous hypocrite. Now, sir, in the hour | especially those of the North, that when it was and you see the mesmeric influence which it has allotted to me by this committee, I propose to con proposed to repeal the Missouri comproinise a had there. Well, sir, this being the case, there sider other relations than those existing between storm of universal indignation pervaded the entire is a great outcry raised by many, and you see red men and white men-other relations than those free States. Petitions and remonstrances by the here men who have left the Democratic party, men existing on the Pacific coast. I propose to con hundred thousands were sent here, protesting
sider relations existing between white men of the against the injustice of the act. Public meetings us to account for want of patriotism. Why, North. I propose to consider relations which were held in all the towns, cities, and school disrecollect some days ago, when the honorable gen- | political parties of the North bear to each other; tricts of the free Stales, in which the members of tleman from Kentucky, (Mr. MARSHALL,) with | and I think I shall be able to succeed in proving all parties participated; and resolutions were his adroitness, had succeeded in drawing the to this committee that there are other men than passed, sufficient to fill us large volume, in denunBlack Republicans into positions which violated red men who are not to be trusted, and who are ciation of the attempted outrage. the principles which they professed, and which treacherous and hypocritical. I propose, in this But, sir, for some reason or other, the remonthey consented to occupy for the purpose of suc hour allotted me, io prove that the leaders of the strances of the people were disregarded, and their cess, and after all were defeated, he challenged Locofoco party are equally treacherous with the petitions unheeded by the political parties of that any one of them all to say that they did not vote red man of the Pacific coast, and that their pledges | day. Not only the Democratic leaders, but the with their eyes open for the Montgomery amend- and promises are mere hypocritical pretenses, un Whig leaders, participated in the repeal of the ment. He repeated his challenge, when a mein worthy of the confidence of the people. I do not Missouri compromise. When this storm was ber from Chio (Mr.SHERMAN) acknowledged that propose to include in my remarks the rank and || coming thick and fast, the Democratic party behis party had acted with their eyes open, but had file of the so-called Democratic party, because, in came alarmed, disorganized and disbanded at the not consented so to vote until assured that certain my judgment, they are as much disposed to do North, and their flag was left dragging in the dust. gentlemen would stand by them to the end. An: right as any other men of any other party. This Then it was they were bound to apply all of their other gentleman from Ohio (Mr. GiddingS) stated I know from the relations which I at one time held ingenuity and all their inventive powers to bring that he came into the arrangement with extreme with that party, and my intercourse with them. before the country issues never before known, not reluctance, and not until he was assured of the Now, sir, I wish it distinctly understood by ) recognized beforé, never proclaimed before by any pledge of honor of the Douglas wing of the De this committee that I find no fault with any gen- | party, North or South. It was a kind of aftermocracy to stand by them to the lasi.
tleman who may differ with me in regard to the ihought on the part of these politicians. It was And that was not all. The gentleman from great political issues which divide the people of a thing never dreamed of by any party, until Maine [Mr. WASHBURN) at another time read a this country. I say, as a Democrat, that I respect they saw the burning, withering, damning indig; paper, in which was put down what he regarded every man, although he may differ with me in nation of an insulted and betrayed people, and as the understanding between the two parties. | opinion; and when I see gentlemen from a certain found it necessary, for the purpose of success, that li turned out, upon examination, however, that section of the country advocate in this House they should get up some swindle to deceive the a great many of the Douglas Democrats had not principles which I deem to be antagonistical to people, and thereby succeed. The Democratic gone into the arrangement, and that the Black good government, I have the charity to believe that pariy of the North commenced creeping and crawlRepublicans had been sold. And now, in their they, coming from the section which they do, are ing, and dared not show their drooping faces bespile, in their vexation, this pure, immaculate honest in their convictions, and intend to do right. || fore the people, until they had got up some excuse party, embracing the gentleman, (Mr. Leiter,] They, by education, have been taught to believe for the extraordinary course of Pierce's adminisundertakes to call us to account. Yes, sir, even that the peculiar institutions of their locality are tration on the slavery question. As soon, howhe himself, and they, in the vexation of their heart sanctioned, not only by man, but by the Almighty, I ever, as they recovered from the first shock, they at having been sold, at having been thwarted in which, in my judgment, is a fundamental error; began to preach Free-Soilism. They commenced their political schemes for success-for they gave yet they are entitled to their opinions, radically to tell the freemen of the North that the Kansas. up their principles to accomplish that, and noth wrong though they may be. But, sir, when I Nebraska bill was the great measure of freedom, ing else-ihis party, which stands before the world look about me, and see men whose education has and that the North would be vastly benefited, and as political charlatans and tricksters, talks about been the reverse, who have been taught from the the area of freedom extended by the repeal of the calling us to account! Well, sir, I have no fear of them. This party,
cradle principles entirely different from those | slavery restriction. This I then regarded as a
which they advocate- I say that although I re mere hypocritical pretense, and my mind has not which stands before the country convicted, by spect the men, I have no kind of respect or regard undergone any change since, their own confessions, as political bawds, that
Why, sir, l'heard it publicly proclaimed by the party whose only end is to win and rule this ll I may trcat inem with the civility due between il Locofoco stump speakers in Ohio that it was the
35th Cong....Ist Sess.
