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35TH CONG....1 st Sess.

Soldiers of 1812–Mr. Maynard.

Ho. Of Reps.

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American Congress a broad and comprehensive under the provisions of this act, from and after the 1st day and fireside, and the loved ones there, with even policy worthy of a great Republic, and of an en of July, 1858, or from and after the decease of bier husband, chance that he shall see them no more, and rallylightened age. A great battle is to be fought, and (in case he shall have died after the 1st day of July, 1858,) for and during hier natural life.

ing in cheerful obedience to the call of his couna great victory to be won. There will be no rush

Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That the moneys try; since such are its happy cffects, extend its of adverse battalions, nor the booming of artil granted by this act shall be paid to the several beneficiaries beneficent provisions; remember my gallant comlery; nor will there be scen the " pomp and cir- thereof, or to his, her, or their legal attorney, duly author

patriots and cotemporaries, the men who serv ized agent or anórney, agents or attorneys, under the direc. cumstance" of war. The victory will be noise

tion of the Secretary of the Interior, at such times and their country, with Lawrence, with Perry, with fle Grin less and sublime. The rapid increase of popu places as he may direct; and that the said moneys herein Harrison, and with Jackson.” Such, I am sure, Er-Tygranlation, the superior mobiliiy of the free race, che granted shall not be in any way transferable, or liable to at would be his language, could he now speak to us.

emigration of the Old World, and the emigra cachment, levy, or seizure, by any legal process whatever; Such is a fair deduction from the words he has tion of the New World, the steam-engine, and

nor shall the same be paid to any agent or agents, attorney
or attorneys, who may have any interest or claim in or to

left on record, interpreted by the glossary of subthat power which flashes thought from mind to

the said or any part thereof, but the same shall go unin sequent events. mind, are considerations that the slave power must cumbered into the possession of him, her, or them, wilo, by One of the very few instructions (if, indeed, it encounter on this continent. Who will cherish the provisions of this act, are entitled thereto: Providel, That no one shall receive the benefits of this act until he

be not the only one,) with which my constituents a doubt as to the result? What reflecting mind

shall produce satisfactory evidence to the Secretary of the have thought proper to “trammel the conscience" cannot discern in the future a complete vindica Interior that he or she is entitled to the same according to of their Representative, relates to this subject of tion of those great principles which impelled the the provisions of this act, under such rules and regulations pensions. After my election I can say safely that heroes of the Revolution, and the founders of the Government? The intelligence of the age is on to time, to prescribe for the production of testimony.

hundreds came to me, and addressing, me very

often in kind familiarity by my Christian name, that the side of freedom; and so is the moral power Mr. Chairman, this amendment contains the said: “Whatever else you do, try and do some

substance of a bill introduced by me at an early thing for the old soldier.” They are a numerous

period of the session, in the House, and referred and highly deserving, though, I am sorry to say, SOLDIERS OF 1812. to the Committee on Invalid Pensions, who have

in general, a needy class of my constituents. The thought proper to report the bill now before this men who volunteer to do battle for their country SPEECH OF HON. H. MAYNARD, | committee; and it embodies my own views of the are not apt to be of the thrifty, penny-wise class.

policy we ought to adopt towards the men who The rollicking, free-and-easy habits of camp and OF TENNESSEE,

have served the country in her wars, and towards forecastle life are not the habits by which estates IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES,

the widows of those of them who have died. It are accumulated. Hence, where you find an old

seeks to introduce no new system, but merely to May 24, 1858.

soldier or an old sailor, you almost always find a extend the present system-fast becoming obso- l poor man. But poverty is not their only nur their The House being in the Committee of the Whole on the lete by the death of all of those for whose benefit it greatest misfortune. Disease, broken constitustate of the Union

was adopted-so as to embrace within its benefi- ||tions, premature decay, mutilated and dismemMr. MAYNARD said:

cent operation, not only those who fought in the bered bodies, are a portion of their ordinary lot. Mr. CHAIRMAN: There is a bill before the com second-and may it prove the last-encounter with I am reminded, however, that the law already promittee in which those whom I have the honor to Great Britain, but also the soldiers of Wayne, vides for the invalid soldier. I know the letter represent on this floor feel a much deeper interest

“old mad Anthony," the men who fought with of the law does; its practical administration, I am for than they do either in the Kansas or Minnesota

Eaton and Stephen Decatur in the wars with the

sorry to say, does not. All of us who have had bill

; and to that bill I propose to address myself for Barbary Powers, and those who served with Jack- business with the Pension Office-and most of us a short time. I refer to the bill providing pensions son in his celebrated Florida campaign; thus com have, at some time or other-know very well to the soldiers of the war of 1812. As the posi- ling down to a period within just forty years from that its affairs have been conducted upon the printion of that bill is such in the committee that it the present tinie.

ciple of granting nothing that could be avoided. may be difficult for me to obtain the floor when

No system of governmental policy is better es Whenever a doubt as to a matter of fact was left the bill shall again be considered, to present to the tablished with the people. It appeals to their sym- | by the proof, the practice is to give the Governcommittee the views I entertain upon the subjec!, pathies as being generous; it commends itself to ment the benefit of the doubt, and refuse, or, in I have sought this occasion, and adopted this their patriotism as being just; it commands their the more delicate phraseology of the office, amendment to the bill which is there pending, of solemn, deliberate judgment, us politic and wise. pend” the application; and in matters of legal con

It is too late in the day to reason about it, as about struction, to adopt that which bears hardest upon which amendment I gave notice on a former day.

a new and untried measure, whose operation and the pensioner. The principle which obtains in That amendment, which is in the nature of a

effect rest merely on conjecture; it is too late in other cases, in determining other issues between in substitute, is as follows:

the day for statesmen to repeat objections made the Government and the citizen, in this is reversed. Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives forty years ago by Nathaniel Macon, who, during This course may be necessary for the prevention of the United Staics of America in Congress assembled, That

his public life, if I am not mistaken in his record, of frauds, the reason generally assigned for it, each of the surviving officers, non-commissioned officers, musicians, and privates, who may have been in the military rarely voted a dollar to pay, and of course not to though I do not believe it. Fraudulent claimants service of the United States, either in the regular Army, i pension, the soldier; it is too late in the day to will prepare their cases in view of departmental State troops, volunteers, or militia, in the conduct and pros

deal in arguments based upon English regal pen-| rules, so as exactly to “fill the bill.". Honest ecution of any war in which the Government of the United States may have been engaged prior to the 1st day of July, i sions, and Roman popular largesses. These ar claimants will present such proofs, and only such, in the year 1818, for a period of six nionths, or longer, or guments and objections have already been made, as they are able fairly to make, oftentimes not who may have been engaged in active battle with an enemy and repeated again and again, and have as often coming up to the requirements of official regulain behalf of the United States prior to that date, or who may

been met and refuted. The question is now no tions. The former is allowed; the latter “sushave been wounded while in the actual service of the United States prior to that date, though not in battle; and each

longer an open one. Time, the great progenitrix pended.” It is due to the present officials to add of the officers, non-commissioned officers, and marines, who of iruth, has settled it, and settled it forever. ihat these remarks are not made with a special may have been in the paval service of the United States in The pension system is established as a part of reference to them, but rather to the general official the conduct and prosecution of any war in which the Goy. ernment of the United States may have been engaged for a

our military policy, and must be accepted as such. usuge long since established. like period, or who may bave been engaged in aclive battle

