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35TH CONG.... 1st SESS.

Fifteen Million Loan Bill-Mr. Andrews.

Ho. of Reps.

and Vattel says:

Paulding, not appreciating the difference be- herself degraded in the eyes of nations at this between the principle alluded to and those entween the extent of a power and the abuse of a open avowal of her imbécility? If any of the braced in the Monroe doctrine. power, perpetrated this grievous wrong under the spirit of the days of Charles 'the Fifth, or the

By the setting up of a king, or the creation of flag of our country:

second Philip has been transmitted to her rulers, a dictatorship in Mexico under the auspices of If the colors of that noble pennon are allegori- / she must have felt this, and she may have ex Spain, and possibly her allies, these principles cal, as I have read—the white as an emblem of claimed, in the somewhat trite quotation from the would cease to be mere abstractions, but would the purity of our intentions, the red as an emblem Latin poet,

be replete with practical results; ay, sir, great, of terror upon the battle-field, and the blue as an

“ Non tali auxilio, nec defensoribus istis, tempus eget."

glorious results, by which a flag, bearing the lions emblem of the faith of our engagements-he might

and castles of Castile-proud insignia of royalty have gleaned something from these as a rule of Martinez has declared that Paulding's act was and monarchy-would be forever banished from action, even something of the spirit of the law of " above the law," and without question. The her possessions in this hemisphere. nations, and not perverted the flag under which Yrissari treaty has been delayed, and has dragged If the startling report be true that Spain is he sailed, by a cool, premeditated attack upon the its slow length along, owing io the jealousy enter taking measures to Africanize Cuba, or if at any people from his fatherland-misguided thoughtained by Nicaragua as to a military protectorate future period such should be the case, I feel conThey may have been, or led astray by some illu over the transit route conceded by that treaty, for fident that the Executive of this country, sustained sory notions of giving freedom to a region among it must have felt sensibly that the same military by its people, would remember the proud language the fairest of the globe.

power which had been só recently exerted for her of the Ostend manifesto; and then, sir, Cuba must The main justification of Paulding rests upon defense, might be wrested to her lestruction. And

be ours, no matter at what cost, no matter at what the principle that evil may be done, provided a good now we learn that the treaty will not be ratified sacrifice of blood and treasure. And the Queen follows as a result; a principle, sir, than which noth at all.

of the Antilles, gracefully displacing her diadiem, ing can be more pernicious; a principle charged to And here let me remark, though not exactly and with her brows entwined with a floral wreath be a leading one with the followers of Ignatius germane to my subject, that all the Central Amer of her own gorgeous clime, would take her posiLoyola, and one, sir, that at all times has been ican States entertain a jealousy of this country- tion among her sisters of this Confederacy. denounced as one of the most dangerous chime. a jealousy fostered by the acute agents of France So far as the Americanization of the isthmus ras that has ever entered into the brain of man. and England in those countries.

under the auspices of a northern emigration so"To procure an eminent good by means that are I regret to hear so much stress laid upon the ciety is to be attempted, whilst I doubt its feasi. unlawful (says Sir William Scott) is as little con probable action of those Powers, in case our policy bility, I am, as a southern gentleman, indifferent sonant to private morality as to public justice.” | should perchance conflict with their own. That

as to its results. As I understand the scheme, it This is the language of a great and good man, 'policy meets us at every step. We mee it in Texas will prove a grand monopoly of the North at the and used while deciding against the legality of -it has been at work in St. Domingo and the expense of the South; for no southern emigrants boarding vessels engaged in the African slave Sandwich Islands, Cuba, and the Central Ameri will receive the requisite passports at New York trade, anxious as he was, anxious as all England can States.

to enable them to settle in Nicaragua. If the obwas, at the time, for the suppression of what was I say, sir, let us have an American policy-let us jects contemplated by this association are to decalled a most abominable traffic in human fesh. display proper firmness with all Powers, and not velop the resources of that country, diffuse knowl" Tempora mutantur," Mr. Chairman; and an ob-' permit our magnanimity to pass over with im edge and the light of a refined civilization among server of human events might ask, if the pbilan- 1. punity the insults or ouirages committed by the its people, with incidental benefits to the persons thropy of Exeter Hall and the policy of la belle smaller ones on account of their weakness, for we composing it, well and good; but if otherwise; if France were not yielding some what to the laws “can as little compound with impotence as per naught but the merest speculation, coupled with governiug capital and labor? if they were not yield- fidy: The bones of our citizens are whitening some undefined but yet certain ultimate intent of ing somewhat to the questions of their demand in the sun at Virgin bay and along the transit obtaining possession and subverting the Governand supply?

route to the Pacific, and the murder of four of our ment, whenever their numbers and strength will The rights and duties of nations are reciprocal. I citizens, within our own borders, near the line of authorize it, then all I can say is, their morality No nation has the right, though it may have the Sonora, is yet to be atoned for.

would be such as was inculcated by Dame Lobporer, to force even benefits upon another nation; The President, in his message of last December, kins to Paul Clifford: “ If you wants what is not tells us that no progress whatever has been made

your own, try and do without it; if you cannot do “But, though a nation be obliged to promote, as far as

towards the settlement of the claims of our citi without it, take it by insiniration, not bluster. lies within its power, the perfection of others, it is not en zens against the Spanish Government, and that They as swindles does more and risks less than titled forcibly to obtrude those oflices on them.

"the outrage committed on our flag by the Spanattempt would be a violation of their natural liberty. In

they as robs." order io compel any one to receive a kindness, we must have

ish war frigate Ferrolana, on the high seas, off As to the territorial expansion of this country, an authority over hin; but nations are absolutely free and

the coast of Cuba, in March, 1855, by firing into it is inevitably and must be southward; faster, independent."

the mail steamer El Dorado, and detaining and perhaps, thun we wish. You might as well enAll nations are supposed, in their intercourse searching her, remains unacknowledged and unre deavor to prevent the expansion of steam or powwith each other, to be equal; for, where there is dressed.” And now tidings every day reach us of der in a state of ignition; but I wish the process sovereignty, there is the necessary concomitant, the most aggravated insults to our flag by British fair, and the acquisition gradual. If the people equality; and, in the terse language of Chief Jus- | cruisers, in our own waters. England has never of those countries between the Rio del Norte and tice Marshalí, “ Russia and Geneva have equal relinquished the principle of visitation and search, the Sierra Madre, irritated to frenzy by constant rights.'