Ho. OF REPs. peculiar province of the Democratic party to ex 1852, and rightly applied to the organization of Territories believe that but a very small portion of the peotend the area of freedom, and that the Kansas
ple, either North or South, are, in good faith, in
* 3. That by the uniform application of this Democratic Nebraska bill was the first step in that great pro
favor of a dissolution of the Union. And yet, in principle to the organization of Territories, and to the adgramme; that by means of the repeal of the Mis mission of new Siates, with or without domestic slavery,
order to make their dogma of popular sovereignty souri compromise, and the inauguration of the
as they may elect-the equal rights of all the states will be stick and be effective, it was necessary to put this new doctrine of popular sovereignty, we of the preserved intact; the original compacts of the Constitu
Union-saving plaster upon it. Well, sír, after lion maintained inviolate; and the perpetuily and expan. North would gain at least three new free States sion of this Union insured to its utmost capacity of enabrac they get through with the saving of the Union, out of the territory now contained within the ing in peace and harmony, every future American State that they come in with the declaration of popular sor. boundaries of the State of Texas. We were told may be constituted or annexed, with a republican form of creignty-that doctrine which was dug up after this, too: that if we left all these questions to the
6 Resolved, That we recognize the rights of the people of
the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill, as I people of the Territories, then, as a matter of all the Territories, including Kansas and Nebraska, acting
have heretofore shown, for the purpose of appeal
. course, the free States of the North would have through the lezally and fairly expressed will of a majority | ing to the freemen of the North by telling them all the new States that would come into the Union; of actual residents, and whenever the number of their in
that the people of the Territories could regulate that no slave Slate could be ever again admitted
habitants justifies it, to form a constitution with or without under this new doctrine of popular sovereignty. slavery, and be admitted into the Union upon terms of per
their domestic institutions in their own way, and fect equality with the other States."
bring in all Territories as free States. If any genWell, that plausible doctrine gave the Democratic party considerable strength with the people, and
We are informed by this pamphlet that the
tleman had then said that this party ever intended they again showed their faces and gave battle to reading of these resolutions " was followed by
to digress in the least to the right or to the left
or to permit a violation of any single jot or tittle the faithful friends of the country. Although the long continued and enthusiastic applause, in
contained in that resolution, he would probably Locofoco party had violated faith, yet I must say which every delegate joined in the most earnest
have been branded as a traitor to his country, as
Th it always had a facility for making attacks on the
a disunionist. Opposition, and showing the plausibility of their
Here was a time of great rejoicing and unicourse, so as to meet the approbation of the people ing that animated that august body of political for all their evils, and a certain remedy against
These men themselves violated their own platversal applause, demonstrative of the deep feel
form, which was given to the people as a panacca of argument to use to the people; it had the means schemers, on the adoption of a platform to be re
slavery extension at the North, where that is unof persuasion in discussion which were always pudiated by their party before the first year of
popular with the masses. Yes, sir; that resoluihe administration of James Buchanan had termformidable, and, in my judgment, dangerous to
iion was "adopted amidst applause, in which inated. the best interests of the country.
:t of sie
every delegate in that convention joined." The Well, sir, the campaign of 1854 came on, but
Good faith and fair dealing, as well as consistthe people were not satisfied with the pledges and pledges and promises, and their failure to do so ency, required that they should carry out these
doctrine was popular; it was a hard doctrine to
combat; it was a correct doctrine; and the only promises of that so-called Democratic party, nor
mode we had of combating it was, to tell the peowere they satisfied that the idea of popularso eignty was just exactly what it was represented justice, and convicts them before the country of ple that these men did not intend, in good faith,
io carry out the principles laid down in their platto be; nor did they believe, although they had hypocrisy and false pretense in making them, been often so told, that in the doctrine of popular notwithstanding, the enthusiastic applause of it was implied that they would carry out the prin
form. Well, they succeeded; and in their success sovereignty the people would have perfect secuall the delegates” of that convention upon their
ciples laid down in that platform. On the 4th day rity against the aggressions of what they believed adoption.. to be a great wrong in the country-the extension
A violation of good faith has received the con
of March, 1857, James Buchanan was inaugurdemnation and denunciation of the virtuous and
ated here, at the east portico of this Capitol; and of slavery. The party was overthrown in every
there, in the presence of the vast multitude of asfree State, and all its forces were put to flight it good in all past time, and will continue to do so, 1854. Eighteen hundred and fifty-five came on, while truth and integrity have a votary.
sembled citizens, he said:
“ What a concepcion, then, was it for Congress to apply and by that time their appeals had been heard,
For the purpose of showing how James Buchanan held those who violated their pledges and
this simple rule--that the will of the majority shall govern long and loud and effectively, in many of the
cred Ja ---to the settlement of the question of domestic slavery in
ir of Lo States, and although they had been, in 1854, overpromises to the people, I will read an extract from the Territories !
“ But be this as it may, it is the imperative and indispensthrown, perfectly demolished, yet they had such a speech made by him, in 1841, in the United
able duty of the Goverment of the United States to seeure ampaign) power of attraction about them with their declara- States Senate. Then he had no regard for those
to every resident inhabitant the free and independent ex.
rithe N tions of leaving the people of the Territories to do who made pledges and disregarded them, and
pression of his opinion by his vote. This sacred right of each just as they pleased, not alone in regard to slamade the following emphatic record, to which I
preachin individual must be preserved !"
They ste very, but in regard to everything else, that they invite your and his attention, and particularly the
Prior to that time he had said to the country again rallied, and gave battle to the Opposition attention of the country:
that he stood upon the Cincinnati platform, and in this That doctrine, I must confess, is a very popular tianity, the purest and best gilt wiich ever descended from
* If you go into the sacred walks of Christianity-Chris
would not add one plank to it, nor take one from anks. doctrine, and very readily commended itself to the heaven upon man--and you there find its professors preach
it. He stood pledged, then, to carry out in good people. I would like that way of doing business ing what they never practice, and never intended io prac. faith the doctrines laid down in the platform, and myself. I would like right well to have things tice, what would be your conviction of the sincerity and I say that it became his solemn duty to do so. just as I want them, and have nobody interfere
true character of such professors? What would you think
Good faith to the country required he should do with me; and I judge that all people have the same on his lips, bis lite gave the lie to lis protessions? You
The doctrine was established. The princifeeling. Therefore the doctrine of popular sover would not hesitate to pronounce him guilty of the grossest ple was settled. The country relied on the pledges President eignty was very formidable to the Opposition hypocrisy? All mankind would unite with you in calling of these men that nothing should hinder or delay party, and indeed the only argument that could be him a hypocrite."