Indeed, during all the present discussion, I have Were it at all important to illustrate the inadewith an enemy in behalf of the United States; or who may not heard it seriously assailed. Even the gentle- i quacy of the present invalid pension laws to achave been wounded while in the actual service of the Uni man from Alabama, (Mr. Curry,s whose ungen- complish the purpose of their enactment, I could ted States (though not in battle) prior to the same date, shall be authorized to receive, payable semi-annually, out of any

erous logic carried him quite as far as he who has easily do so by the citation of many cases, within money in the Treasury not otherwise appropriated, an

gone furthest against this measure, did not, I be my personal knowledge, of men who were cripamount equal to his full pay in said service according to his lieve, venture to suggest that a single name now pled, or otherwise disabled in the service, as I have rank, but not lo exceed in any case the pay of a captain of on the pension roll should be stricken from it. good reason to believe; yet all those who once had infantry; such pay to commence from and after the 1st day of July, 1858, to continue during his natural life; and

The only question for us to consider, is whether a personal knowledge of the fact are either dead, each of the said officers, non-commissioned officers, musi

we will, by formal legislation, uphold the system, or in their dotage, or have removed so far away cians, and privates, in the military service, and each of the and extend it so as to include within its operation | that it is practically impossible to procure their said officers, non-cominissioned officers, and marines, in the a class of soldiers every way as meritorious as testimony. Hence they have never thought it naval service, who may have served as aforesaid, prior to the date aforesaid, for any period less than six nionths, shall

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those who now partake of its benefits. The time worth while to apply for a pension; or if they did, be authorized to receive in like manner an amount equal to has now come, when, according to the incorrupt- their applications remain "suspended” in the half pay, according to his rank in said service, to commence ible Macon," as much may be said in favor of the office. A general pension law is the only measure from and after the 1st day of July, 1858, and to continue during his natural life: Provided, That the benefits of this

army engaged in the second war of independ- of relief for this class of persons. Moreover, there act shall in nowise extend to any one still in the military or

ence,”as forty years ago was said about the first. are many disabled old soldiers, whose disability naval service and pay of the United States: And provided, Though he then stood opposed to the adoption of is the result, not of wounds, nor of any specific That the benefits of this act shall not extend to any one re the pension system, I have no doubt, were he now instance of suffering; but of exposure, haruship, ceiving a pension from the United States by virtue of any law now in foree, unless such person shall relinquish all

alive to speak, he would say, "since you have and privation; withstood, indeed, for many years, claim to any other pension except such as is granted by this

established the system, and since I see, contrary by the vigor of an originally good constitution,

to my expectations, that in its operation it is most and until the infirmity of age disclosed the lurking Sec. 2. And be it further enacted, That if any such offi excellent and benign, not only in cheering and sus mischief. Of course these men could derive no cer, non-commissioned officer, or private, or musician, in the military service of the United Siates, as aforesaid, or any

taining the veteran soldier now in the twilight of his | benefit from the invalid pension laws;. nor from officer, non-commissioned officer, or inarine, in the naval day, and her, the noble spirit, who fought the bat-j any other except a general pension law, making service of the United States, as aforesaid, may have died, tle of life by his side, but also in inspiring with pa- | their title to a pension depend upon the fact of or shall hereafter die, leaving a widow surviving him, such widow shall be authorized to receive from the Treas

triotic confidence the youthful soldier, not dragged their service. This class of old soldiers will be ury, in like manner, the same amount of money that her

into the ranks by a press-gang, not the victim found to be very numerous. War, at best, is, I husband, if living, would have been authorized to receive of an unrelenting conscription, but leaving field || take it, a very hard business. It makes sad havoc



Total expenditures, inclusie


64.130 73
83,744 16


13,134,530 57 13,229,533 33 24.139.9 11


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35th Cong....1st Sess. The Triumphs of the Administration-Mr. Purviance.

Ho. of Reps. with the soldiers. The gentleman from Alabama, and I know that great suffering was endured in the Creek period since 1820 has so little been paid annually [Mr. Curry,] in his remarks the other day, left

nation, where I serred; and inany of the survivors, lite largest for pensions as now; while the general expendius to infer that the soldiers of the war of 1812 had

portion, are very poor, and need this boon to render their
declining ycars comfortable."

tures are nearly five times what they then were: a rather comfortable time of it than otherwise. He says: After all, the great argument urged against this Erpendilures of the Gorernment during the years 1730, 1900,

1810, 1820, 1830, 1840, 1850, and 1857. “ It was a regular war between two independent nations, bill is the money argument. This is not the first

Rerolutionary conducted, for the most part, according to the recognized time in the history of this Government that this

and other perrules of modern warfare. The soldier, when discharged argument has been brought to bear upon the penfrom service, or before, received his pay in good money, and

of public dett. sioner. During the Presidency of Mr. Van Bu

$175,813 88 one hundred and sixty acres of land besides."

$1,919.9 32

7,40,3797 My friend certainly takes a very easy view of ren, when his exhausted exchequer suggested the


.3,208,376 31 the subject, though I'am afraid it will not be uni- propriety of economy, it occurred to him, in connection with his celebrated appeal " to the sober

1,363,297 31 versally considered a very just one. To talk of second thought” of the people, to recommend a

2,603,562 17 eight dollars a month as “ pay," in the sense of curtailment of the list of pensioners, and the ex

.1,866,696 02 37,165.999 09 adequate compensation-"à fair day's wages for tinguishment of a portion of the lights upon our

..1,309,115 81 65,032,558 76 a fair day's work”-to the man who labors in“ the

How this recommendation was met is trade of war," as a simple business transaction,

yet in the recollection of most of us, and might THE TRIUMPHS OF THE ADMINISTRATION. is, I suspect, a waste of words. And as to the

serve as a profitable lesson to those who, with lands, located at that early day in Mlinois and

an annual disbursement of $65,000,000, would SPEECH OF HON. S. A. PURVIANCE, Arkansas, it is a matter of history that in numberless cases they did not yield the soldier as much

commence the great work of “economy, retrenchas Esau got for his birthright. But, sir, I have dier, taking no heed lest the events of 1840 should ment, and reform," at the expense of the old sol

OF PENNSYLVANIA, never looked upon the condition of the soldiers of

IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, 1812 as quite as enviable as it appears to the eye colleague (Mr. Savage) be correct, as to the enrepeat themselves in 1860. If the statement of my

