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35TH CONG....Ist Sess.
Admission of Kansas-Mr. Stevenson.
Ho. OF REPs.
gle, which has occupied so much of our time, to ating the necessity of a submission of the consti an enabling act is unnecessary, it could be furthe almost entire exclusion of other important tution, or any part thereof, to the people, unless nished in the opinion of Mr. Justice McLean, of public business, is about to terminate. Before the the convention deemed proper to do so.
the Supreme Court of the United States, who (in setting of to-morrow's sun, this great question, An election for delegates iook place. T'he con the case of Scott vs. Johnson, 5 Howard, 30) momentous in its results of weal or woe, will have vention met and adopted a constitution. The con says: been decided.
vention submitted to the people of the Territory “ Michigan was an organized Territory of the United In advocating the immediate admission of Kan the question of slavery or no slavery, and on the States. lis Governors, judges, and all other territoriaj offi. sas under the Lecompton constitution, I shall 21st December, 1857, this vote resulted as follows: cers were in the discharge of their various functions. The speak with the frankness and freedom which the constitution with slavery, six thousand two hun
sovercignty of the Union extended to it. Under these cir
cumstances, the people of Michigan assembled by delegates subject deserves. I hope to do so, however, with dred and twenty-six;constitution without slavery, in convention, and adopted a constitution, and under it entire respect to the opponents of this measure on five hundred and sixty-nine. Since the assem
elected meinbers of both branches of their Legislature, Gorthe other side of this Hall, and especially with- bling of Congress a vote has been taken for mem
cruor, judges, and organized the State governinent. No se.
rious objection need he inade, in my judgment, to the assem. out reflection upon the motives of those Demo bers of the State organization ordained by this con
blage of the people in convention to form a constitution, cratic Representatives who have deemed them- stitution, and these officers were elected by the although it is the more regular and customary mode to pro selves constrained to separate on this measure largest vote ever cast in the Territory. It is true ceed under the sanction of an act of Congress." from four fifths of their political brethren on this that Governor Stanton convened the Territorial
It is a notable fact, too, and I commend it to floor. Legislature which met after the convention, and
the attention of the Republicans, who have heaped It will be my purpose to show that the imme that this Legislature attempted to usurp the power
such opprobrium upon a majority of the Supreme diate admission of Kansas under the Lecompton of directing a vote on the constitution, upon the Court for their opinion in the Dred Scoti case, constitution, is demanded, not less by a strict ob 4th of January, 1858, the day on which the State servance of the true principles of representative elections under the State constitution had been diction) that, in the case of Scott vs. Johnson,
(where the entire court held that they had jurisgovernment, than by a sacred regard to that equal held. It is also true that a large vote was cast ity and sovereignty of the States, which consti- against the constitution on the 4th of January, as
the entire court, save Mr. Justice McLean, held
they had no jurisdiction, yet he, notwithstanding, cute the strongest bond of our Union.
i ordered by the Territorial Legislatkire of Kansas, What, Mr. Chairman, are the facts of this ap and which it will hereafter be attempted to be
delivered his opinion on the merits without the plication? In 1850, when for the sake of peace, shown was clearly null and void.
slightest suspicion from any quarter upon his spotit was proposed to extend the Missouri line, as
less escutcheon as a judge or a man. The case furKansas now presents her constitution, and is
ther shows that an act of incorporation passed by adopted in 1820 and applied to the Louisiana pur- i knocking at our doors for admission into this holy chase, to the territory which had then been but sisterhood of States ! In the earlier, and I was going into the Union was held valid by the court of last
the Legislature of Michigan before its admission recently acquired from Mexico, it was indignantly to say, better days of the Republic, an admission refused by the anti-slavery Representatives of the that the constitution of Kansas was republican, 1 valid objection against the Lecompton consen.