them in carrying out the principle which they had used against it effectually was that the so-called It might have been well for him and his party thus warmly advocated, and which had thus been Democratic party would not in good faith carry if he read this speech before his wanton violation | applauded by the intellect congregated in the Cinout its pledges, the truth of which is now fully of his platform. He saw fit to adopt the very fa cinnati convention. It became necessary, in the verified. miliar word hypocrite," and I propose appro
course of events that some action should be taken
populars Failon ca Now,
friends, as (tin to tu lan ima
is higher and deeper and wider than all constitu
13 an asso Well, sir, 1856 came on. The time for the pres- | priating it freely in my remarks, and make a in regard to matters in Kansas, and then the Pres. idential election was approaching, and it became proper application of it in my arraignment of his ident again reiterated this same doctrine, in his necessary then for political parties again to make Administration. When they adopied their plat- instructions to Governor Walker, of that Tercideclarations of their principles; and, true to its in- form, they knew that there was no danger of a tory. Why, sir, the old gentleman had become stincts, the Locofoco party was ready again to dissolution of the Union, yet they found it neces
eloquent-absolutely eloquent. The enthusiasm make any and every kind of pledge in order to sary to make a " Union-saving” plank for their with which that resolution had been adopted in succeed. I hold in my hand the platform and || platform, for the purpose of bolstering up their the Cincinnati convention, had kindled such a fire pledges of that party in the official proceedings of rotten cause, under the hypocritical pretense that in his soul that he could not avoid belching forth
people all the Cincinnati convention-the convention which the Union was in danger. They found that pop his patriotic sentiments, when he sent forth his nominated James Buchanan as the Locofoco can ular sovereignty was not strong enough to carry
instructions to the Governor of the Territory of didate for President of the United States. On their party through the presidential election, and, || Kansas. Hear him: pages twenty-five and twenty-six I find the fol therefore, they adopted this “Union-saving "res
“Freedom and safety for the legal roter, und exclusion and
farly. Ty lowing resolutions declaratory of their supposed olution, hypocritical as it was,
for the purpose of punishment for the illegal one, these should be the great print principles:
alarming ihe people, and thereby gaining support || ciples of your administration."
the Republican party | terrupted by fraud or violence.” repudiating all sectional parties and platforms concerning was dissolution of the Union
Freedom," safety for the legal voters," and domestic slavery, wbich seek to embroil the States and in
try, which was preaching
the "exclusion and punishment of illegal ones:
were the peculiar country had a right to expect that this president recognize and adopt the principle contained in the organic laws establishing the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska as ever. Sir, if I have any knowledge of political laws of the country in accordance
with the prines questioning upon which the great national idea of the people parties in this country, I do know and believe ciples of the Constitution, thus pledged by ube of this country can repose in its determined conservatism of the Union-non-interference by Congress with slavery in States and Territories, or in the District of Columbia.
** 2. That this was the basis of the compromises of 1850– confirmed by both the Democratic and Wbig parties in na
and thereby they would receive their support?": || had the country a right to look for at the kando
it, and that it was made to deceive the people, | his instructions to Governor Walker-I ask whale tional conventions, ratified by the people in the elections of
Eddle of te intellig That the Den that med insta
has enga Bircizio
lity to di
hul on esis atp har Ens and looser fra Reputnica)
3516 CONG....1st Sess.
Political Organizations—Mr. Leiter.
Ho. Of Reps.
tical Democratic doctrines."
of the President? Nothing but good faith and great many Democrats, good and true men, who of the affairs of the Territory, by the people at the ballotfidelity. Governor Walker, as a faithful servant are included in this class.
box, in order to crente capital for the tottering Republican of the people, considered himself bound, not only Well, sir,during the time these things are taking | rehended."
factions in Ohio and New York, cannot be too severely repby these instructions coming from his superior place in the General Government, we, officer, but by his oath, the Constitution, the law ple in the States, who, though we were at first
Here is an indorsement by that central Demoof the land, and the pledges of his party, to see suspicious about its origin, had pretty much made | cratic committee, of the doctrine of popular sovthat the people of the Territory of Kansas should up our minds that this doctrine of popular sover
ereignty, of the right of the people of Kansas to be protected in their rights and privileges as eignty, as proposed to be carried out by the Presi- | settle their own domestic affairs in their own way, American citizens. And what has been the sequel dent, in the first place, was a reliable and good doc- without interference from the North or the South, of all this . Nothing more nor less than treason to trine. The Democratic party in the State of Ohio, in | or any other quarter. That was good Democratic every pledge made by the Administration, which 1857, became highly elated with the doctrine; they doctrine in 1857, It was indorsed by the Demoauthorizes me in branding it as hypocritical, in the made it the watchword of the party, and with it they cratic party of Ohio. The Democratic candidate language of the President in 1841! Why, sir, made the party stronger than it had been since stood upon it in his canvass for the gubernatorial Governor Walker could not have survived a day 1854, because they adhered more closely to prin- chair. Then Kansas was to come into this Union had it been known that he intended to do just ciple. In 1857, that party met in State convention
as a free State, “thus furnishing an application of what the President told him he should do. at Columbus, and nominated Henry B. Paine for practical Democratic doctrine.