May 25, 1858. of the gentleman from Alabama. I have, unfór

tire amount paid to the soldiers in the war of 1812, The House being in the Committee of the Whole on the tunately, perhaps, seen too much of those old

and also the statement of my correspondent, as to state of the Union-men to indulge in such views of their military life. Like the gentleman from Ohio, (Mr. Campbell,) figures given us by the gentleman from Alabama, the proportion of those now surviving, then the

Mr. PURVIANCE said: I was in arms " in that war, and from my youth must be entirely too large. But large as they are,

MR. CHAIRMAN: In the discussion of the apup I have seen a good deal of the soldiers who the country can now better afford to meet them,

propriation bill, my colleague from the Berks diswere engaged in it. My father was one of them. than in 1818 it could raise the comparatively small

irici (Mr, J. GLANCY JONES) made an allusion 10 Even now, as in my earlier years, I delight to sum then accorded to the soldiers of the Revolu

the President's dinners, which was as unwarranted meet, as I often do, with one of those aged men, tion.

as it was ungentlemanly and indiscreet. If James and listen to his " ofi-told tale," and see him

I shall make no invidious allusions to other ex

Buchanan, either through parsimony or partisan di “ Weep o'er his wounds, or, tales of sorrows done, Shouider his crutch and show how fields were won;" penditures of the Government to show where the

feeling, chooses to depari from the established in knife of retrenchment might be more properly ap

custom, and set at defiance the courtesies and lipata sighing, as he concludes,“ but things were not plied. We have only to look around us to see

amenities which have hitherto, from Washington then like they are now. Time would fail me to recount the tenth of the the rank injustice, of deferring the well-founded reflected from every side the absurdity, not to say

down to Pierce, inclusive, been observed by the

occupants of the White House, my colleague personal narratives that come thronging upon my memory in this connection, each, in itself, a little heart sick because it will take a portion, and perhopes of the old soldier, and thus making his aged

should be the last man to proclaim the President's

shame. My colleague may feast and fatten at the history, homely in its details, but refuting the idea haps a large portion, of the moneys which have

President's crib until the cravings of a voracious of much comfort, least of all luxury. Two or three

appetite have been appeased and quieted, but he ustif of late years been so lavishly expended, I will instances I will refer to, even at the risk of being not undertake to inform the committee how. And

must not, when gorged with presidential viands, tedious, and violating the proprieties of the place I admonish gentlemen to pause before they go to

assail the motives of members acting under the Bandi and the time. Said one, “after we had marched the country, either individually or as exponents || desire a reduction of the expenses of this Admin

obligations of an oath, merely because they may through the Indian country for four days without

of the doctrines of their party, with any such exfood, and were almost famished, one of our detachment killed a rattlesnake. We stewed it up

Let the sum be what it may, we begin istration, now becoming so enormous as to beget with the maximum. The number of recipients

a very general want of confidence in the adminisin a camp-kettle, and then divided out the meat will every year be diminished. They are now old

trative talents of those who have it under their and the broth.” Another said that, on a march,

sore, 1 men; most of them have passed the limit of threethey found a cow lying sick; or, in local phrase, score years and ten. Their lamps are fast burn- presidential dinners, but to notice more in catenare

No " on the lift.” They killed her, and appeased ing out. What we do, to be of any avail, we

a most unfortunate flourish made by my colleague their hunger upon the diseased carcase. Another must do speedily.

in connection with the allusion to which I have said that he and his companions killed and sub I am in favor of amending the present bill, and


viedt sisted as they best could upon crows and other respectfully submit my amendment to the consid

He expressed the belief that we were chagrined unclean hirds. And another, that, one day, one of eration of the commitiee. Should they, however, I is to this that I desire to turn the attention of the

at the triumphs of this Administration, and it his company shot an Indian brave, and they pre

109 of not see proper to adopt it, I shall not make that pared his body for food. One mouthful sufficed a pretext to oppose the bill in its present shape.

House and the country. The triumphs of this is tho v him; for, hungry as he was, he sickened at the Such a course would be as unwise and as un

Administration !

Was my colleague in earnest, thought of feeding on human flesh. Eight dollars statesmanlike as to predicate objections against lative folly and imbecility of his own and favorite

or was he disposed to join in ridiculing the supera month even in "good money," and one hun

the whole system upon some trifling imperfections dred'and sixty acres of Illinois or Arkansas lands,

Administration ? in the present bill. Not what I would, but what was small compensation for privations like these.

I can. Yet these were of the men who fought at the

The first great triumph of Mr. Buchanan has I have no wish, at this late period of the ses

been over a gold and silver currency, which he Horseshoe, Emuckfau, and Talladega; who sustained these privations in the very region now

sion, to protract debate, still less to introduce professed to favor, but which he has completely topics not strictly germane to the matter in hand.

broken down, and inaugurated in its place a porepresented with such signal ability by the gentle- A single thoughi more, and I shall have done. It per currency, in the shape of Treasury notes, to man from Alabama; the bones of whose compan- | refers to the wisdom, the profound policy, of the

the amount of $20,000,000, now floating through ions in arms, perchance, may even now fertilize i pension system, in a civil no less than in a mili

the country, bought and sold as any other marhis own plantation. Would it be strange if they tary point of view. Every pensioner, with his

ketable commodity, and subject to fluctuation

, should complain that he has turned against them children and children's children, becomes, in the

and subject also to all the objections to which pa his high mental endowments ? From the many letters that, during this session, Government. The justice and gratitude of their very nature of things, a steadfast friend of the per currency is generally liable. This, then, is

the first great iriumph of the Administration

. I have received in reference to this subject, I beg country, for honorable service in her cause, en

Now for the second. With a Delegate sitting in permission, in this connection, to read an extract dear them to her in all time to come; and since

the House from Utah, with whom we have not from a single one, written by a constituent, a gen each succeeding year adds so largely to our pop

even heard that the President ever had a confertleman who was himself in the service, and upon whose statements we may place implicit reliance : sympathy, and no interest, regarding the early political favorites, to buy up broken-down bries

ence, a war is undertaken against the Mormons, ulation, persons who have little knowledge, less

at an expense of millions; contracts given out to « ( served some twenty months, or more, as an officer in struggles and perils of our fathers, it is eminently and mules; provisions al most exorbitant priede the thirty-ninth regiment, commanded by Colonci Jolin

unwise for the Government to neglect and turn Williams. There were two detachments let Knoxville, in the fall of 1814, two companies of the thirty- ninth and three coldly away from them whom the memory of the

out of which magnificent fortunes have been made of the twenty-fourth regiment, under the cominand of Major

in a few weeks; ihe Army increased, and a pariiFrancis W. Armstrong. Of the officers belonging to the de neline to its support; that, too, at a time when neckually ene spoils of office, and in the modelos taciuneni, numbering about thinly, only three survive. sectional strife and madness are so rampant, when those belonging to the two companies of the thirty-ninth, I am the only survíror. I do not think that inore than one

the North has so many friends, when the South tenth survive of those who entered the service.