resort in that State. It is urged, however, as a North, and their united votes stand recorded and that the Territory contained the requisite pop; tion, that a large number of counties were unrep. against the proposition. The nascent spirit of : ulation would be all that would have been required resented in consequence of the want of a registry; abolitionism was then too strong and potent to be to have added another State to our confederated hemmed in by any geographical line, and from the Union. When we behold the strife and discord
and, therefore, that the convention was not a fair sectional agitation which ensued, it was apparent , that this application has produced, after the de
representative of the popular will. It has been that the Missouri compromise line could not bevelopment and growth of our free and noble insti
abundantly shown that these counties contained extended. The fires of sectional discord waxed | lutions, planted more than eighty years ago by
but a small population, and many of them scarcely
a solitary vote. Some of them were attached to so warm as to threaten destruction to the Union. our patriot sires on this continent, and who wrote The stormy debate which then ensued, and the
adjacent counties for civil and military purposes. their pledges for their mainienance in revolutiongloom which bung like a dark pall over the whole | ary blood, and sealed them with their lives, it al
I have already referred to the provisions of the country, will always be regarded as a prominent most sickens the heart to think
law making just provision for a full, free, and fair crisis in the history of this Republic. The com
expression of opinion in the convention. Why
“That centuries should reap promise measures closed that fearful struggle,
No mellower harvest."
were not its provisions carried out? Why a failand in lieu of the extension of a geographical live, I propose briefly to answer some of the objec. | Let Governor Stanton give the reply:
ure to register in these unrepresented counties? there was substituted the more harmonious princi- tions made against the passage of this bill. What ple that the question of slavery was to be with are they? It is claimed that an enabling act was “ It is not my purpose to reply to your statement of facts; drawn from Congress, and the people of the Ter necessary before the people of a Territory can
I cannot do so from any personal knowledge enabling me ritories lest free to regulate their domestic insti.
citler to admit or deny them. I may say, however, I have form a State government with a view to admis
heard statements quite as luthentic as your own, and in tutions in their own way. Whatever may have | sion in the Union. This was one of the strong some instances froin members of your own party, (Repubbeen the opinion and action of leading men in points made by the distinguished Senator from licans,) to the effect that your political friends have viry particular localities, the settlement of this sec Illinois, in his celebrated speech on the 9th De
generally, indeed almost universally, refused to participate
in the pending proceedings for registering the names of the tional controversy by the compromises of 1850 was cember. In support of his position, he cited the
legal voters.. In some instances they have given fictitious generally acquiesced in and approved by the con admission of Arkansas, and the arguments of names, and in numerous others they refused to give any servative and patriotic men of all parties through-|| Mr. Buchanan and other distinguished gentlemen
You cannot deny that your party have hereout the length and breadth of our land. In 1854, of that day, in favor of the necessity of enabling
tofore resolved not to take part in the registration, and it the Kansas-Nebraska act was passed; and acting
appears to me that, without indulging ungenerous suspi. acts. Whatever conservative men of all parties
cions of the integrity of officers, yon niiglii well attribute on the principle of non-intervention which marked might have at one period thought of the regularity any errors and omissions of the sheriffs to tie existence of the compromises of 1850, this Missouri line was of enabling acts as a prerequisite for admission, it this well known and controlling fact." declared inoperative and void, non-intervention is too late in the day now io insist upon their ne It is here apparent that faction prevented the was again reaffirmed, and the Congress of the cessity. Against the arguments of northern and registry, and ihat the people who were not rep; United States declared
southern men, in former times, in favor of these resented did not desire and would not have voted " The truc intent and meaning of that act not to legislate enabling acts as a sine qua non to admission, we in the choice of representatives to this convention, slavery into any Territory or State, nor to exclude ii there point to the precedents and past history of the if the registry had been complete. Mr. Chairman, fron, but to leave the people thereof perfectly free to form Government. A large majority of the new States if there had been any portion of the people of that and regulate their domestic institutions in their own way.” have come in without enabling acts. The settled Territory who had felt themselves disfranchised