Here you genPopular sovereignty had by this time taken a Governor. Their candidate, an eloquent man and tlemen of the South have evidence of the hypocnew turn. The party found it necessary to change a man of learning, came out and made them a risy, of the Locofocos of the North, and their front, as they had done on the Kansas-Nebraska | speech, from which I will read a short extract,
double dealing on this question. But prior to bill. They were playing a double game. It was which shows conclusively where they stood, if
the election in Ohio, a convention had been called a two-faced party, having one face for the North | they were honest, and if not, that they are of that
to meet in Kansas for the purpose of framing a and another for ihe South. It had a South wing peculiar class called hypocrites. He went on to
constitution, the delegates to which were publicly and a North wing; but the latter was unsound, I eulogize the Administration; but that was before pledged to a submission of the constitution to a and broke in our contest. When it was found the Administration changed front on this popular
vote of the people of the Territory; and this, too, that the free-State men had taken possession of sovereignty doctrine.
was urged in Ohio in defense of their position. the Territory, and that upon a fair and proper
It was before popular sovereignty had become i tional convention, met. Mark you; the word must
That convention, called the Lecompton constituvote there would be a repudiation of the institu a heresy in the Democratic party. He says: tion of slavery, all of a sudden, when the Admin "Under his administration Kansas, protected alike from
have been passed around that Kansas should be a istration party had its face turned to the right, and New England and the South, is working out the peaceable
free State, or Mr. Payne would not have made in the right direction to carry out popular sover
results of righteousness. Ai a day not distant or doubtful, such a speech; nor would that address have been
as from the beginning had been predicted, Kansas will be eignty, where do you find it? Without a moadmitted into the galaxy of States, with a free-State con
published; for he and they are the most arrant ment's notice, this political engineer who had hold stitution, by the rotes of her own people; abolishing forever
hypocrites that live. Fearful of the results which of the machinery of the Government made a sud slavery in her midst, thus furnishing an application of prac
would follow the action of that convention, a sudden halt, and the word was," right about face,
den and unexpected change of policy was adopted and away went the great mass of people one way Here you see it declared again that it is the by, the convention, and it adjourned its delibera. and this Locofoco Juggernaut the other. Thank | destiny of Kansas to be admitted as a free State, tions until after the election in the States were God! it did not go the same way the people did, by the votes of its own people, under the auspices over. The Republicans in Ohio, and all over the or it might have rolled over them all; as it is, the of the Democratic party. This is called the "prac- country, sounded the tocsin of alarm, that treason people will crush them. Where then were your
tical results of righteousness.” This is just what again had entered the camp, and that the enemy leading Democrats? Where then was the gallant was "predicted from the beginning.” There the were about to usurp the rights of the people of Douglas, who had stood by you in 1856–57, and Locofocos are anti-slavery, here pro-slavery. It Kansas. elected James Buchanan President, and a major was upon that doctrine that this Dearocratic con Boldly and manfully were the rights of Kansas ity of Locofocos to this Congress ? Where was
didate for Governor of the State of Ohio went into upheld by the Republicans all over the country. your Wise, who had immortalized himself in his the canvass, and received a very large and com
The President and his party, instead of carrying campaign against Sam? Where were your men plimentary vote. If he had avowed any such doc out their pledges in good faith, with an unworthy of the North, and of the South, who had been trines as are practiced by northern Locofocos here, disregard of the rights of the people, cast their preaching the doctrine of popular sovereignty? he would not have received one third the vote he promises to the winds, and the hypocrisy of their They stood firmly by popular sovereignty, and did, and would have been a disgraced man. Yet, professions became apparent, and the country are now denounced as traitors; and if they remain with this hypocritical doctrine, he came nigh being now is left to depend upon broken promises and in this party, they must do service in the rear elected Governor of the great State of Ohio.
violated faith from them. This Lecompton conranks. Why, sir, the President's guillotine was Why, sir, what is the principal Democratic doc- stitutional convention met on the seventh of Noput to work iaking off the heads of the friends of trine? At the South it is the admission of Kansas / vember, and framed a constitution for Kansas. the very men who had been put upon the track of as a slave State; is it not? Is not that what the Then the Legislature of Ohio was elected, and all popular sovereignty by this same political organ- | Democracy of the South want? At the North they the elections of the State were over. What, then, ization called the Democratic party.
pretend to favor its admission as a free State, and was done? They framed a pro-slavery constituNow, I say these are very unkind acts in the yet their Representatives voted for her admission tion for Kansas-a pro-slavery constitútion from President. If he intended to change front, he as a slave Slate. This I regard as unadulterated the beginning to the end, without a mitigating should at least have given a little notice. He Locofocoism.
clause for the relief of the people. Yet, pro-slavery should have at least given as much notice to his
Mr. SMITH, of Virginia. I will answer the
as it was, and pledged as they had been, they friends, as we have to give a man in the State of gentleman, if I can get ihe floor.
dared not submit it to a vote of the people of Kan. Ohio to turn him out of our premises. But, sir,
Mr. LEITER. You will have to answer your
sas. By a system of political thimble-rigging and I can imagine an orator in our country address own Democratic Governor first, who will hold legerdemain they expected to entrap the free-State ing an assemblage of Democrats, upon the stump, you up in your true light in Virginia.
men in that Territory. It was all the time claimed, dilating upon the beauties of popular sovereignty,
Mr.'SMITH, of Virginia. I will answer you
however, by them, that this Lecompton constiwhen a horseman comes up at a high speed, in the first, and him afterwards.