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ilized world, by exhibiting to public gaze the #1

brations and vacillations of av Executive whose

missioners of peace are sent, who, if report be has so many friends, and the Union has so few. been conversing with several who were in the service, and

true, have settled this mighty affair without ihe they are of the opinion that not more than about ont tenth are


interposition of an armed force. alive. The privatey being more exposed than the officers,

to this disgrace ourselves in the eyes of the vikpower privates survive ; and my opinion is, that it would be

The following table will show how the amounts right to place them on the same footing with those who

paid for pensions al different periods compare with served in the revolutionary war. The war of 1812, with Great Britain, was called the second war of independence, lihe general expenses of the Governmeni. At no

mind to-day is for war, w-morrow for peace, and

I have

What a farce,

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the next day for both. Thus has ended this sec- || his traps, and take them to some other locality ond triumph of the Administration, costing the where he would find greater equality in the prinpeople many millions of dollars, now conceded to ciples of taxation. What is right for the President SPEECH OF HON. M. A. OTERO, have been uselessly thrown away.

ought to be right for the people of Kansas, and The third great triumph of the Administration | yet the President was bent upon establishing a

OF NEW MEXICO, deserves more than a passing notice. The public different rule for this unfortunate people from that IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, is familiar with the fact that a constitution was which he would be willing to apply to himself.

May 25, 1858. framed at Lecompton in open defiance of the will Another illustration which shows the unfair of the people of Kansas. This constitution the character of the submission. Supposing the vol

The House being in the Committee of the Whole on the President submitted to Congress, accompanied ters of Kansas to consist of fifteen thousand, one

state of the Unionby a most extraordinary message, urging the ad third of whom are in favor of the constitution, Mr. OTERO said: mission by reasons and arguments unworthy the land two thirds against it. One third vote-two Mr. Chairman: I desire to call the attention of source from whence they came, and exhibiting a thousand six hundred—for the constitution with the committee, for a brief space of time, to some partisan character, which were subsequently at slavery, and two thousand four hundred for the remarks which I propose to submit upon the subtempted to be enforced by the use and abuse of constitution without slavery; what is the re ject of the Pacific railroad. In entering upon the the patronage intrusted to him as the executive sult? Slavery is fixed upon the people by two discussion of this topic, important and compreofficer of the Government, which deserved, as it | thousand six hundred votes, while there are hensive as it is, I need hardly say that I will enhas received, the execrations of honest men of all twelve thousand four hundred against it; and yet deavor to divest myself of any personal feeling, parties, resulting in a total disruption of the Dem- this is the popular sovereignty which constitutes, interest, or prejudice, such as I might be supposed ocratic party, which must inevitably bring into in the opinion of my colleague, one of the tri- naturally to have in the matter; for no other questhe Thirty-Sixth Congress a majority opposed to umphs of the Administration.

tion involves, equally with this, the hopes and calthe repetition of outrages which ihe worst of mon This infamous burlesque upon popular rights, culations and future welfare of the Territory I archs would scarcely dare to perpetrate with im- sustained and urged by the President, was pressed have the honor to represent. punity. Upon Congress, and Congress alone, the for five long months upon Congress, and tri I design, sir, to bring forward only those reapower is conferred to admit new States. The umphed. How? In breaking it down, by a vote sons in behalf of the greatenterprise contemplated, President has no right to interfere; and sworn as of one hundred and twenty against it, to one hun. and in support of the particular line of construche is to support the Constitution, which instru- || dred and twelve for it.


tion of an iron road to the Pacific coast, which, ment gives to Congress alone the power of admis The Administration then presented another and in my humble judgment, I think ought to control sion, the President violates his oath of office when still greater monstrosity in what is known as the the action of Congress, and govern national opinhe dares to invade our exclusive right in this par- || English dodge, intended for different interpreta- ions, in prosecuting so vasta work to final achieveticular. For such invasion, followed by the use tions-one for the North and the other for the and abuse of patronage, a President ought to be South. In the North, it is intended to say that I will say, sir, for I intend to speak frankly, impeached; and nothing, in such a case, but the the constitution is submitted; whilst in the South, that apart from a consideration of this subject in tyranny of party could save him. the reverse is to be the case.

its bearings on the general prosperity of our comA President of my own choice who would dare What is this singular production, this political mon country, I am more especially interested in to press the admission of a State by the control nondescript, about which even those who gave those immediate benefits and advantages that in ling power of his patronage, so far as I am con paternity materially differ? It is a bribe and a the completion of this great proposed highway cerned, should be treated in this way as readily threat to the people of Kansas—and is this: if you are to accrue to my own people and the Territory as one of opposite political faith; and an exper come in as a slave State now, you shall do so of New Mexico. iment of the kind would be most likely to prevent without objection to your population, and you My constituents, sir, send me here to represent a recurrence of the evil in the future.

shall have salt springs, lands for schools and in their direct interests; and these will ever be my Unjustifiable as it was for the President to in ternal improvement purposes; but, if you refuse first thought; their good my highest object. To terfere, aside from this, his reasons are as spe to take slavery, you shall not be admitted as a raise the condition of New Mexico to that which cious and futile as might have been expected from free State until you have more than double your you, representing old and prosperous communione who has attained no distinction since his ele present population.

ties, enjoy; to secure them commercial advantages vation to the Presidency, than that of a violent Thus, the Democratic party has inaugurated and facilities for trade; and to place its inhabitpartisan and bitter politician. One of his reasons the new doctrine that the admission of a slave ants, in these respects, on an equal footing with was, that the people of Kansas had had a fair State is to receive double the favor that is to be those of any of the States and Territories of our chance to vote upon their constitution, and that, | extended to a free State. Heretofore, that party broad Confederacy; is my most ambitious aim, therefore, they should not be permitted to vote claimed that it was not sectional; but how does it as I hope always to prove it my constant care. again. Now, how was this? The vote was "For now stand before the American people? It stands I felicitate myself, sir, that the discussion of the constitution with slavery,” “ For the con upon the record the avowed friend of slavery, this subject of a Pacific railroad gives me an opstitution without slavery." All who voted were having enacted a law which gives a premium io portunity to say something with regard to the recompelled to vote for the constitution-were com slavery and inflicts a punishment upon freedom. sources of the Territory of New Mexico; and pelled to vote that John Calhoun should be the The passage of this most iniquitous law was her- | though in a measure a diversion from the main regent, and have a controlling power over the

ask returns of elections, so as to declare who were were fired, drums and fifes were called into requi- || ihe attention of the House to such facts as