A territorial government was formed, and very practice of the Government has been against their |--who found themselves deprived of the right of shortly after its organization a Territorial Legis- | necessity, and the honest opinion of distinguished suffrage-can it be conceived that they would not lature was elected. In July, 1855, this Legisla- men has been forced to yield to precedent. The nave sought a corrective of such abuses at the ture submitted to the people of Kansas the ques distinguished Senator from Illinois, himself
, disre- hands of the convention? Where are their petition of whether they would call a convention to garded the want of an enabling act in the admis tions setting out these grievances, and detailing frame a State government, preparatory to admis sion of several of the free States, in which the South
these wrongs? Where is the remonstrance of a sion into the Union. The clection was held, and was compelled to acquiesce. The authority of the solitary county, that they had been denied a voice by almost a unanimous vote the people decided in Territorial Legislature to call this convention was in that convention? Where is the demand for the favor of a convention. In pursuance of this vote acquiesced in by Governor Walker, Secretary correction of the apportionment made by Govthe Territorial Legislature, on the 19th February, Stanton, and the people of the Territory them ernor Stanton, with a full knowledge that there 1857, passed their convention act. This was just selves; ay, sir, by no one more fully than by had been no registry in the counties enumerated? and fair in all its provisions. It was passed by the distinguished Illinois Senator himself, in his Where is the complaint from a solitary being in legal authority, and was the result of the popular Springfield speech, delivered but a short period bevote demanding its passage. It provided for the fore the Kansas convention assembled ! I under- | illegally assembled, and asking the returns to be
that ill-fated Territory that the convention was clection of delegates, the taking of the census, and stand, however, that the Senator from Illinois has scrutinized ? The convention was alone authorregistry of voters. It afforded equal opportuni now abandoned most of the positions of his speech ized to judge of the returns and qualifications of its ties to all in the election of delegaies. It allowed | delivered upon the 9th December, and that he an members. It had the power to apply the correca month for the correction of registry returns, and nounces himself as ready to waive all irregu- | tive; and, in the absence of any appeal to its indenounced heavy, penalties against fraudulent and larity and vote for admission, if he was satisfied terposition, we are justified in believing that no illegal voting, and protected the elective franchise the Lecompton constitution was the act and deed portion of the people felt theniselves aggrieved or by the strongest provisions. It is proper here to of the people of Kansas, and embodied their will." mention, that this act of the Territorial Legisla- | Such I understood to be his position, as stated by
desired to vote for representatives. It will scarcely ture was vetoed by Governor Geary, because it him in reply to an inquiry by the distinguished tionists, by refusing to be registered, and by pomohe
be argued that this small body of recusant facdide not provide for a submission of the constitu- Senator from South Carolina, during the debate venting, through force, a proper execution of the tion to the people. The Legislature passed it by in the other wing of the Capitol, but a few days registry law, could stop a popular movement her. a two-thirds vote over his licad, utterly repudia l' since. If any other authority were wanted that I ing for its object the establishment of a State Bano
names at all.
35th Cong.... 1st Sess.
Admission of Kansas-Mr. Stevenson.
Ho. of Reps.
ernment. It is apparent that there is nothing in submitting the great distracting question regarding their the use of his name as a candidate for the constitutional this objection.
social institution, which has so long agitated the people of convention, was abused and injured in the most shocking
Kansas, to a fair vote of the nctual bona fide residents of li is warmly insisted on that the Lecompton
manner, and the most revolling atrocilies were committed the Territory, with every possible security against fraud and upon his wife by some of the insurrectionary party." constitution was not submitted to the people as a violence. It'the constitution be thus framed, and the gues
“It will be perceived that this military whole for their ratification, and therefore it is not tion of difference be thus submilted to the decision of the peo- organization embraces the whole Territory, being arranged the act of the people. This argument, if it proves
ple, I believe that Kansas will be admitted by Congress, into four divisions and eight brigades."