tution was not a pro-slavery constitution. It was middle of the speech of the stump orator, bearing Mr. LEITER. Well, you will have a nice said that portions of the constitution could be the intelligence that the party has changed front. job of it. Now, sir, that this doctrine might be stricken out; but the villainy of the thing was too That the Administration at Washington have de- | fully disseminated in Ohio, it became necessary apparent to deceive. cided that, instead of popular sovereignty being a to have more than the speech of their Democratic
That that constitution is preëminently pro-slagood institution, although it had pleased all our candidate for Governor, and on the 7th Septem- very no fair-minded man will gainsay or contropeople all over our country, North and South, it ber, 1857, the Democratic State central committee vert; yet it was, and is, claimed by some that such had become a most abominable heresy; and every of Ohio issued an address to the people; and there
is not its character; and that the people, by the man engaged in that kind of preaching was to be is some tolerably good reading in that address. vote provided, could make it a free Staie. I'must ostracized, and forever held in disrepute by the I commend it to the consideration of my Demo- dissent from all such constructions of that instruparty. Think of the surprise of the stumper at
cratic friends on this floor. I will read a short ment. I deny that it is susceptible of any such such an announcement. Yet this is illustrative extract from it:
construction; and charge that it is pro-slavery, of the course of the Administration. No matter “ The committee point with pride to the firm and states. and pro-slavery only, be the vote what it may. if they were men who had always stood by the
manlike attitude of the President and the Administration in In this opinion I am confirmed by the following
reference to the affairs of Kansas. The determination of party even in its evil days; even in days when
extract from the speech of Mr. Randolph, a memMr. Buchanan to use all his constitutional power, to secure many good men had left it they had stood by with to the people of the Territory the free exercise of their sute ber of that notable convention from Atchison: the hope of reforming it; because they would not frages upon the adoption of the State constitution, meets “Now, what was this scheme? What is said? Why, abandon a doctrine of the party, a doctrine which
the unqualified approval of the whole national Democracy, here we have two constitutions--one for slavery, and one
North and South in the North it could demand no more; without. Well, that's a good one. (Laughter.) Yes, you had been preached so long, so loud, and so effec in the South it could claiin no less. The position taken by may laugh; it's just humbug. The faci is, it's a slave. tively to the people. One single day swept them Virginia at this juncture is sufficient to arouse the exulta State constitution, and a slave State constitution. That's out of existence; and the great misfortune is that tion of her sons, wherever they may be found within the it; you may laugh. I'll tell you, the world will soon be they have got to go down to posterity as delin
limits of the Union, and should be enough to excite the laughing at us. This is a grand humbug. It's not fair. It
emulation of Obio to take a stand of equal patriotism. In is supposed by some of the gentlemen here that they are quents and political renegades. They can never the eloquent language of one of her Democratic organs, awful smart, or that the Abolitionists are awful fools. We recover from such a shock unless they join the Virginia will pray that the Union, as its affairs are now expect them to vote for a slave State in this way. They Republicans, and make themselves useful to the administered, may, in duration, exceed that of the Egyp are not such fools as you suppose. But let us suppose that
they are such fools. Is it right to swindle them in this way? country by adherence to correct principles. There tian pyramids, which, after the lapse of forty centuries, stili
stand erect and unshaken above the floods of the Nile. It isn't fair; I won't do it. If we are to submit it at all, are a great many of them good' men.' i know a The obstacles interposed to prevent a peaceable settlement subinit it fair; let them have a free-State eonstitution it
sir. This vote
they vote to beat us, or do not submit it at all. I tell you that I shall hold them responsible before the peo
Union as a State on an equal fooling with the original
ple for this flagrant outrage upon the people of
Mr. LEITER. But you cannot show that I
Mr. COX.' You voted to strike out all after gery," intended to defraud and deceive the free-length and breadth of the land, and upon it we
the enacting clause, and that was before the enState men of Kansas. I commend this extract will go before the country and take the judgment acting clause. to the special consideration of gentlemen here, of the people at our coming elections.
Mr. LEITER. Exactly; and instead of taking who claim that the people of Kansas had an op We have again the humiliating spectacle of free
a vote on the preamble as usual, no vote wag portunity of making a free State, and obstinately Kansas in the North, and slave Kansas in the taken; and you cannot show that there was. refused. South, that was so hypocritically and shamefully
Mr. Cox. I can refer the gentleman to the But, sir, this is not all. I have other evidence practiced upon the people of those sections of the Congressional Globe, showing his vote. He will to prove that instrument pro-slavery. Another Union, with only this difference: that it is now find it at page 1438. gentleman, a member of that convention, and submission of the Lecompton constitution under
Mr. LEITER. Show it to me, who assisted in forming the constitution, has the English bill in the North, and non-submission was not on the preamble, but upon what followed; also spoken on this subject; and I now direct the in the South; thus playing off the same old game
and I repeat, the preamble was never voted upon, attention of gentlemen to the following extract
of fast and loose that was too successfully played nor was it ever adopted by this House. from his speech; I allude to Mr. Mobley, a prounder the Kansas-Nebraska act.