proand who were not elected to fill the offices; but, sition, the President serenaded and called pose to state. I desire, sir, briefly to consider in worse than all, those who voted were compelled | respond to a rejoicing over the passage of a law ihis connection the isolated condition and imto vote in favor of the continuance of slavery with which, like the assassin, took Kansas by the mense material wealth of New Mexico, at present in the Territory till 1864, and for a schedule and throat, demanding her consent, and threatening, comparatively abandoned and uncared for. Gensaving clause which prevented any interference | if she refused, to punish her for her obstinacy, by tlemen may ihen know and properly appreciate with slavery as it then existed. T'he unfairness keeping her out of the Union until she should the importance of constructing a national road of this mode of submission is the more apparent have at least double her present population. through that Territory. when you suppose a constitution filled with ob The Crittenden amendment gave the people of And now, sir, what of the resources of New jectionable features, all of which the voter would Kansas a right to vote for or against the Lecomp- | Mexico? In the acquisition of that Territory was be compelled to swallow if he voted at all. A ton constitution; and in the event of voting it acquired an area of two hundred and fifty thousand constitution containing a clause declaring that | down, then to elect delegates to a convention to square miles, a large amount of which is of the the Legislature should never incorporate a bank, frame a constitution to be voted on by the people. finest agricultural soil; large mineral districts have & manufacturing company, or create a system of This reasonable proposition was voted down by been already discovered and known to contain common schools, or internal improvements; with the Democratic party, the pledged friends of pop much of the precious metals; great deposits of iron, a clause of submission, such as that of Lecomp- ular sovereignty, and voted for by those who are lead, and copper ore are found, and an incalculaton, on slavery, would necessarily drive from the opposed to the Administration; and now my col ble abundance of coal; with a population of more polls every voter who desired to consider these league adds this to the list of triumphs of the than sixty thousand. Your scientific surveyors as favorite topics of legislation. If he voted for Administration.

in that country, since its acquisition by this Govthe constitution without slavery, he was, in or Although our Treasury is bankrupt, and re ernment, as shown by their reports, estimate the der to be entitled to this privilege, compelled to peated efforts have been made to restore the tariff amount of goods, wares, and merchandise, taken vote against schools, banks, manufacturing com one by myself, another by my colleague from the into that country from the States, at five or six panies, and internal improvements,

Westmoreland district, (Mr. Covode,) and an million dollars, leaving in your Treasury at least But I can suppose a case in which I can readily other by my colleague from the Philadelphia dis one and a half million dollars of annual revenue. invoke the opposition of our bachelor Presidenttrict, [Mr. Morris)--all have been trampled upon A million of stock sheer, producing, at a minimum himself.

by the Democratic party, the chairman of the calculation, three million pounds of wool, were A constitution with a clause conferring upon Committee of Ways and Means himself among herded and owned in the Territory when you the Legislature the power to tax the income of a the number, and the million or more of miners first became its possessors; and they should have bachelor, to the extent of one fifth, more or less, and laborers in Pennsylvania, dependent upon the been, and with proper governmental protection with a clause of submission like that of the Le- reinstatement of the tariil, left in hopeless despair; // would have been, rapidly increasing and swelling compton constitution, would greatly puzzle our and my colleague, after fcasting at a presidential in numbers and value. And a due proportion of President to appreciate its fairness. If he voted dinner, is found in his seal-not to inaugurate a all other kinds of animal stock were raised in and either for or against slavery, he would still be tariik policy to relieve his poor dependent constit distributed through the country. compelled to vote the power to tax unjustly his uents, but to exult over the triumphs, as he calls In point of mineral wealth, New Mexico, in estate. Before he would submit to this, I will them, of this heartless and reckless Administra my opinion, is interior to no State or Territory in tell you what he would do. He would gather up

the Union. The first conquerors and explorers

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Il tion.

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of Mexico, the Spaniards, were early attracted to J. Abert, United States topographical engineer, to my mind but the utterance of uninformed intel. this region, not only because of its excellent cli- (vide Sen. Doc. firsi session Thirtieth Congress, ligence, not to say, of ignorance. No country, I mate, uequal for invariableness and salubrity, p. 36,) where he speaks of the New Placer, or undertake to say, has better and richer soil than and its feriile soil, but mainly on account of its

Rial del Tuerto,
Ile says;

New Mexico. We raise all the products-ay, reputed and subsequently discovered mineral * The value of these mines cannot very well be estimated

every one of them, and these, too, in great abundwealth. After their successful establishment in now, is there have been many improvements in the methods || ance-that are produced in and common to the the country, New Mexico was among the first

of workin, gold, which, when adapted to these ines, may southern and middle States. Isolated as New

produce a great increase in the annual yield. Mr. Camp provinces subdued, and permanently settled by

Mexico is, and entirely self-dependent, she has bell tells me that he got from his wells one piece worth ihem; and on account of the resemblance it bore 870), and, at another inne, a piece worth $900.”

always found in her own varied resources sufito Mexico proper, in the particular character of Dr. Wislisenus thus refers to the unfortunate

cieni means for support. True it is that we irri. its native inhabitants, and more especially in its neglect of this particular branch of industry at the

gate, by artificial canals, (acequias,) our soil, in unmistakable indications of mineral wealth, it was present day in New Mexico. He says:

order to raise our crops. This process has ever called New Mexico.

been resorted to by the Spaniards and Mexicans, " A great many deserted mining places in New Mexico Sir, I desire to speak, not only from my own

and it is a time-honored custom, common among prove that mining was pursued with greater zeat in the old personal knowledge of tiris Terriiory, but also to Spanislı times than at present, wliich may be accounted for them. We do not place enure dependence in Qyrefer to such authoritative documents as I think in various ways-as the present want of capital, want of ing and uncertain, clouds for the fertilization of

kyowledge in inining, but specially the unsettled state of the you will willingly accept as evidence of the truth

our land. It is upon ever-running and copious country, and the avarice of its arbitrary rulers, [its former and correctness of what I affirm. Dr. A. Wis rulers, of course.] The mountainous parts of New Mexico streams, that spring clear and pure from the lisenus, in an interesting memoir of a tour in are very rich in gold, copper, iron, and silver. Gold seeins

bosom of the eternal mountains, that we put our northern Mexico, in 1846–7, which was published

to be found 10 a large extent in all the mountains near Santa , faith. With such eternal elements of dependence ha: by the order of the Senale, speaking of the early Fé; also, south of it for a distance of about one hundred

wc can well insure our crops. But, sir, i em. miles, as far as Gran Quiviri; and north for about one hun. history of New Mexico, says:

dred and twenty miles, up to the Sangre de Cristo. Througli- ! phatically contradict the assertion that we can “ The Spaniards, it seems, received the first information

out this whole region, gold dust has been abundantly found produce nothing without irrigation. I afirm this bhai about it in 1581, from a party of adventurers under Captam

by the poorer classes of Mexicans, who occupy themselves io be but an ancient custom of the people Francisco de Leyra Bouillo, who, finding the aboriginal inwith the washing orthis metal out of the mountain streams."