without delay, as one of the sovereign States of the Amer- “ I am well satisfied that a large portion of the insurrectionanything, proves too much. It upturns the whole
ican Union, and the territorial authorities will be immedi- ary party in this Territory do not desire a peacefu settlesystem of representative government; it limits the ately withdrawn."
ment of this question, but wish it to remain open, in order circle of free institutions; it denies to the people
Here Mr. Stanton clearly thought that the only
to agitate the country for years to come." of a State or Territory the right to select agents question necessary to be submitted was the sla
“August 18. The insurgent military organization under
General Lane is still progressing. Arms are being supplied to make a constitution for them without their subvery question, and “ that great distracting ques
and his troops drilled for action. We are threatened with scquent approval. If the right does not exist to tion” was submitted to the popular vote. Mr.
the seizure of the polls, at various points, by these insurgent select representatives, then it follows that the peo- | Chairman, the people may have acted wisely and
forces. When it is remembered that the Topeka party
clain to outnumber their opponents at least ten to one, the ple must act themselves. Where they cannot be
well in refusing to fetter the convention with an pretext for assembling these forces to protect the polls is collected to deliberate and act in the formation of a constitution and laws, their popular government absolute submission. The history of Kansas has
cvidently nost fallacious.” must end. If the people cannot select agents to
been thus far a bloody and disgraceful drama. But notwithstanding all factious opposition, the
Faction showed its brazen front upon the incep- convention did submit the great and only distractmake constitutions, and agree to abide by their ac
tion of the territorial government.' The Kansas- ing question of slavery to the popular vote. tion without a submission, how is it that the State
Nebraska act had scarcely received the President's Mr. Chairman, the responsibility of the sublaws are valid without a submission? This, Mr. signature before an organized effort was inaugu
mission of the constitution was wholly with the Chairman, is a new phase of popular sovereignty. rated to sow discord in Kansas. Hear Mr. Doro- convention. It cannot be inquired into by ConI acknowledge the people to be the source of all
Las, in his report to the Senate, as chairman of the gress; and we have no right to intervene between power, and that every free government must rest
committee to investigate these outbreaks. He the constituency of Kansas and their delegates to for its support on the consent of the governed. says:
that constitutional convention. But how is this power to be exercised? Are contitutions and laws to be enacted in mass meet“ The passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act was strenu
It is claimed, however, that as a large majority ously resisted by all persons who thought it a less evil to of the people of Kansas did not vote on the 21st ings? Is sovereignty to be carried about the
deprive the people of new States and Territories of the right December when the constitution was submitted to streets, and are the popular masses to act per cap- of State equality and self-governinent than to allow them to ita? I had supposed it was “ that marvelous fedecide the slavery question for themselves, as every State
the people under the authority of the convention, of the Union had done, and must retain the undeniable rigtit
and 'the vote on the 4th January shows a very licity of our representative system,” under the
to do, so long as the Constitution of the United States shall large majority against the constitution, Congress operation of prescribed forms of law, that entitled be maintained as the supreme law of the land. Finding should desist and not force this constitution on ours to be justly styled the model Republic of the opposition to the principles of the act unavailing in the halls
the people against so large an expression of the world. I had been taught by Mr. Madison (the
of Congress and under the forms of the Constitution, com-
popular will. father of the Federal Constitution) to believe that of the Union to control the political destinies, and form and
Mr. Chairman, this argument is more specious the effect of representative government is
regulate the domestic institutions of those Territories and than solid. It rests on a radical mistake in the " To refine and enlarge the public views by passing them future States through the machinery of emigrant aid socie
theory of our system of representative governthrough the mediuin of a chosen body of citizens, whose ties. In order to give consistency and efficieney to the
ment, movement, and surround it with the color of legal authority, wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country,
I argue that the popular will should govand whose patriotisin and love of justice will be least likely
an act of incorporation was procured from the Legislature ern, and that no government can be forced upon to sacrifice it to temporary or partial cousiderations. Under
of the State of Massachusetis. When a powerful corpo. the people against their consent. But how is this such a regulation, it may well happen that the public voice, ratiou, with a capital of 85,000,000, invested in houses and
will to be collected and ascertained ? pronounced by the representatives of the people, will be lands, in merchandise and mills, in cannon avd rifles, in
By popular inore consonant to public good than if pronounced by the powder and lead, in all the implements of arts, agricul
outbreaks and tumultuous assemblies?' No, sir; people themselves, convened for the purpose."