but will no doubt seek to palliate the conduct of wars and revolutions, and the perpetual victims And here, sir, let me ask you, what would have her officers by drawing an absurd distinction be of the tyranny of a central power, should achieve been the feeling and sentiment in this country if

tween then. There is no difference in principle; their independence and form de facto Governments; Nicaragua, on ascertaining that Walker's expe the first is the incipient step, the latter the consum then, if they should invoke admission into our dition was about to sail, had sent an armed ves

mation of the act. Either or both are to be exer Union, I say let them come in. Justice and husel, and taptured him

within one of our southern cised only as belligerent rights, and are founded manity, and the regeneration of a portion of our harbors, or within the marine league of our shores? | upon and have their origin in force. In time of race would demand this; and let them partake of It would have been, sir, a casus belli; and there peace we can never permit them to be exercised, the benefits of our laws and institutions, our freewould have been a feeling of indignation pervad- and I, for one, say, full indemnity for past out dom and independence. But if perchance a poring the bosom of every man who loved the honor, rages, and a relinquishment as well of the right tion of this Union, guided by a narrow policy and the dignity, and the independence, of his country;

of visit, as asserted by the cautious and facile false philanthropy, should oppose such an accesand yet, sir, by this law of reciprocity, by this Aberdeen, as that of search, as well as visit, con sion, from hostility to southern interests, a war of law of correlative rights and obligations, Nica-¡tended for by the haughty Palmersion. If not opinion may be engendered, and utterance given ragua had as much right to do that as Paulding yielded, then I say, war; and in the interim let lo it in tones loud and clear as a bugle call; and had to seize Walker on the sands of the Punia us give the Executive the means and the power then, Mr. Chairman, hush who can its irksome Arenas.

to enable him to sustain the honor of the coun echoes! The soil of Nicaragua should have been held try: sacred by Paulding; it should have been holy 1 rejoice that measures are being taken for the

FIFTEEN MILLION LOAN BILL. ground; and he had no right to desecrate it by an

annihilation of the Clayton-Bulwer treaty; it is act of outrage and usurpation, even for the pur

the first step, and it is a good one; and I trust that SPEECH OF HON. S. G. ANDREWS, pose of capturing felons, from the chief of whom, at least the Democratic portion of this Congress by a ridiculous anomaly, he accepted his parole will not forget a resolution as to our foreign pol

OF NEW YORK, of honor.

icy passed at the Cincinnati convention of 1856. IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, When I first heard of this transaction, it oc

I will read it: curred to me the Government of Nicaragua might Resolred, That our geographical and political position

Muy 31, 1858. love the treason, but hate the traitor, and how

with reference to the other States of this continent, no less The House being in the Committee of the Whole on the ever much she might complacently rejoice over

than the interest of our commerce and the development of state of the Union the riddance from Walker, yet I asked myself,

our growing power, requires that we should hold as sacred
the principles involved in the Monroe doctrine;

Mr. ANDREWS said: may not its national pride have been more hu- ing and import admit of no misconstruction ; they should be Mr. CHAIRMAN: In the memorable presidential miliated, a deeper stab given to its nationality, applied with unbending rigidity." than for all thai Walker could have accomplished

campaign of 1856, the supporters of Mr. Buchwith his one hundred and fifty followers, and es

The arrogant assumption of a British Ministry, anan, and that distinguished gentleman himself,

claiming the right of intervention as to the dispecially when among the pleas set up to justify tribution of power" in the American seas, thrown

made professions of their political creed from

thousands of rostrums and presses in all parts of the act, was that of the weakness of 'Nicaragua, and her inability to defend herself against a hand- the time may not be far distant, and I care not how

so flauntingly in our faces, stands unrevoked; and the Union. The two leading articles in that creed ful of adventurers? And must she not have felt

were these: first, that Kansas should be brought soon, when an issue shall be made up and tried "into the Union under such a constitution as ils

Such an

bear

35th Cong....I ST SESS.

Fifteen Million Loan Bill-Mr. Andrews.

Ilo. or Reps.

tones,“

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bona fide citizens might, by their unbiased choice, | Now, is there any man, either in or out of Con: States on the oriental and the occidental sides adopt; and, second, that the Federal Guverainent gress, who does not believe that at an early day of the Rocky Mountains and the Sierra Nevada. should be administered economically, and willi of the next session the cry of the party in power Though all branches of the business and all deout imposing unnecessary burdens upon the peo will be,“ Give us more money! we want more scripuous of the labor of the country-agricul. ple.

money! the Treasury is empiy, and we must tural, mechanical, manufacturing, and commercial In regard to the manner in which the Adminis. ' have more money?"

--are depressed, sorely depressed, yet this Adtralion has illus'rated the first article of its creed, The economical people of this country-those ministration seenis only busy in finding out how I have only to say that it employed the first five who krep an eye to the debit and credit sides of and where it can get money to spend, while it months of the present session of Congress in their legers, or those who earn their daily bread seems to have no sympathy with, nor plans to reusing all its power and patronage to force upon by honest toil - these are not a niggardly people lieve, these prostrate and struggling branches of Kaisas a constitution which the vast majority of in money matters. They are honest, and ihey are industry. Indeed, it appears to me that the bold, its citizens detest and abhor. On this subject I loyal and generous. If ii be necessary to ruise and i palpable fact, that the party in power proposes to am content to leave the Administration to reap spend money for any wise or useful purpose, they do nothing for them, will startle the country quite the fruits of its own doings at the ballot-boxes in are ready to vote it to the extent of the demand; as much as its reckless expenditure of all the Kansas, so soon as they are opened to receive but they always want to know, and sooner or moneys in the Treasury, together with all it can the indignant votes of that people, in August later they always will know, for what purpose it borrow. In so doing, jí not only shows its utter next, and to the more terrible retribution which is used. When the great body of the intelligent want of regard for the business and laboring is in store for it, at the autumnal elections in all and honest masses of the American people that classes of the country, but it strikingly illustrates the free States of the Republic.

vast majority of our constituents who neither its wide departure from the old landmarks of". DeMy presmen business is with the mode in which seek nor desire nor would hold office - when they mocracy.” If any one partisan idea has been ridthe Administration has fulfilled its promises, learn that this Administration has exhausted all den harder than another in late ycars, by the selfmade in the heat of the canvass of 1856, in respect the money in the Treasury, and has borrowed styled Democracy, it is their "anti-debi" hobby. to retrenchment and economy. In doing so, I $35,000,000 during the first session of Congress to With them, to run in debt at all was not to le shull speak plainly, dealing much more with the which it bau access, they will ask, in emphatic | tolerated, except under the pressure of inexorable nie digits than with figures of speech.