habit common, not only in New Mexico, but pe site, si habitants, and the mineral wealth of the country, to be The principal points at which copper is to be culiar to the entire Republic of which it was for: "I- * w similar to those of Mexico, called it New Mexico.''

found in great abundance, are at Las Tijeras, | merly a part. Irrigation was and is yet practiced From the great lack of true and proper inform Jemes, Abiquin, Guadalupe de Mora, and what in Texas and California. It is to a great extent te bar ation about New Mexico, the consequence of an are commonly called “the copper mines,'' known abolished in thosc States; and many farmers in indifference heretofore felt in relation to it, and by the Mexicans as “Santa Rita,” and others New Mexico do not now irrigate, and they pro. with a morive to awaken a lively and popular in in the different parts of the country. Coalis found duce from their lands equally as much as those terest in a region so attractive-and one which I in large beds, principally in the mountains near who adhere to the old practice. believe to see speedily opened up to an enterpris, Santa Fé, in the Raton mountains, and on the Rio No country in North America can, in my opining and industrious immigration-I trust, sir, I Puerco of the West, near the thirty-fifth parallel ion, produce betier grapes than New Mexico: and may be pardoned in veniuring to give a briefsketch of latitude, and is easily procurable.

1a seal



I venture to predict that the fertile banks of the


, ar of ihal Territory. It is now iwo hundred and I will not leave this branch of my subject with Rio Grande will one day rival those of the vineseventy-seven years since the Spaniards first re out referring to a traditionary and fabulous story clad Loire. In the abundance, variety, and qualized ceived any knowledge of the country; and two with regard to the golden products of the rich | icy of its grapes, and the perfection of its native hundred and sixty-three since its first coloniza mincs of the wealthy and important Gran Quivira. wine, New Mexico will bear comparison eren tion under Don Juan de Oñate, who memorialized In reierence to this tradition, Dr. Wislisenus states with any European State. There is, of course,

lieth 1 the Spanislı Viceroy for the settlement of the that

as yet no very extensive manufacture of wine, country; and the identical memorial is now of “At one time, when they (meaning the Spaniards) were thai made being chietly for home consumption, record in the territorial archives at Santa Fé. Mr. making extraordinary preparations for transporting the preGregg, in his “ Commerce of the Plains," thus cious metals, the Indians attacked them; whereupon the

Lieutenant A. W. Whipple (Pacific Railroad miners buried their treasures, worth lily millions, and left

Report, page 13) says:

Four refers to it:

the city wgether, but they were all killed except two, who “ The valley of the Rio Grande del Norte is well known. "In every part of this singular document there may be went to Mexico, giving the particulars of the atlair, and The bottom land that can be irrigated is very exterisise. (found) iraced the singular evidences of that sordid lusi for soliciting aid to return. But the distance being so great, and The soil and climate seem particularly adapted to the culgold which so disgraced all the Spanish conquests in Amer the Indians so numerous, nobody would advance, and the ture of grapes, which grow luxuriantly and to perfection. ica,” &c.

thing dropped. One of the two went to New Orleaus, then The wine produced is very finely flavored, and, with an

under the domnivion of Spain, raised five hundred men, and Showing clearly that they were fully satisfied of started by way of the saime, but was never heard of aner il or commerce, and a source or wealth to New Mexico, But

easy communication with a market, may become an article

38 th the fact of the existence there of that mineral wealth wards. Within the last few years several Americans and the resources of this Territory are not confined to the belt which was the captivating, if not the prime, object

Frenchmen bave visited the place; and although they have which may be flooded by the waters of the Del Norte. Nu

not found the treasure, they certity, at least, to the existof Spanish exploration in the New World. The

merous springs and streams checker this region with fertile ence of an aqueduct, about ten miles in length, to the still

spots among the mountains." aborigines were coerced into the service of their standing walls of several churches, the sculpture of the conquerors to work the mines, of which there were Spanish coat of arms, and to many spacious pits, supposed

The same scientific gentleman, speaking of the to be silver mines. It was no doubt a Spanish mining town, many discovered and opened. The most import.

character of the country and water of the Rio and it is not unlikely that it was destroyed in 1630, in the ant of them, which have been abandoned in con

Pecos, on the thirty-fifth parallel route, in congeneral successful insurrection of the Indians in New sequence of the civil embroilments and Indian dif Mexico against the Spaniards."

trast with the kind of country and character of the be ficulties in the country, are ihe Gran Quivira, Abó, A word more as to the general productiveness parallel route, (Pacific Railroad Report, volume

water of the same stream about the thirty-second Embudo, Cerrillos, Abiquin, and many others of our mincs, so as to show the amount that one which can be mentioned. of the Gran Quivira, | hand can get, or make daily, under the then sys

2, part four, page 4,) says: which lies about one hundred miles southward

K:$, to ad tem of working the mines. The scientific genile

“ The Pecos river here--i.e, on the thirty-fifth parallel from Santa Fé, Mr. Gregg, who visited those

route—is clear and rapid, and ils waters pure and sweet, men just quoted, speaking of a visit he made to

forming quite a contrast to those at the several crossing ruins, speaks thus:

the Placer mines, and particularly to a gold mine from San Antonio to El Paso, where they are always turbed, “. This appears to have been a considerable city, larger belonging to Mr. Tournier, a Frenchman resid brackish, and disagreeable. Indeed, hy some travelers eu and richer by far than the present capital of New Mexico | ing there, says:

its borders, and on some maps, this river, from these circumever has been."

stances, has acquired the name of Puerco, the Spanish ap: “ Mr. Tournier (in the rude manner in which he worked Mines of gold, silver, copper, iron, lead, and his mine) told me that he worked every day about two car

pellatiou for muddy waters. There its valley, for hundredi

of miles, is a blank and dreary waste, with scarcely a shrub coal, are found all over the country. In all the gas, (loads,) being seven hundred and fity pounds of the ore: to relieve the eye of the traveler ; here its fertile banks are metallic mines, the ore is said to be very abund

and that he draws, on an average, three quarters of an dotted with innumerable small plantations and towne, so

ounce (about twelve dollars' worth) of gold out of his ant and uncommonly pure. Since the reduction

characteristic of New Mexico." and occupancy of the country by the Spaniards,

In the northern part of the Territory wheat is the mining business has been carried on to a

I could detain the House upon this particular raised in great abundance-the soil yielding on an greater or less extent. The isolated condition of branch of my remarks much longer, but I have

average of forty bushels to the acre'; while in the the country las rendered it uninviting to immi. other points upon which I wish to invite its at

southern part, through the Rio Abajo, and down gration; and the miners there, satisfied with small tention, and will only ask whether there can be

to the Messilla valley, corn is produced and raised returns from their labor, will account satisfactorily ing the mineral wealth of New Mexico, who will any one, with a knowledge of these facts concern

in equal abundance. It is my opinion that in no for so many of these mines lying idle. At pres

State or Territory in the Union can be raised hiner ent the most productive and valuable diggings and say that that Territory is inferior to any State or

corn, and more to the acre, than in the Messille mines are the “ Placer mines," composing the Territory under this Government? All that we

valley-being a part of the same valley of the Rio Rial de Dolores and Rial del Tuerto--or the old the world, of the prodigal treasures that at this

ask is an outlet for an imposing display before Grande. and new Placeres. These are gold diggings which

As a pastoral and grazing country, I believe have produced very large amounts of that premoment lie hidden in her bosom.