iure, and war, and employing a corresponding number of but by regular forms prescribed by law. The Mr. Chairman, it would not be difficult to show
nien, all under the management and control of non-resident people begin the work of representative govern
directors and stockholders, wlid are authorized by their that one of the advantages in the scheme of rep
ment by limitations on their own power not less charter to vote by proxy to the extent of fifty votes each, resentation in a Republic, as contradistinguished entere a distant and sparsely settled Territory with the fixed than by restrictions on their agents. They limit from a pure democracy of numbers, consists in purpose of wielding all its power to control the domestic themselves in their power of selection of repre.
institutions and political destinies of the Territory, it be. its power to control a faction. I refer to the tenth
sentatives by requiring certain qualifications of comes a question of fearsul import liow far the operations number of the Federalist, where Mr. Madison, in of the company are compatible with the rights and liberties
age, residence, &c. Suffrage, which is the dele. defense of the Federal Constitution, goes fully
of the people. Whatever may be the extent or limit of con- gation of authority from each sovereign citizen of into this argument.
gressional authority over the Territories, it is clear that no a community to his representative agent, is the
individual State has the right to pass any law or authorize It does not pertain to Congress to inquire why
foundation stone of our representative system. any act concerning or affecting the Territories, which it the whole of this Kansas constitution was not sub- might not enact in reference to any other State. It is a well
It is the channel through which power emanates mitted? While as individuals we might all desire, l settled principle of constitutional law in this country that from the masses. Suffrage itself is restricted and
while all the States in the Union are united in one for cer. and, perhaps as members of that convention,
regulated by law. It is through prescribed forms tain purposes, yet cach State, in respect to everything which should all vote for the submission of that entire
of law that this inestimable righi is guarded from affects its domestic policy and internal concerns, stands in constitution to the people, it was the sole right of the relation of a foreign Power to every other State. llence,
force, fraud, and violence. li is by forms of law the Lecompton convention to judge of the pro
no State has a right io pass any law, or do or authorize any that this right is restricted to the time, place, man
act with a view to intluence or change the domestic policy priety of a submission or non-submission of the
ner, and mode of exercise therein prescribed. of any other State or Territory of the Union, more than it constitution in whole, or in part, to the people for
When all have spoken who are entitled to speak, would with reference to France or England, or any other ratification. The validity of the instrumeni could foreign Suate with which we are at peace. Indeed, cvery
their collected will under legal forms are certified not be impaired by a failure to have submitted
State of this Union is under higher obligations to observe a to that power entitled by legal enactment to re
friendly forbearance and generous comity towards each any part of it to the popular vote. The people, other member of the Contederacy than the laws of nations
ceive such certificate. Such return must be conthrough their Legislature, had, in the convention
clusive as the authentic and legally-prescribed can impose on foreign States. act, a perfect right to have required the constitu- “ Ilour obligations, arising under the law of nations, are
mode of ascertaining the will of the people. Were tion to be submitted, and the act was, as we have
so imperative as to make it our duty to enact neutrality it not so, the barriers placed by the people around
laws, and to exert the whole power and authority of the already shown, vetoed by Governor Geary, be
their own institutions as a protection againsi facexecutive branch of the Government, including the Ariny cause it did not contain a provision for its submis
tion, impulse, or fanaticism, would become mere and Navy, to enforce them in restraining our citizens from sion to the people. The act was passed by a two- interfering with the internal concerns of foreign States, can
ropes of sand, and we should be always in a state thirds vote of the Legislature over his veto, and
the obligations of each State and Territory of this Union be of anarchy. thus became a law.