Mr. COX. I do not say but my colleague may slavery delegate, who said:
The Lecompton Locofocos of the North are
have done it in mistake. “He was a pro-slavery man, and wanted to take steps to now placing themselves upon the high ground of
Mr. LEITER. No, sir; I do not make mismake Kansas a slave State. He deuounced the trick of submission, and that party at the South put them takes in voting. I never voted for that preamble, the majority report. There were but two ways of making selves upon the opposite ground, and claim there and I never would vote for it, and I challenge & State constitution. One of them was to submit
, and the other was to send direct to Congress. He denounced the
is no submission; and, with this important decis you or any other man to produce the record or majority report. It is a swindle-a monstrous fraud. It ion upon an essential question, they are now be vote that will show it. The preamble remained wears falsehood on its face in letters of brass. It pretends fore the country claiming to be a national party, upon the bill by bad engineering, and not by the to submit the constitution, and does not. This is a glaring with principles harmonious in both sections,
vote of any one. the political Democracy: 'It is a lie, a cheat, a swindle! He while, in truth, their principles are antagonistical is a pro-slavery man. He wants to make Kansas a slave and diametrically opposite. Let them seule this RIVER AND HARBOR IMPROVEMENTS. State. He, therefore, puts in the clause requiring the oath. inconsistency. They dare not submit it to a vote Their enemies will not take that oath. They will thus pro. ceed in a straightforward, regular manner. What! do you
of the people of Kansas, and they know it. SPEECH OF HON. I. T. HATCH, expect to catch the Repub party of Kansas with that
The December election was held, at which there bait? You can't do it. I tell you, if you adopt that report, were some twenty-five hundred legal votes polled
OP NEW YORK, there will not be five hundred votes for the constitution. -I say nothing of the fraudulent votes and this is IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, The Republicans will never touch it. The true pro-slavery men will forsake it. Where will it be? You can't in
now claimed as an indorsement of the swindle by duce the free-State men of Kansas to vote under such a the people of Kansas. The Legislature which was
May 31, 1858. cheat." elecied'in Kansas, being a free-State one, organ
The House being in the Committee of the Whole on the It is to be presumed that this gentleman knew ized and passed a law to submit that constitution to
state of the Unionwhat he was doing, and what he was speaking; the people on the 4th day of January. The result Mr. HATCH said: and no man will venture to say he was an Aboli- you have: overwhelming was the condemnation of Mr. CHAIRMAN: I shall ask the attention of the tionist, determined to make Kangas a free State, ihat fraud and swindle, that attempted usurpation committee for a brief time to the consideration of or had any motive to do anything less than make of the rights of the people of Kansas. I will not the subject of river and harbor appropriations. a slave State of Kansas. He brands this submis- || discuss the legality of ihe elections of December No general appropriation since the year 1652 sion scheme as “a monstrous fraud, a lie, a cheat, or January. The facts are before the people. The has been made for the improvement of harbors on a svindle," and a pretended submission of the country understand the position of parties, and the north western lakes, and of the navigation of constitution, when it did no such thing. Notwith- | they well know how to make up their action with our north and southwestern rivers. standing these bold and manly declarations, men regard to them. Condemned as that constitution The millions of property and the thousands of are found here from the free States of the North was, pledged as Mr. Buchanan and his adminis- || lives lost upon these waters through the neglect who claim that this swindle is a bona fide submis tration had been to a submission of the constitu- of the Government, it would seem, should arrest sion, and that the people are bound by it, and tion to a vote of the people, yet the President, a public attention. The loss of life and property is should have voted. These gentlemen, represent Democratic President-God save us from all such! still annually increasing. It is doubted, now, ing free State constituencies, voted to force this --sends to this House a miserable, whining, sick. whether the bill reported by the Committee on fraud, cheat, and swindle, without any change or ly, regretting message, recommending its adop: || Commerce for the mere repair and preservation modification whatever, upon a patriotic and free tion, in violation of all the confidence ever reposed of the public works on the north western lakes dom-loving people who had rejected it by an over in him by an honest people, who had been de will receive any consideration proportionate to the whelming majority; and now these gentlemen, ceived into his support.
magnitude of the interests involved. with an unparalleled audacity, set themselves up Gentlemen tell me that the men out there would Your Committee on Commerce say, in their reas rulers and lawgivers for the Democratic party, not vote. I admit it. What was the use of their
port, they" accept for their guide on this occasion with power to read Jeffersonian Democrats out of voting? What propriety was there in their voting? that legislation of their predecessors which, having the so-called Democratic party, for refusing to None, sir; for if they had voted they would have been now nearly consummated by appropriations
, force upon that unwilling and greatly injured peo- | fared no better than they did withoui voting; but, appeals not only to their judgment with the force ple a repudiated constitution.
in my opinion, worse, infinitely worse. The of a precedent, but presents to their discretion the I congratulate the country upon the fact, that i thing was set upon them. It was prearranged. || impropriety of suffering, through neglect, the 826 notwithstanding all the schemes and machinations The programme was fixed. The trap had been rifice of the millions of money already expended
. of these Locofocos, they were unable to force the set to caich the free-State men in the
Territory of The vast expanse of commercial enterprise
which Lecompton constitution upon the people of Kan- | Kansas; but they were not caught; this trick, at occupies the extent of the country, and employs sas. Being foiled in this, their favorite scheme, || least, failed.
the myriads engaged in its pursuits, is well wor, they applied themselves to getting up another Mr. Cox. I ask my colleague whether he ever thy of the fostering hand of Government, stretched swindle, by which to cheat and defraud that peo- | adopted the Lecompion constitution?
to the utmost constitutional verge." They also ple. The English bill was the result of their Mr. LEITER. No, sir.
say “ the fact has been quite apparent that withdeliberations, as the last resort, to make a slave Mr. COX. Did you ever vote for the pream out some assistance the money now expended at State of free Kansas-a favored scheme of these ble to the Crittenden-Montgomery bill containing various points along our sea, lake, and river linea men. That bill is no less a fraud and cheat than that sentiment?
must become a total sacrifice. In many instances the submission scheme proposed in the Lecompton
Mr. LEITER. My dear sir, there never was the fruits of repeated appropriations are now pero constitution. We have, in this case, the first trick a vote taken on that preamble.
ishing for want of proper attention; and in all, of the kind ever attempted by any party to influ
Mr. COX. Yes, there was.
may the works be not only saved at their present
ler, Hur led by rive be valley milroads. und miner bere inlat triefly to marsed th
us discov ur inlan
1 1825, woundless gralion 81 any ex ndustriou funded St hablished aizen fore le that ri
I shall be latent, clai
preamble, and I call the attention of the preserved for future improvement. Your com: Union as a sovereign State, with a pro-slavery officers of the House to that fact.