What have you done, and what do you necessity, a dernier resort when all otherexpedients When Mr. Buchanan took the oath of office, propose to do, with this money???

had failed. And to contracta debt without at the on the 4th of March, 1857, there was in the Treas If this question is honestly answered, they will same time providing, either presently or in the ury the sum of $17,710,000, or, in round numbers, learn thai not one dollar of this vast suin has future, a specific mode and reliable means for the $18,000,000. There have been collected from ali Deen or is to be expended in improving our har payment of the debt, was not only bad political sources, and placed in the Treasury during the bors on the lakes and on the sea-board, or to clear economy, but was the very rankest type and the first three quarters of the fiscal year which is soon out our navigable rivers; that though the com very surest test of "old Federalism.' to expire, $35,000,000. The estimated amount to merce on our inland lakes and rivers amounts | And now, wbat do we see? We find this "antibe received during the last quarter is $8,000,000. ' annually to hundreds of millions of dollars-an delt" party, this "

1

pay-as-you-go" party, askiAt an early day in the present session, the Admin ainouni greater than the whole export trade of the ing for an extraordinary issue of $20,000,000 of istration asked for and received the authority to United States; and though the human beings, pas. | Treasury notes, and an extraordinary loan of issue Treasury notes to the amount of $20,000,000, sengers and suilors, whose lives are put to hazaru | $15,000,000, without providing any means for the and it is now asking for authority to borrow on these waters, are counted by hundreds of thou- redemption of the former, or the payment of the $15,000,000 more. This is proof that, at the close sands, yet not one dime can be wrung from this latter, except the ordinary income of the Treas. of the fiscal year, the Treasury will be empty: Administration to render the barlors of these ury, which we all know is not adequate to meet The current fiscal year expires on the 30th of lakes and the channels of these rivers more com the current expenditures of the Government as at June. At that time Mr. Buchanan will have been modious and safe for this mercantile marine and

present managed. I find in this state of things, a in power one year and four months. From the

its costly and precious freightage of goods, wares, confession, not only that the party now in power foregoing statements it will be seen that, during and merchandise, and its sull more precious lives has ceased to be “ Democratic,” according to the these sixtern months, this “economical” Admin of men, women, and children. We need no forts or long-approved standards of orthodoxy, but has istration will have spent the $18,000,000 which it i castles, sir, to protect our harbors; the negligence become so thoroughly convinced of its incapacity found in the Treasury when it took office, and the and inattention of Congress have furnished their to administer the Government on any sound prio $43,000,000 wbich have since been received into

security against enemies and friends alike, in their li ciples, that it has made up its mind to strugale the Treasury, and pretiy much all the $20,000,000 dilapidation and ruin.

through its four years in the best way it can, borof Treasury notes which it has had authority to I instance one of our lake harbors-rather an rowing here, and " xhinning" there, and throwing issue; making a grand total of $81,000,000 which extreme case, but a tolerably fair sample of many out its notes yonder, and to leave to its present op:

pro this is economical," "hard money,

pay-as

others. For this one, the War Department has ponents the insk of providing the means, during you-go” Administration hus used up in the first recommended and urged upon this blouse an im ihe next four years, for the ultimate payment of

who sixieen months of its existence! And now, like mediate appropriation of $41,000, 10 secure it the debts which it had recklessly contracted. Oliver Twist, it clainors for "more!" The fa. from total ruin. The report says:

This brings me naturally to the consideration

-- oth mous " South Sea bubble" of the olden time was

“The east pier, two thousand and thirty four feet loug, of the question, how are these debts to be paid? no match for this Alleninistration in regard to was reported by Colonel Turnbull, as long ago as Seprem. plethoric promises and lean performances. ber, 1853, to bi in a muclidecayed condit:coll, and an appro.

How is the country to le relieved from its em priation of $21,539 was recommended by bini for its ripir,

barrassment? How are its great business interThus stands the account:

but it was never granted. It must now be entirely rebuilt ests-agriculture, manufactures, mechanic arts, in the Treasury .... $17,710,000

commerce, in a word, all the industrial pursuits Revenue for three quarters.

35,000,000 There are also portions that are dilapidated to a great depth
800,000

which diversify American labor, and which are below the water suriace, and, as Colonel Turnbull justly Treasury nutes issued. 20,000,000 states in his last two annual reports, in moderate gales of

now so depressed-how are these to be relieved? Loan asked.....

13,400,000 wind it is entirely submerged, which rruders the approach In my judgment, these objects can never be ac

ot' vessels 10 the entrance of the river very dangerous.' $95,710.000

coinplished except by such a revision of the preso " For this object, including the tearing away and removal of the decayed portiin, I herewith present an estimate

ent iuriff as will bring into the Treasury a larger It came into power by virtue of pledges of econ marked P, amounting to 941.084 31.

amount of money; while at the same time proiec.

** I would recouunond, in order to prevent the ruin of the tion is extended to all the various branches of omy, retrenchment, and opposition to all schemes

habor, ihat this appropriation be sumediately granted in of public debt. Once clothed with the robes of

industry. For the last few years we have been one appropriatiou." office, and with the kry of the Treasury in its

importing from foreign countries goods, wares, band, it has, like a reckless spendthrift, disposed Genesee is the porta city of fifty thousand inhab- dred to three hundred and seventy million dollars

The city of Rochester, of which this harbor of and merchandise, to the amount of from three hunof all the money it can get bold of, and all that it iilants, surrounded by one of the most fertile and annually. In the last fiscal year, the value of our question, which every member of this House productive regions of country the sunshines upon imports was $360,890,141. Scorihis amount of

-according to reports

of the Treasury Depart- manufactures," (for they were chiefly manufac should ask bimself, “where is all this to end?"

ment, has paid into the Treasury for ihe past year It is starting to look at the increase in the ex

tured articles,) 'I doubt not that if the tariff of the pet income of $142,579 50-an amount exceedpenditures of ihe Government, and the contrast

1842 had continued in force to this time, with such ed by only nine ports on the whole Allantic coast, between economical Democracy”and the party

modifications as experience had shown to be wise: and only by Chicago and Milwaukee on the lakes; charged with profusion and wasteful disburse

a very considerable share would have been proof this sum less than one third is required and re.

duced in this country. ported indispensable for necessary repairs of this Monroe's Administration (four years)...... $46,432,382 75

I am not going into an argument at this time to best harbor, and the only one of value to comAdams's

provo the utility of a tariff policy which shall Jackson's " (second term).

merce for safety on eighiy miles of lake coast. harmoniously blend the iwo features of revenue Van Buren's (