less imperative, under the Federal Constitution, to observe Now, Mr. Chairman, what right had the Ter
an entire neutrality in respect to che domestic instilutions Popular sovereignty was then, as it would
ritorial Legislature to direct a vote on the 4th of of the several States and Territories?" clearly appear, against a submission of this con
January? By what warrant of authority do they
These commotions continued. The excitement interpose between a convention called to frame a stitution to the people; for it can hardly be sup
increased until insurrection, rebellion, and revoposed that two thirds of the Legislature misrep-lution stalked boldly throughout the Territory. tion had directed a vote to be taken on the 21st of
constitution and its constiluency. The convenresented the popular will.
Hear Governor Walker again, when he says: Mr. Stanton himself clearly recognized the right
December upon the slavery clause of that constiof the people, through chosen delegates, to adoption, in August, of the new insurgent 'Topeka State Legis
“ The professed object is to protect the polls at the elec- tution. They had ordained a State government a constitution, and seems to regard it as optional
by regular legal process. They had ordered an lature. The object of taking the names of all who refuse with the convention what part of the constitution enrollment is to terrify the free-State conservatives into
election of State officers under this constitution, should be submitted to popular vote. Hear him
submission. This is proved by recent atrocities committed to take place on the 4th of January; and the peowhen he says:
on such men by Topekaites. The speedy location of large ple, by a large vote for these officers, had acquibodies of regular troops here, with two batteries, is neces
esced in this State government. I have already " The Government especially recognizes the territorial sary; the Lawrence insurgents await the development of act which provides for assembling a convention to form a this new revolutionary military organization."
cited the case of Scott vs. Jones, (5 Howard, page constitution with a view of making application to Congress “ You are aware that General Lane commanded the mil- 380,) to show that an act of the Legislature of for admission as a State into the Union. That act is re- itary expedition which made an incursion into this l'erritory | Michigan, passed before her admission into the garded as presenting the only test of the qualification of last year, and that the oflicers of the staff are all leading voters for delegates 1o the convention, and all preceding re
Union, was declared valid. The organic law of agitators for the overthrow of the territorial government. pugnant restrictions are thereby repcaled. In this light the The object of this last requisition is believed to be to mark Kansas, upon its admission into the Union, would act must be allowed to have provided for a full and fair ex- for persecution and oppression all those persons, and espe- be of course treated as valid from its creation, and pression of the will of the people through the delegates who cially free-State Democrats, who refuse to unite in this mil- all the prior acts of the convention, or acts of the may he chosen to represent them in the constitutional con- itary organization. The purpose is universally regarded to vention. I do not doubt, however, that, in order to avoid be to establish a reign of lerror.”
State Legislature under it, even before admission, all preterts for resistance to the peaceful operation of this “ A few weeks since one of these conservative Demo
would reach back to the period of their adoption. law, lic convention itself will, in some form, provide for crats, who had committed no other offense than pernitting If the Lecompton convention be deemed a valida 35TH CONG....1st Sess.
Admission of Kansas—Mr. Stevenson.
Ho. OF REPS.
and legal organization, the act of the Territorial Mr. Chairman, we have been appealed to as irregular, unprecedented, and extraordinary manLegislature is a nullity, and had no more authority | southern men, during this debate, with a zeal that ner, and without the semblance of law, proceeded to ascertain the will of the people on the Lecomp- || would indicate that we were about to engage in
to include a territory of one hundred and fifty. ton constitution than the Topekaites had to over- the commission of a monstrous wrong; that we
five thousand five hundred and fifty square miles, throw the territorial government erected by Con- were about to uphold a fraud, and thereby sully or ninety-nine million five hundred and fifty-two gress.