New Mexico has already obtained considerable cious metal in years past, considering the rude

I shall next, sir

, call your attention to the ag- reputation abroad. I believe that in this respect manner in which they were worked. Dr. Wis. ricultural capacity of New Mexico. In regard to

her claims are generally conceded to be unsurlisenus says:

this particular branch of industry, there is indeed passed. The evidence of the justness and super

great misapprehension throughout the United Fiority of these claims is in the large amount of « The annual production of gold in the two Placeres seems

States. I have not unfrequently, I am sorry to to vary considerably. In soine years it was estimated from thirty to forty thousand dollars, in others from sixty to say, heard men venture the empty assertion that try. Br. Wislisenus, speaking of both Chibrid eighty thousand dollars, and, in later years, even as high as this really bounteous Territory is a desert waste, hua and New Mexico, with regard to their meris $250,000 per annum."

sterile and unproductive-a country which not Not only do Mr. Gregg and Doctor Wislisen- | even prowling wolves deign to inhabit. Such as

as grazing countries, says: us speak highly of them, but also Lieutenant J. // sertions, sir, so far as this topic is concerned, are

“ Both States are unsurpassed by any in the Union, Nils lions

of stock can be raised every year on the prairies of the


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35TH CONG.... 1st Sess.

Pacific Railroad-Mr. Otero.

Ho. of Reps.

high table-lands, and in the mountains. Cattle, horses,

the Albuquerque route, as being rigorous and in- ford abundance of the same material for fifty or sixty miles mules, and sheep, increase very fast; and if more attention hospitable-rendering it impracticable, it is said,

beyond. Sandstone, quick lime, and gypsum, are found were paid to the improvement of the stock, the wool of the sheep alone could be made the exchange for the greater part

to carry even an overland mail by that line—is thrown open to settlers, and an outlet secured for the prodof the present importation. But to accomplish this, (he adds,) wholly without support or foundation. I am ucts of the soil, this region would form the nucleus of new the Indians, who, chiefly in the last ten years, have crippled aware that the Postmaster General is of that erro- States, and the roving tribes of Indians that now occupy it all industry in stock-raising, will have first to be subdued.” neous opinion, and I am told that even the Pres

would give place to a flourishing population. It is believed

that in climate, as well as soil, this country far surpasses I have thus, sir, I trust, so far at least as the || ident has been induced to believe that Albuquer- | that of Kansas.", object I have in view demands, and in a general | que comprises an ice-bound region. Now, sir, it In the second part of the same volume, page way, satisfactorily demonstrated the great mate- was my fortune to be born within a few miles

48, rial resources of the Territory of New Mexico.

" One of the most important of the advantages claimed Much more I could, and, indeed, would desire to considerable period of my life. I never found it for this route is the pleasant and salubrious climate of the say on this topic, but I hurry to the practical ap- extremely cold there, or remember to have seen region through which it passes. There is no long series of plication of my remarks. I must add, however, snow fall to a depth or frequency to impede the

parched plains, rendering the summer heat intolerable, nor

do those dreaded winds termed northers' reach this latiihat in stating the facts just given, my object has usual travel and trade of that place. We never tude. The mountain ranges that are crossed are not blocked been to comply with numerous requests, made enjoyed sleighing there—and I do not know but up in winter by ice and snow sufficient to interrupt travel. by written communications from all parts of the whai gentlemen might, with equal propriety, as

From July to January, and for the whole year, this line

may be traversed in safety. country, as the Delegate of New

Mexico, asking sert, to a citizen of Nashville or Memphis, that " The different portions of our survey were performed at me for information about that Territory. I do a railroad could not be constructed through Ten- such seasons as to enable us to make observations upon the this now in a public way for the general bene- nessee, because of the rigor of the climate, as to most unfavorable characteristics of the climate. In August

we were upon the comparatively low and arid plains upon fit, so that the country at large may know the say that New Mexico, or rather Albuquerque, is

the head waters of the Canadian, and near the Llano Estawealth and resources of the region I represent, at a disadvantage in this respect; both ideas are cado. During the winter months we passed over the eleand the claims, under such state of facts, that New simply ridiculous. And even though the climate vated regions, and through the mountain passes between Mexico has upon governmental consideration for of Albuquerque were middling cold, this could the Rio Grande and Rio Colorado. its future welfare. offer no objection, for, I believe, engineers prefer

“ Upon the parallel of 35° snow cannot prove an ob

struction to a railway.” Such, sir, are the resources of the country a mean temperature for the building of railroads,

I have not the time now, sir, to discuss the through which the thirty-fifth parallel, or Albu- to all climatic extremes, whether hot or cold. querque railroad route to the Pacific passes; and But I speak of the climate of Albuquerque of my

merits of the other proposed routes, and compare. I ask, has not this Territory, with its abundant own personal knowledge, and this from a long Mr. Campbell, who I believe has been upon the

their disadvantages with this of Albuquerque. incitements to your interests, and its claims upon

residence there. your care, been comparatively neglected and for- Lieutenant E. F. Beale, the superintendent of

two surveys of the thirty-second and thirty-fifth šaken? Our advancement has been impeded, not the wagon road from Fori Defiance, New Mex- / parallel, says: (See Pacific Railroad Report, vol

ume three, page 24:) only because of the want of necessary avenues for || ico, to the Colorado river, has returned, in the he development of the popular mind, but also on mid winter, along the thirty-fifth parallel route,

« The valley of the Canadian is the proper route, from its

directness, gentle ascent, and ready supply of water. Its iccount of our want of outlets for an agricultural, and he tells us that he experienced no inconve

general course is nearly due west, to the mouth of Tecumnineral, and pastoral wealth, which, I am sin- nience whatever, on his exploration back from car creek, and the ascent of these (the one, I believe, the erely confident, no other State or Territory of Los Angeles, California, to Albuquerque, from tributary of the other) is very gradual to the summit between he United States can boast to possess. the rigor of winter. On the other hand on the

them and the Pecos." Ten years, sir, have gone by since New Mex- | the forty-second parallel route, through the South

I cite this gentleman's opinion, because of the zo became part and parcel of this, the greatest Pass, you have had your Utah army detained, I especial respect in which I know it will be held Republic that the world has ever seen. Ten years amid the gorges of the Rocky Mountains, in conse- || by some gentlemen upon this floor, having occuave rolled by since Federal power assumed the quence of the snows thatimpede the travel through pied the position under Lieutenant Whipple of a uty and responsibility of the protection of that that region during the winter months of the year.