110.673,427 81 On the submerged pier referred to, lying like
78.163,3!2 81 sunken rocks at the mouth of the harbor, some

and protection. I think bitter experience is teach165,481,013 33

ing the people that a return to such a policy, or, Taylor's

five or six vessels have been stranded during the is first year, $29,727.261 92;

if it be contended that we have never had a tariff (Fillmore) second year, 839,623,795..... 158,161,528 71 past year--one vessel, cargo and crew losı; and Pierce's Admini-tration,

which properly blended these iwo features, ther, 232,420,622 33 Elvis barrier, which the Government has placed that the early adoption of such a policy is absor Euchanan’s Administration, first year, spent there, it will neither repair por remove.

lutely essential to restore and place on a permanent $81,000,000; and at that rate will run up to Not one dollar can be obtained, either in the

basis the prosperity of all classes in this country, over three hundred and iwenty million dollars.

credii " Where is this to end?"

tion of a Pacific railway, that iron band, stronger which we imported last year, it is a libel on Aure The loun of $15,000,000, which the Administration is now asking, will undoubtedly be granted. to bind together; in indissoluble fellowship, the i tering care of a wisely-adjusted tariff, we cannot

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nanufacture at least $250,000,000. Look at some manufacturing establishments; and the farmer And be it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, of the leading items. I shall use only round num who provided the meat and the breadstuffs, and

appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not other

wise appropriated, the sum of $26,143 15, for securing and bers: the gardener who raised the vegetables and the

repairing the works at the harbor of Cleveland, Ohio, to be Of wonlen goods we imported last year ....... $29,000,000 fruits on which the mechanics and artisans daily | expended ander the direction of the Secretary of War.

28,700,000
fed, and the merchant with whom they did their

Anil be it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, Sulk....

30,250,000
trading, and the banker who furnished the mone-

appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherIron and steel..., 28.300,000

wise appropriated, $30,000, for repairs upon the works at Carpetings. 2,000,000 tary facilities to the capitalists who had embarked

Huron harbor, Ohio, to be expended under the direction of Linen....

12,000.000 their means in manufacturing, and the ship-owner the Secretary of War. Embroideries

4,500,000
and the mariner who were employed in trans-

And he it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, Laces......

1,500,000

porting the fabrics to distant nations of the earth. appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherOfthese eight different classes of articles,amount

wise appropriated, the sum of $16,940 96, for repairs upon

In a word, if it be beneficial to a people, and the works at Black River harbor, Ohio, to be expended under ing to nearly one hundred and forty million dolJars in the last fiscal year, we could, with proper raise their own daily food out of their own soil

, I appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not other tends to promote their independence, that they the direction of the Secretary of War.

, encouragement, manufacture nearly or quite the it must be equally beneficial to them, and tend also

wise appropriated, the sum of $8,679 55, for repairs upon whole. We have the requisite capital; we have

to promote their independence, that they produce the works at Grand River Harbor, Ohio, to be expended unthe necessary raw materials, or can produce them

at home the woolen and cotton fabrics with which der the direction of the Secretary of War. on due notice; we have the essential machinery, they cover their backs, the hats they wear on their

And he it further enacted, Thai there

be, and is hereby, or the genius to invent it, or the capacity to copy heads, the shoes they put on their feet, the carpets

appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not other

wise appropriated, the sum of $6,620, for repairing the works it from foreign models. We have the needed man that adorn their floors, the watches that tell them at the harbor of Ashtabula, Onio, to be expended under the ufacturing skill, in the heads and hands of our when to lie down and when to rise up, the linen

direction of the Secretary of War. people, native-born or imported; indeed, our coun

Ant be it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, on which they rest at night, the blankets that

appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otheriry teems with foreign mechanics and artisans,

cover them while they slumber, the knives and wise appropriated, the sum of $3,020, for repairing the works anxiously waiting to be employed in their accus the forks with which they eat their daily food, at the larbor of Conneaut, Ohio, to be expended under the tomed trades. We have water-power in greater

direction of the Secretary of War. the goblets in which they drink the health of their abundance than any nation on earth, and we can

And be it further enacted, that there be, and hereby, friends, the leaden bullets and the steel blades with

appropriated, out of any noney in the Treasury not othercreate steam-power to an incalculable extent. All which ihey take the lives of their enemies, the iron wise appropriated, the sum of 38,638, for the immdiate repair we want, then, to manufacture these one hundred "rails on which their locomotives dash through their of the prers at Erie harbor. Pennsyívania, ļo be expended and forty millions annually here at home, is to valleys and over their plains, the anchors and the

under the direction of the Secretary of War. convince the people that their manufacturing es

And be it jurther enacted, That there be, and is bereby, cables that hold their ships, while riding out the appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not othertablishments had better be set up and carried on storms of the arctics and the hurricanes of the wise appropriated, the sum of $5,299 98, for the immediate in Massachusetts, New York, Wisconsin, Vir- | tropies, and, in a word, the gorgeous silks with repair of Dunkirk harbor works, New York, to be expended . ginia, Tennessee, and Missouri, and their sister

which ihey adorn the wives whom they love so States, than in England, Scotland, France, Bel- ! well, and ihe very bunting of the star-spangled appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not other

And be it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, gium, Germany, and Russia, and other European : banner, that they will defend with their latest wise appropriated, the sum of $27,679 35, for repairing the countries. breath! A wise people, a free people, will never

public works at Buffalo harbor, New York, to be expended Numerous other articles of manufactured goods rely upon the capital and skill of alien nations for

under the direction of the Secretary of War.

And he it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, fall under the same category with those already the necessaries and luxuries of life, the essentials

appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not othernamed. We import annually of copper manu of existence and comfort, and the very emblems wise appropriated, the suin of 99,736 65, for repairing the factures about three millions; öftin manufactures, of their power and their independence.

piers of Oak Orchard harbor, New York, to be expended about six millions; of lead and zinc manufactures,

under the direction of the Secretary of War. Now, sir, only about two million dollars are re

And be it further enacted, that there be, and is hereby, more than three millions; of gold and silver man quired for the purpose of preserving and securing appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherufactures, including watches, about six millions;

the harbors of the country, and rendering thena wise appropriated, the sum of $41,084 34, 1or repairing the of glass and earthen manufactures, neurly six mil. accessible to our commerce. This is a sum no

public works at Genesee harbor, New York, to be expended

under the direction of the Secretary of War. lions; of paper manufactures, about one million; greater than has been voted to this District of of leather and leather manufactures, nearly five