Mr. Cox. Let me read it. Will the gentleman ed condition of the Treasury in their desire to inte
mittee, therefore, though arrested by the exhaustconstitution and forty thousand population, while they had the penalty for refusal held out to them allow me to explain? I simply wish to call my tend liberal assistance to all works of internal im in the proposition, that, if they did not accept it, colleague's attention to it, for I want to have the
provement, yet have determined to report a bil they should not be admitted into the Union until fact on record, for use in the next campaign. there should be a population within that Territory Mr. LEITER. Certainly; I know what the preservation of improvements commenced at har
comprehensive of appropriations required for the of from one hundred and ten to one hundred and preamble is.
bors and in rivers, but in an unfinished and in
Mr. COX. Let me read it. The preamble is: complete state." twenty thousand. This is the first instance of an infliction of punishment for the love of freedom, “Whereas the people of the Territory of Kansas did, by
The amount recommended by your committee, since the days of George III, and the American a convention of delegates called and assembled at Locomp is $1,479,861; an amount almost equal to the cost
ton, on the 4th day of September, 1857, for that purpose, Revolution. I specially call the attention of this form for themselves a constitution and State government,
of four or five gun-boats or screw propellers proHouse and the country to this matter, and now, which said constitution is republican, and said conven:
posed to be now built to protect your foreign como in my place here, give the slave-Democracy notice | lion having asked the admission of said Territory into the merce!
For the e
to the officia
The whole ateiting
Wer 101: anladian
with dess Wit les baden."
35TH CONG.... 1st Sess.
River and Harbor Improvements--Mr. Hatch.
Ho. of Reps.
The reason assigned by your committee for rec- | imports, and exports of each of the lake districts, render the navigation thereof safe and easy, had been co. ommending this limited appropriation is the "re as follows:
-eval within the Constitution itself, and been continued
without interruption or dispute." trenching policy.” This committee must speak
Commerce of the lakes--exclusive of freight and passenger THE CLAIMS OF INLAND COMMERCE. sarcastically when they talk about retrenching
trade. river and harbor appropriations ! As before re
Tonnage entered Value of imports
Now, sir, as to the claims of this inland commarked, no general appropriation for these pur
and cleared, and exports.
merce on the General Government. poses has been made for six years. During this Buffalo district.....
$3,330,232 $303,023,000 In the census of 1850 it will be found that more period your Treasury was overflowed; now that it is Cuyahoga district........ 1,782,193 162,185,640 than half the white population of this country
59,966,000 empty, you cannot appropriate, because you must
was in the lake States. Maumee..
1,034,644 94,107,000 retrench. The resumption of the improvements
The increasing population of the Northwest of the harbors and rivers is not to be determined, Detroit...
1,588,000 140,000,000 and the advancing immigration have enlarged this
35,000,000 as we have seen, by an empty or full Treasury; Milwaukee..
proportion. If it be true that the consumer pays Oswego...
1,607,000 146,325,000 not as a question of constitutional or equal rights;
ihe duties, then, sir, the lake regions pay over but, sir, it will have to be determined as a ques Double exports and imports....... 2) 1,174,394,650 half your revenues-some thirty millions. They tion of political power. Persistent refusal to grant
are the consumers and the producers. They are these appropriations, and indiscriminate opposi
587,197,320 tion to them, is forcing on this issue; every new Other ports on Lake Ontario omitted....
doubly taxed by the delays, the obstructions, and 42,226,000
dangers of the navigation of your lakes and rivers. State added to the North west hastens and insures Total value of commerce of the lakes,
The additional charges for freight and insurance the resumption of the public works. My constit exclusive of Presque Isle and Michili
from these causes diminish the value of their prouency are deeply interested in the inland com mackinac......
- 629,423,320 ductions and increase the cost of articles of conmerce of the country: and, as their Representative,
I will also add from Graham's official report to
sumption. Duty-paying merchandise which they I am bound to urge these appropriations. I shall
consume they buy dearer, while they sell their only now present the subject briefly, leaving a the Senate-page 401:
own products cheaper, from the neglect of the fuller vindication of their justice to the future.
“ The States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michi
Government to improve their lines of inland com-
that is om in Indiana, Allinois, and Wisconsin, and the Territory
merce. I will refer again to Graham's report to the external commerce of a nation is entirely de soas, whose intercommunication, by ship navigation, is
show the baneful influences which the neglect to pendent on the internal commerce and trade. much interrupted by the want of a safe and sure channel improve a single work-the national gateway of
over these flats. Foreign commerce cannot exist without domestic
“ The States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, and a
the inland commerce of this country-has had commerce. portion of Michigan, on the one side, are crippled in their
upon the people of the Northwest. At page 408, The history of the rise and fall of nations, in important commercial relations with the remaining portion past and modern times, attests this truth. There of the State of Michigan, and with the States of Indiana,
“ Freights over St. Clair flats in American vessels in the is only one exception among the four Powers of Illinois, and Wisconsin, and the Territory of Minnesota, on
year 1855, were $13,761,840; and in foreign vessels trading the world, and the colossal wealth of that country
the other side, by this intervening obstacle. Something with American ports €551,256.
“ These results are derived by allowing six dollars per
register ton as the price of freighis upon the amount of ionbecomes one of great public concern.
nage that passed over the flats to and from the ports menNo nation on this globe has an inland com
tioned in the districts of Chicago, Milwaukee, Detroit,
* The value of the articles of commerce and navigation merce that equals that of this country, either in
Cleveland, Buffalo, Oswego, and Ogdeusburg, as shown in which passed over these flats during the two hundred and
the accompanying statements marked from N. 55 to N. 70 the grandeur of its geographical characteristics or thirty days of open navigation, in the year 1855-say be
inclusive. These sums are, of course, the gross amounts in the magnitude of its agricultural and mineral tween the middle of April and the 1st of December-will be
of the receipts accruing on freights. wealth. Nowhere can be found such a chain of 259,721,455 50; that is to say, two hundred and fifty-nine presently shown to have amounted to the immense sum of
“The net proceeds would be the difference between these inland seas-Lakes Champlain, Ontario, Erie, St.