railroad engineer. No one, so far as I am credibly eople. Have our demands of right been met, The snow that falls on the thirty-fifth parallel informed, denies the practicability of the construcnd your duty fulfilled ? History will show here- route can never be an obstruction in the way, so

tion of a Pacific railroad from St. Louis, Missouri, fter how the Government has discharged its as to impede, even in the most severe winter, through Springfield, or Neosho, to the Canadian, ust towards New Mexico, in contrast with dis- || railroad travel. But let us examine what Secre- and thence to Albuquerque. I take St. Louis as ensations showered upon our sister Territories. tary Davis, Lieutenant Whipple, Mr. Campbell, ll the starting point, because, in my opinion, it is ir, it is a painful thing for me to be here and and others, have to say of this route with regard. | sissippi, and the most central in its locality. itness the partiality which is manifested in favor f some of your north western Territories. I re- Secretary Davis, speaking of this particular his

minority report from the committee on the

Dr. Kidwell, who was hostile to all routes, in ret to say this, but the truth must be told. It route, says, (see vol. 1, page 20:) just go to the country.

“ The general features which have determined the upored sion, speaks thus as to what he thinks is the best

Pacific railroad, made to Congress at its last sesAnd now, sir, in regard to a Pacific railroad. I tion of this route, the exploration of which was conducted

by Lieutenant A. W. Whipple, topographical engineers, are hall not attempt to enter into the discussion of

route to the Pacific, if any should be built: the extension, west and east, of the interlocking tributaries le national importance of this iron way. It is

“ A right line drawn between New York and Albuquerof the Mississippi, the Rio Grande, and the Colorado of the

que would pass through St. Louis. And yet Baltimore is onceded, I believe, by all, that is necessary, and West. It would appear to possess, also, a greater yearly

nearer to St. Louis than is New York, and Charleston is ught to be constructed. There are various routes amount of rain than the regions immediately north and

nearer than Baltimore. So are Richmond, and Savannah, roposed and strongly advocated by their respectsouth of it; and, as a consequence, a better supply of fuel

and Pensacola. St. Louis is, therefore, eligibly situated. and timber."

“ A road from St. Louis, via Albuquerque, to San Franre friends. It is my purpose, in the few remarks have to submit in relation to this great enter

He further says, on page 21:

cisco, would avoid, it was supposed, extreme heights,

extreine heat, and the deep shows. A road from Albu. rise, to advocate what is termed the thirty-fifth

“ The principal characteristics of this route, in comparison with others, are, probably, its passing through or near

querque, via Fort Smith, to Mempbis, and one from Albuarallel, or Albuquerque route, and to give my

querque to St. Louis, would have a common stem a conmore numerous cultivable areas, its more abundant natural

siderable distance; if one is built, both ought to be. The asons for doing so. While all other States and supply of water as far west as the Colorado, and the greater

line of continental road most convenient to the fifteen 'erritories of the Union have outlets for their frequency and extent of forest growth on the route between the Rio Grande and the Colorado."

southern States, taken as a unit, begins in Charleston, and 'ealth, natural and artificial, New Mexico is

runs to San Francisco through the towns of Memphis, Litatirely isolated and cut off from proper com

Captain Whipple, the United States engineer, 1 tle Rock, Fort Smith, Anton Chico, and Albuquerque, and jercial intercommunications. The Territory is who surveyed the central or thirty-fifth parallel has a fork to St. Louis.

“ The mass of the population, business, and wealth, and irrounded on all sides by almost limitless re- route, thus speaks of it, as he completed his

the greater part of the geographical area on the fifteen southions, fertile, and, for the most part, cultural, yet

labors as far as the Cajori, at which place his ern States, lie north of a line drawn fifty miles south of, and ninhabited; and where the wandering and law- exploration seems to have ended:

parallel with, the Charleston, Mempbis, Fort Smith, and ss Indian holds as of yore, in spite of your nom

“Our field labors may now be considered as completed.

Albuquerque road ; that line of road is very accessible to It remains to develop in detail the results that may be gath

each of the southern States, at some point or other, before al subjection, imperial sway. We are from

it reaches the east line of New Mexico. ered from the material that has been collected. Until this ght to nine hundred miles distant from any of be accomplished, no definite or satisfactory evidence can

“ The extreme southern cities, even Galveston, can reach our western States' frontiers. We are quite be given to others of the success that has attended our oper

San Francisco as readily by the Albuquerque route as any velve hundred miles from your Pacific coast. ations; but to ourselves there is no doubt remaining that

other, or nearly so—in many cases more readily than by any for the construction of a railway the route we have passed

other." 'he Rio Grande, the principal artery that travover is not only practicable, but in many respects eminently

I am of opinion that only one road ought to be ises the Territory, is not navigable, and there- advantageous. The first six liundred and finy miles, from constructed, and that the one which runs upon Tre affords us no avenue by which to reach the the eastern border of the Choctaw territory to the river Pe- the thirty-fifth parallel. I think the Government ulf. We are, indeed, within a prairie-bound ter- cos, possesses in the valley of the Canadian a natural hightorial isle; and we ask as right, fair, and just, ages of this belt of country over any other that can be way, that establishes beyond question the superior advant

ought not to undertake, with its money and its

public domain, to build any more than one road. le means for our outward development.

selected between the same degrees of longitude within the That should be as near the geographical center The Albuquerque route passes through the cen- limits of our territory. The Canadian seems formed by na

of the whole country as the practicability of the rof New Mexico, and it is the most central route

ture for the special object in view. Its general course for
the distance alluded to is nearly east. Its mean inclination

route will allow. Let us divest ourselves, genall proposed, and one that would benefit the

is but nine feet to the mile; thus enabling us almost im- tlemen, of that sectional prejudice, interest, and reatest number of people. It seems to me that perceptibly to attain the summit of the lofty table lands of rivalry, which seem to control many members, so pon the first sight of a map any impartial and New Mexico. Expensive einbankments are entirely avoidsinterested person would decide in favor of that ed; and, notwithstanding the numerous affluents ihat fer

far as the starting eastern point is concerned, but tilize and enrich the adjacent country, few bridges are re

which, when we are considering a work that is to bute. The country through which it runs is quired, as most of the water courses sink beneath ủie surface do credit to our common national pride, ought ch in soil, copious in water, and abundant in as they approach the great valley. Upon the eastern por- never to be entertained by national legislators. ood, timber, and fuel. It is the best adapted for

tion valuable coal mines exist, and vast forests of oak may Let us look at the honor which our country is to

furnish an unfailing supply of timber and fuel. The Cross rming purposes; the climate is genial and saluTimbers extend to the meridian of 90° west from Green

derive abroad among the other nations of the cious; and the objection to the climate along

wich, and the wooded branches of the False Washita at- world, by the construction of this gigantic high+ NEW SERIES—No. 27.

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