And be it further enacted, 'That there be, and is hereby, Columbia for unimportant objects — less by appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not othermillions. Thus it seems that, of these ten kinds $1,000,000 ihan was voted to-day for three use wisc appropriated, the sum of $40,806, for repairing the piers of fabrics, we annually import from abroad some less regiments of volunteers. I will cheerfully

at Soilus Bay harbor, Wayne county, New York, and for thirty million dollars. Does any one doubt that, vote for such a loan as shall secure this object; the direction of the Secretary of War.

dredging between the channel piers, to be expended under with proper encouragement to our own capitaland

but I cannot give my support for any loan bill, And be it further enacted, that there be, and is hereby, skill, we could manufacture on our own soil nearly, I' (except it be for the defense of the country,) un

appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherthe whole range of articles embraced in this list? less provision be made for this imperatively neces

wise appropriated, the sum of $46,391 14, for inmediate reTurning, for a moment, to inquire in respect to

pairs required for the preservation of Oswego harbor, New some other articles which we largely import, I find lapidated harbors. sary purpose of preserving and repairing our di

York, to be expended under the direction of the Secretary

of War. that

And be it further enacted, That there be, and the same is of molasses, we import annually $8,000,000

hereby, appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not Of sugars.........

.43,000,000
INTERNAL IMPROVEMENTS.

otherwise appropriated, the sum of $2,186 40, for repairs of Of wines.............. 4,400,000

the piers at Burlington, Vermont, to be expended under the 5,000,000 DEBATE IN THE SENATE.

direction of the Secretary of War. of tobacco and cigars.... 5,600,000

And be it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, Here we have a sum total of $66,000,000 in

THURSDAY, May 27, 1858.

appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not other

wise appropriated, the sum of $110,000, for completing the these five articles -- articles good, bad and indiffer On motion of Mr. SEWARD, the Senate, as in

improvements in the ratt region of Red river, to be expended ent in their quality, which we annually import Committee of the Whole, proceeded to consider under the direction of the Secretary of War. from abroad. Perhaps it would be impossible, the bill (S. No. 343) making appropriations for

And he it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, or, if possible, unwise to attempt to produce the repairing the piers at the harbor of Sheboygan, appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not other

wise appropriated, the sum of $10,000, for the preservation whole of this amount at home. I will not dwell Wisconsin, which proposes to appropriate $5,000 of steam dredges and appurtenances, to be expended under upon these items, as they lie rather "out of my for that purpose.

the direction of the Secretary of War. line.” They must be looked after by those having The VICE PRESIDENT. The Senator from And he it further enacted, that there be, and is hereby, them specially under their eye. Ohio (Mr. Pugh) yesterday offered an amendment

appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not other

wise appropriated, the sum of $20,000 for unforeseen conI might enumerate other classes of goods, but to this bill, adding to it all the other harbor bills.

tingencies of lake harbors, to be expended under the directhere is not time now, nor am I endeavoring to Shall the amendment be read ?

tion of the Secretary of War. make a tariff speech, but only trying in a sum Mr. HUNTER. I want it read.

Mr. HUNTER. I submit the following admary way to show, that of the $350,000,000 more Mr. PUGH. It is not necessary to read it. Iditional section as an amendment to the amendor less, which we have been annually import- will state that I have not put on, as the Chair re ment: ing from abroad for several years past, at least marks, all these appropriations; but I have put And be it further enacted, That for the purposes of this $250,000,000 can and ought to be manufactured at on all those which ihe Committee on Commerce act and to execute all improvements of harbors or rivers for home. Nor have I time to show by elaborate reported for the repair and preservation of works

which appropriations may be made by law during the pres

ent session of Congress, the President shall be authorized argument, that a tariff policy which would enable already commenced, together with the appropri to borrow so much money as may be made necessary by us to do this, would not, as has been sometimes ations for contingencies, and for preserving the these appropriations, on the credit of the United States, at supposed by superficial thinkers, be beneficial steam dredges that have already been constructed. an interest not exceeding six per cent., for a terın of not only to the manufacturer, and be fostering one Mr. CLAY. I ask that the amendment be read.

more than ten years, the said money to be borrowed under kind of business at the expense of other kinds.

the same limitations and restrictions and in the same manThe Secretary read it, as follows:

per as prescribed by the act entitled " An act to authorize A system that would impel American capital, And be it further enacted, That there be, and is hereby, a loan not to exceed the sum of sixteen millions of dollars," skill, and labor, to manufacture these $250,000,000 appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not other? approved March 3, 1848. annually, on our own soil, and, in due time to

wise appropriated, the sum of $10,000, for repairing the manufacture another $250,000,000 annually to be works at the harbor of St. Joseph, Michigan, to be expended

Mr. President, I understand we are about to under the direction of the Secretary of War.

vote for a large appropriation, amounting, as the exported to other countries, would directly benefit And be it further enacted, That ihere be, and is hereby, chairman of the Committee on Commerce innot only the manufacturers, the mechanics, and the

appropriated, out of any money in the Treasury not otherartisans, and the laborers of all sorts who produced at the harbor of Monroe, Michigan, to be expended under wise appropriated, the sum of $9,588, for repairing the works

forms me, to nearly six hundred thousand dollars,

for objects for which we have no estimates from these various fabrics, but would equally benefit the direction of the Secretary of War. all other classes of business men in the country:

the Departments. We are about to make this

And be it further enacted, that the sum of $23,421 be, addition to the estimates of the next fiscal year, as, for example, the sheep-grower, the planter, and is hereby, appropriated, out of any money in the Treas?

which has not been asked for by the Executive, and the miner, who furnished the wool and the ing the channel through the St. Clair flats, Michigan, to be

and it seems to me that those who are thus vota scotton, the iron and the coal, consumed in these l expended under the direction of the Secretary of War. ing it are bound at least to supply the means by

NEW SERIES—No. 30.

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35TH CONG....1st Sess.
Internal ImprovementsMr. Hunter.