sums and the expenses of navigation, such as the hire of million seven hundred and twenty one thousand four hunClair, Huron, Michigan, and Superior-all connecdred and fifty five dollars and fifty cents; or, per day, du
crews, insurance on vessels, repairs, iugging off St. Clair
flats when aground, losses from detention while thus ted by rivers, canals, or ship-canals, and bound to ring the navigable season, $1,129,223 72. The improve
aground, pilotage, harbor fees, &c. ment, then, when undertaken, should be executed with a the valley of the Mississippi by a net work of degree of permanency and celerity combined, commensu
" Among these enumerated expenses, that which arises
from the detention, damage, and towage by steam tugs, railronds. But, sir, it is only the agricultural rate with its importance and the magnitude of the interests
caused by the obstruction to navigation at the flats, is the and mineral wealth which annually pours through involved."
one regarded as the most onerous by the navigators, the these inland channels of commerce to which I wish Those who wish to make the comparison be merchants, and the farmers of the nine States and one 'Terbriefly to call attention. All the gold that has tween the inland and foreign commerce will find
ritory beforementioned. They all have to bear a portion
of the additional charges which arise from this cause. The passed through the golden gates of California since that the former always largely exceeds the latter
farmer, has, however, the most oppressive part of the burits discovery does not equal one year's value of whenever a healthy prosperity exists among the den to bear; because the navigator clears hinself, in a great our inland commerce.
people, and the balance of trade with foreign coun measure, by his increased charges for freight, and the inerIts origin was the completion of the Erie canal trics is preserved. Exports are the credits of a
chant by increasing his prices at retail on account of the
losses by the detention and risk growing out of this obstrucin 1825, which opened the vast wilderness and nation and imports its debits; internal commerce
tion to navigation. But the farmer is compelled to be govboundless prairies of the West to an eastern em furnishes its exports. This commerce had re erned by current prices for his grain, and the diminution of igration such as never before has been witnessed ceived every sanction which could establish its price allowed him by the shipper, on account of the conin any exodus of the human races. Here the claim for protection from the General Govern
tingencies due to the want of free navigation over the flats,
is a direct tax on the fruits of the farmer's industry. industrious poor of the world found homes, and ment. The highest tribunal pronounced it identi “The increase on the rates of freights owing to the obfounded States. The products of their labor es cal in feature and substance, in every commercial structions, as it now exists, may be estimated at full fifteen tablished an inland commerce, from which has and national view, with that carried on between (15) per cent., or annually to the sum of $2,064,276. Full arisen foreign commerce sustaining an ocean ma nations on the ocean. So large and of such kind
two thirds of this amount falls on tlfe farmers.† They may,
therefore, be said to pay an annual tax on their produce, rine that rivals British supremacy on the seas. was it, that in 1845, from the necessities of trade, and necessary articles of consumption, arising from this ob
· I shall briefly now, sir, refer to the character, Congress was obliged to pass a law extending struction, of $1,376,184; which is more than iwo and a half
I have referred to the fact that the largest por-
The inland commerce, sir, has not only had ju. tion of the revenues in this country is paid by 452, (1851:) dicial and legislative recognition, but its general
those interested in the inland commerce. If this protection has been sanctioned by the practice of be not true, I ask, sir, to what cause will you "These lakes are, in truth, inland seas--different States ihe Government until 1852. I add, from a report
look for the decline of the revenue? The southern border on them on one side, and a foreign nation on the other. A great and growing commerce is carried on upon
of Colonel Abert to the Senate, No. 44, Execu staples have gone to market in increased quantithem between different states and foreign nations, which tive Document, second session Twenty-Ninth
ties and enhanced prices. is subject to all the incidents and hazards that attend com Congress:
From an overflowing Treasury the Government
suddenly becomes a borrower. You will have to existed for the grant of admiralty, jurisdiction to the Govern
improvement of harbors.
look to the decline in the inland commerce for Under Mr. Jefferson.
$48,000 tent on the Atlantic seas, applies with equal force to the
the cause. I add the comparative returns for two
Mr. Madison.. lakes.”
years of the Erie canal, in the State of New York, Mr. Monroe.........................."
707,000 THE EXTENT OF INLAND COMMERCE.
which is the greatest channel for the exchange of Mr. Jackson .................
10,582,882 the inland and foreign commerce, and has made For the extent of the inland commerce, I refer
Mr. Van Buren ................
2,222.544 to the official report.
New York city the merchani carrier and banker
1,076,500 of the Union:
propriations, except to mark the fact that three property transported upon the canals during the years 1856 The whole traffic of these great waters may be now quarters of the harbor and river appropriations
and 1857. unliesitatingly stated at $326,000,000, employing seventy
1857. four thousand tons of steam and one hundred and thirtyhave been made by Democratic Administrations.
2,774,412 2,047,884 eight thousand tons of sail, for the year 1851. Whereas, The rule which governed these enumerated ap Value...
$208,418,441 8122,206,259 previous to 1800, there was scarcely a craft above the size propriations was laid down by Mr. Monroe: Decrease in tonnage 1856 and 1857..
726,528 of an Indian canoe to stand againsi an aggregate marine,
$86,212,182 built up within half a century, in what was then almost a
merce on the ocean.
Decrease in value
« That Congress has a discretionary power, restricted only pathless wilderness, of two hundred and fifteen thousand
by the duty to make appropriations to purposes of common tons burden."
defense, and of general, not local--national, not State, * The States of New York, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Michbenefit.is
igan, Indiana, Illinois, Wisconsin, Inwa, and Missouri, and
the Territory of Minnesota, (now State. In 1856, you will find in a report of the Com This was recognized by Jackson. He says:
| It will be remembered that the farmer is burdened in a mittee on Commerce to this House (No.316, page “ The practice of making appropriations for light-houses, two-fold capacity, viz: first, as a producer; and second, as 9, vol. 3) an elaborate statement of the tonnage, public piers, harbors, and ports of the United States, to a consumer