SENATE. way of giving him authority to make such a loan tution, which forbids us to originate revenue bills,

Mr. HUNTER. Then I pass over that, if I as may be necessary for that purpose.

attempt to depart from that time-honored system misunderstood the Senator, and I am glad I have, I know that yesterday and the day before, when which has been justified by experience itself. for it really seems to me to be a most extraorthe loan bill was up, many Senators opposed that Now, sir, if these frauds exist, why do not the dinary calculation in one who generally cyphers bill upon certain grounds which would apply to gentlemen show them? We are not to rest upon so well, to suppose that we were to estimate the this proposition when it is presented to the Sen- loose assertion; we are not to rest upon the clam- | probable revenue to be derived by putting an av. ate; but they were so obviously untenable that ors of persons who are often interested in gerting erage thus ascertained upon the dutiable imports. I think I shall be able to show that there is no them up. If these frauds existed to the extent

If he abandons that ground, I have nothing more obstacle in the objections which were then pre- that is alleged, they ought to be shown in the re to say on it. sented that should prevent them from now pro- l ports of our courts; they ought to be shown in

Mr. SIMMONS. I do not know how I can

Live viding the means for this appropriation, which ihe records of the Treasury Department; they | abandon a ground I never took. they are about to add to the annual estimates of ought to be facts that are patent. Some of the Mr. HUNTER. I am glad I misunderstood the Departments.

investigating committees, which have been ori the gentleman. I know, sir, that they objected to that loan bill, ginated for that purpose, ought to have shown Mr. SIMMONS. It seems to be very difficult which was indispensable to carry on this Govern- | them. Such committees have been originated, and for the gentleman to understand me. When I say ment, which was indispensable for the support of they have resulted in nothing. On the contrary, I did not take the ground he says, he then turns your Army and your Navy, upon the ground that you find that the late Secretary of the Treasury, round and declares that I have abandoned it. we would not agree to introduce amendments upon Mr. Guthrie-I quote from memory-in his letter Mr. HUNTER. I take the Senator's word; it which were designed to alter the existing mode on home valuation, says that the present mode I do not insist that he took the ground if he says

w for of calculating the ad valorem duties, which amend: 1 of laying the duties has not resulted, as far as he

he did not. ments, as was shown upon that occasion, would knows, in many cases of fraud. We know, too, Mr. SIMMONS. Well, that is not abandonhave added largely to the revenues to be derived that the highest inducements are held out to the ing it, is it? from this mode of taxation.. I know, too, that public officers to detect frauds, if they exist, be Mr. HUNTER. There was another branch they objected to a loan in addition to this, because cause they are given a part of the fines, the pen of the Senator's circumstantial evidence which was

at the they said that, in this time of deficiency, we were alties, and the forfeitures; and if, with such stim adduced in order to show that we must have been bound so to add to the tariff as to provide the ulants and such inducements as these, none have cheated in the way of undervaluation on the Government with the means and with the reve been detected and exposed, with what face can gen- | importations. My friend from Georgia (Mr. nues to meet the expenditures. I think it will clemen rise here, and assert and expect us to be Toombs) also fell into an error on that subject

. be easy to show thai the objection which they lieve, and act upon the belief, that these frauds He seemed to suppose that because, for a certain raised to the fact that we provided for a loan, and exist to the extent alleged? Why, sir, they attempt period of three years, the imports, as valued in the

ud that 1 would not agree to provide any means of altering to eke out the absence of positive testimony by cir port of shipment—that is, abroad-were greater

por the old mode of calculating the ad valorem system, cumstantial evidence; and what sort of circumstan ihan the exports as valued in the port of shipis not founded on reason, because it is the system tial evidence? The Senator from Rhode Island, ment-that is, here--we were cheated out of the on which we have been acting ever since 1793. ) in order to show it, says that we have been cheated difference, not only between this value of the ex: From that day to this, as I am informed at the during the whole period of the existence of the ports and imports, but out of all the profit added Treasury Department, it has been the unbroken tariff of 1846 by undervaluation, because the im to the exports when they went abroad. I told him usage so to construe the law, in relation to costs

portations did not yield what they ought to have upon that occasion what he will allow me to reand charges, as to impose the duty on the costs done in the way of duty; and how does he pro peat, that the true equation was between the marand charges at the port from which the article is pose to estimate what they ought to have yielded ? ket value of the exports where they were sent and shipped the port from which it is imported. I Mr. SIMMONS. I did not say that. I do not the market value of the imports where they were know that the Senator from Rhode Island (Mr. | know but that it will hurt the gentleman's argu brought; and that, in order to show that we were SIMMONS) said this was a false construction of the ment to have me correct him.

with all these safeguards in a system which has

cheated, he would have to prove that the imports law, and that he had set up, in a report which he Mr. HUNTER. I understood the Senator from were of less value rated at the market price where s, and presented to this body, his opinion that all the Rhode Island to say, that because they did not they were bought, than the exports rated at the

Lr such la Departments and all these authorities have been | yield what the importations that were brought in market price where they were sold; and when we wrong in regard to this matter, I might almost say ) ought to have yielded, in his opinion, the Govern

cimited

come to institute that equation, we shall find that ab urbe condita. But, sir, against that opinion of ment must have been cheated by undervaluation. there may very well be a state of the tariff in, his, that this is a false construction of the law, I Mr. SIMMONS. No, sir; I did not say any which the imports reckoned at the place of shipset up the unbroken usage of the Department, the such thing. Those facts were not stated by me ment would be of less value than the exporis unbroken construction of all the Secretaries of to show the frauds. I stated that there might be which are always reckoned at the place of ship-sha sch the Treasury, and all the collectors, from that day circumstances to induce more importations in one ment. Take the case that he desires to export his upon to this. I set up the legislative exposition in 1823, 1 year than the average; that they would vary from cotton in order to get iron for one of his railroads. when, in amending the oath which the consignee year to year. I did not rely on that as an evi. His cotton goes io Liverpool free of duty; the ang ito was to take, Congress required that he should dence of fraud; but I alluded to the report of Mr. dury does not enter into the market price there. It swear that the invoice contained these costs and Guthrie, who said a great many fabrics had their returns in the shape of iron which, under the tariff andmeia charges, which of course must have been the for. names changed so as to get them in under lower of 1846, bore a duty of thirty per cent., which did and did eign costs and charges, for the invoice was made schedules,

aterially

enter into the price there. In order to obtain out at the port from which the importations were Mr. HUNTER. I understood the Senator from equal values at the market price, you had to im shipped. I stand on the exposition which has Rhode Island to assume that the true mode of es.

port a less value of imports at the place of ship- redule it been given by the Federal courts, the courts of the timating the revenue to be derived on imports was ment than the value of the exporis at the port

1 tas und land, on a case made in relation to this very matter. by averaging the duties; that is, by adding up the from which they went. In other words, his staJudge Nelson decided, in the case of Grinnell vs. different schedules and dividing them by the num tistics are only an illustration of the old " forty

PEL ben 1 Lawrence, (Blatchford's Circuit Court Reports, ber of duties. Am I wrong in that?

bale" theory, which was sustained by a distinvol. 1, page 349,) that

Mr. SIMMONS. That is the way to find the guished gentleman from South Carolina, Mr. « In each case costs and charges are to be added, as pre average rate of duty.

McDuffie, and by Professor Senior, of Oxford, a scribed in the enacting clause; and the costs and charges Mr. HUNTER.' It is by that average rate of theory to which I do not subscribe in the whole

, in this case are those which have been incurred at the port duty we are to estimate, in his opinion, what we but which is undoubtedly correct, in part; for of shipment.”

are to receive from the tariff; because he said un there are conditions of trade in which the exporter Now sir, I say upon all this, it has been the der the present tariff, estimating in that way, it does pay a portion of the duty. construction of the law made by all Secretaries would be but sixteen per cent., and it would re But, sir, even as I said on that occasion, if the of the Treasury and concurred in by the country quire $400,000,000 of imports to give $64,000,000 Senator from Georgia had succeeded in showing and sustained by the highest tribunals in the land, of revenue. Am I right in that?

when

you came to institute the true equation, that that the mode in which we are now estimating Mr. SIMMONS. I

the imports reckoned at the market value where the duty is the mode which the law requires and Mr. HUNTER. Then it comes to what I said, | they were bought, were less than the exports at the history of the Department shows that it has that the Senator from Rhode Island in his argu the market value where they were sent, it would been the unbroken usage, from 1795 to this time, ment estimates the revenue that ought to be de

not do to say that the whole of that difference was 80 to assess and to lay the duties; and because | rived from the customs to be that average rate attributable to undervaluation, because it would we will not depart from that usage, now more which we get by adding together all the duties in the schedules, and dividing them by the number I gling, to which there were so many more induce

be far more reasonable to attribute them to smu. than sixty years old, gentlemen say they will not vote for a loan to satisfy the wants of the Gov. of schedules. He takes, for instance, the tariff menis, for which there were so many more oppor ernment. Why was not that objection made of 1846 with duties of one hundred, forly, thirty, tunities, than to the undervaluation. Against heretofore? It might as well have been made to twenty per cent., and so on; adds them up and that, we have checks of all sorts and descriptions

. any loan that ever was made. Surely it can with divides the sum by the number of schedules, and

We have a check in the skill of experienced men as much propriety be made to the appropriation he maintains that the imports ought to yield duty who look to see whether the invoice states the bills as to the loan bill, because if you will not in that ratio.

true price of the article, who have the vote the means of satisfying the appropriations Mr. SIMMONS. I did not say that. I stated surely you ought not to vote for the appropria- that the rates of duty were not a matter dependent the stimulus which is given to the custom-bouse

put it up if they find it too low. We have, too, tions themselves. And yet, gentlemen raise an on the class of imports, but were fixed in the law

officers by allowing them a portion of the fines outcry and a clamor about the frauds of this sys- and did not change. That was not a matter of penalties, and forfeitures, in cases of frauds; and tem which has been sanctified by an experience conjecture at all. What they would yield was so long, and rather seek to cast reproach upon another matter, dependent on the different quanti- | been maturing since 1795, it is reasonable to supa us because we do not, in the face of the Consti- Il ties of imports under the different schedules.

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35th Cong....1st Sess.

Internal ImprovementsMr. Toombs.

SENATE.

ment.

have been most unfortunate in its selection of ap- | done it? I go further; if we could have done it, | sumer, for every dollar he pays to the Governpraisers, could hardly be so numerous as gentle would it be proper to lay a tariff, which, in a pe- ment, pay one, two, three, or four other dollars men here charge and suppose. On the other riod of such severe pressure and crisis as that to private individuals, in the shape of an enhanced band, the facilities for smuggling, especially since we have just passed through, would have given | price, on the domestic manufacture which he is the reciprocity treaty, are very great; and I have us enough not only for the ordinary, but the ex chus forced to consume. I say it is not fair to the no doubt that if the truth could be known, there | traordinary expenditures of the country? or, if it sailor, it is not fair to the man of commerce, it is is a great deal of smuggling into this country. would have given us enough at such a period as not fair to the agricultural laborer, thus to tax

I say, then, that the objection which those gen- that, in average times and in usual years, it would them for the benefit of any other pursuit. I go tlemen raise io voting for a loan bill because we have filled our Treasury with a surplus; and we further. I say that if bounties were thus given, would not agree to adopt the proposition of the all know to what extravagance and profligacy a it would be found that they did not profit the laSenator from Rhode Island, in regard to a change surplus revenue would lead.

borer. Why, sir, the manufacturing laborer, no of the mode of executing our ad valorem system, is I say it is not desirable that there should be such matter what your tariff is, will get no more than not a valid objection, because they have failed to a system of revenue raised as would give enough, any other skilled laborer in the country: If there prove the frauds alleged, either by direct evidence in time of pressure, to meet even the ordinary | be any extra profits produced by it, they go to or circumstantial proof; and against them they wants of the Government; and, if this be true, then the capitalists, the owners of the factories, the will find the authority of those who have been the only question left for statesmen to consider is, men who are rich enough already. administering the Department.

whether the existing sources of revenue would be But, sir, I will for a moment assume the truth But, sir, I go further; I say that all those who sufficient for the just demands of the Government of the argument, though I do not assent to it, that voted for that amendment are forever estopped economically administered; and, if they would be as regards protection we ought to disregard all from saying anything in regard to the frauds of sufficient, then leave your revenue where it stands, other interests, and look only to the manufacthe present ad valorem system. Why, sir, what and provide by way of loan for the temporary | turer: I deny, if we look only to his interest, that does that amendment propose? The duties are deficiency, under the just expectation that when we ought to resort to a protective system again, to be assessed on the market price or value, " to that period passes away, and commerce fills its and as proof of it, I plant myself on the experi include the foreign cost, all charges, duties, and usual channels, we shail have, out of the existing ence of the tariff of 1846. Show me any other profits, or so much thereof as may enter into and sources, enough for the just wants of the Govern- period of ten years in the history of this country become a part of such wholesale market price or

I say that that is the true plan for the in which not only all its great interests throve and value;" so that under this, the appraisers would statesman to pursue, and that is the plan which i prospered so rapidly, but in which the manufachave not only all the opportunities for mistake, the Secretary of the Treasury recommends. So iuring interest was developed with such rapidity there would exist not only all the temptations for i far from disapproving of that, I honor and com as it was then. I proved to you the other day, fraud that now exist when they have only to ascer mend him for it. What sort of system would from those statistics, which can neither err nor lie, tain the foreign value, but they would have in ad- i) that be, which would alter the tariff' so as to raise that the manufacturing exports increased nearly dition, the temptations which would arise out of revenue enough in such a period as this, if it could threefold in those ten years, more than they had the opportunities for deceit, and for mistake to be be done, for such an expenditure as seventy-four done at any other period of our financial history; given by ascertaining the charges, the duties, the or eighty million dollars a year?

and that is the true test of the prosperity of the freights, and the profits. Nor is this all, sir. An But gentlemen cannot pursue both lines of at manufacturing interest. I showed you the staappraiser at New Orleans and at San Francisco tack. If they say seventy-four or eighty million tistics of the manufactures of cotton and of wool was to appraise a yard of cloth by undertaking to dollars are extravagant estimates of expenditure, | in Massachusetts, the great manufacturing State ascertain what it would be worth at New York. surely they ought not to be willing to raise rev of the Union, and showed you with what unex. It would take a skillful appraiser at New York to enue enough to meet them; but if they are will. ) ampled rapidity they had prospered and thriven fix the true market value on it, if he had it in his ing to raise revenue enough to meet such an ex during that period. And I say that if such are possession, and could see it and feel it. How penditure, they ought not to say that seventy-four the results of that reduction of duty; if we find so would it be possible for appraisers at the distant or eighty million dollars are extravagant, for as much greater comparative prosperity when we ports, and especially at the small ports, to execute certain as you raise the revenue, we know from come to compare that period with those of high any such law? experience, it will be expended.

duties, I am justified in saying that it is neither I say, then, that those who vote for this, stand The sole question, then, for us to consider, was: a charity nor a benefit to the manufacturing lacommitted to all the frauds of the present system, is there likely to be enough, out of the existing borer to impose upon him again the protective and to more besides; and that they have, there sources of revenue, to meet the economical wants system. I plant myself for that upon those fig. fore, no right to object to voting for a loan bill, of the Government? I say, yes; enough to meet ures; let gentlemen explain away or meet them, for the simple fact that we did not impose upon it those wants if they do not exceed $60,000,000, or if they can. Until they do so, 'I feel that I am such a scheme as this; that we did noi propose to even $64,000,000 a year; and in order to prove it laboring not only for the good of all the other add upon it such a scheme as this.

as nearly as could be done, (for any calculation great interests which prospered in sympathy and In addition to that, sir, we were justified in re of this sort is an approximation,) I took the duc amity and friendship along with the manufacturfusing it on the point which I raised, and which tiable imports for ihe year closing in July, 1857, ing interest during these ten years; and I say that was treated as a mere technical objection, that the the last fiscal year; I 'ascertained, by a calcula- when I adopt a system of low duties, provided it amendment offered by the Senator from Rhode tion made at the Treasury Department, what rate furnishes revenue enough to the country, I am Island did raise the taxes upon the country most of duty the tariff of 1857 had actually given on benefiting not only the agriculturist, but the materially; that it did originate a revenue measure the dutiable imports; I imposed that rate of duty sailor and the man of commerce, but I am benehere. Why, sir, upon the twenty-four per cent. on the dutiable imports of 1857, and found that fiting also the manufacturer himself, and that is schedule it made the tax higher, far higher than would give us something like fifty-one million proved by the history not only of this, but of it was under the tariff of 1846; and the thirty per dollars. I referred, then, to the experience of the other countries; and accordingly these great truths cent, schedule it raised to over forty per cent.; and tariff of 1846, and found that the imports and ex which lie at the bottom of all great commercial yet when I referred to the provision of the Consti ports, and revenue, under that, increased some prosperity are making their way throughout the tution which we have all sworn to support, it was thing like ten per cent. per annum; and said that civilized world. Upon them, sir, I am ready to said I was raising a technical objection; and I un if we had a right to anticipate the same increase meet gentlemen at any time or anywhere. If that derstood my friend from Tennessee [Mr. Bell] after the revival of trade, the present tariff would be the issue which they make, regarding it, as I rather to administer rebuke to me as being some soon give ussixty million dollars or more. Would do, as one of progress, I am willing to stand or what beneath the gravity and importance of the not that be enough, with the public lands, to meet fall upon it. occasion in raising such an objection. Sir, it has all the just wants of the Government? If so, Mr. TOOMBS. My honorable friend from been said by an eminent man that the day would would it not be worse than useless, would it not Virginia has called my attention to what he sup: come when any one would be called to order who be a wrong and an extravagance to avail our poses to be a mistake in the argument which I quoted the Constitution of the United States in | selves of the present condition of things in order made on the day before yesterday; but I think he the Congress of the United States; but I never ex to force up the revenue to a higher standard, has committed one of the most singular and expected to see the day when a constitutional objec- which, in periods of prosperity, would fill the traordinary mistakes for a gentleman of his finantion raised upon the plain reading of the Consti- Treasury to overflowing? 'Upon that, I am will. cial knowledge I have ever heard in the Senate. tution itself would be treated as a mere technical ing to go before the country: Upon that issue, I | I will take the illustration he has given me. I and trifling objection.

am willing to meet those gentlemen who insist that held that if the imports of the country were less But I pass over that, I put it out of the way, we are bound, rather than ask for a loan to meet than its exports, necessarily allowing for the elefor we took the vote, not on the point of order, this temporary deficiency, to impose a permanent ments I took into the account, we were doing a but on the merits of the amendment. I come, addition on the taxation of the country.

losing trade, or the goods were undervalued; however, to the other point, which gentlemen But there was another argument which they that one result or the other absolutely followed. raised, that they would not vole loans unless we addressed to us, which would have been an argu- | I then showed from the state of the exchanges did something to increase the revenue; that it was ment addressed to our feeling if it had been true; during the last three years, that our trade was not manifest the revenue was below what was now but, in my opinion, it was as unfounded as the a losing one, that we had sold the commodities estimated to be expended—that is, seventy-four others; and that was the appeal ad misericordiam. exported for more than we gave for them because or eighty. million dollars a year, which they That was the appeal to do something for the labor there was no balance against us. He gave the maintained and asserted was an extravagant es of the country on the idea that we ought to raise illustration of my exporting cotton for the pur, timate. Now, sir, I ask if it would have been the tariff in order to protect the operatives who pose of importing iron. I will take that, and I possible, on our imports, to have laid any tariff, were suffering. I say, in answer to that, that I think I can satisfy my friend in an instant that he any system of duties, which could have been ex do not think it fair to tax all other laborers in is utterly wrong. If a merchant in New Orleans ecuted, that would have raised money enough order to promote and to support another class. I buys a thousand bales of cotton for $50,000, and to have met an estimate of seventy-four or sev do not think it fair to impose a system of taxation sends them to Liverpool, if he sells them for enty-six million dollars this year? Could we have ll which, like the protective system, makes the con- il $40,000, of course, he has lost $10,000, besides

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