Away with such a revolutionary dogma, our escutcheon, hitherto as spotless and bright thousand square acres, without estimating the adwhich, if carried out in practice, might overturn as our own southern sun. God forbid ! The South | jacent islands. Sir, this constitution was extend. all constitutional government. If gentlemen will are against fraud and against oppression every- ed over thirty thousand people who had had no not listen to me, I beseech them to hear, as from where. What have the South to gain by the ad- || knowledge of the convention which framed it, and the grave, the clearexposition of the brightest and mission of Kansas ? For what purpose should
who never saw it! I assert, without the fear of mightiest intellect of their own loved New Eng- she engage in such a contest? Nothing but a contradiction, and appeal to the debates of the land. Hear Mr. Webster, in his great argument simple adherence to principle-an unflinching de- | California convention to sustain me, that this imbefore the Supreme Court in the case of Luther mand for her constitutional rights as coequals mense boundary was included as a free State to vs. Borden, say:
in the Confederacy, and that Kansas shall not be avoid the sectional agitation of the slavery ques. " It is in certain legal and prescribed modes we are to
refused admission because she has a pro-slavery tion, which is the perpetual apple of discord uşan ascertain the will of the Ainerican people; and our Consti- constitution. Free States have been brought in this floor. Ay, sir, lo spoliate the South and pretution and laws know no other mode. We are not to take
over everything like regular, legal, organic action. vent her from an enjoyment of that territory voa the will of the people from public ineetings, nor from tu
They have been brought in at every hazard. I in part by her gallantry and blood. The iroa inultuous asseinblies, by which the timid are terrified, the prudent are alarmed, and by which society is disturbed. appeal to the few southern men who are acting nerves of that gallant hero who, amid a hailstoria These are not American modes of signifying the will of the with the opponents of this measure to pause and of Mexican bullets, triumphantly bore our gloripeople, and they never were. Is it not obvious enough, that
look at the outrages which were practiced by their ous flag from Resaca to the bloody field of Buena men cannot get together and countthemselves, and say they
present allies upon the South when California was Vista, gave way before this hobgoblin of the are so many hundreds, and so many thousands, and judge of their own qualifications, and call themselves the people, brought in. Was there an enabling act there? Wilmot proviso. Hear Mr. Sherman, (Debates and set up a government? Why another set of men, forty Was there no violation of popular sovereignty in
California convention, page 191:) miles off, on the same day, with the same propriety, with putting a constitution upon thirty thousand peo- “ The chief argument which has been urged in faror of as good qualifications, and in as large numbers, may meet and set up another government-one may meet at Newport ple without their knowledge and without their
the extreme bonudary has been, not as to the necesity,
the convenience, not the benefit to be derised from it u and another at Chepachet, and both may call themselves the consent? Why, sir, what are the facts ? Gen
the probability of its passing the Congress of the Coin people. What is this but anarchy? What liberty is there eral Riley, who was sent from this country as an Siates, and the authority of a gentleman from Congrere that here, but a tumultuary, tempestuous, violent, stormy, officer of the United States Army to protect the if such a proposition be adopted it would pass." erty, a sort of South American liberty, without power except in its spasms-a liberty supported by arms to-day, Pacific coast, took the responsibility of issuing a
· And when the president of this contes
stated this afternoon the expression of Mr. Thomas BH crushed by arms to-morrow. Is that our liberty ? proclamation at Monterey, advising the people to
King, 'For God'S SAKE LEAVE NO TERRITORY IN Cala “The regular action of popular power on the other hand, elect delegates on the 1st of August who should NIA TO DISPUTE ABOUT,' when he [Mr. Thomas Bar places upon public liberty the most beautiful face that ever
assemble at Monterey on the 1st of September to King) spoke it, he did not speak the sentiments of the en adorned that angel form, All is regular and harmonious in its features, and gentle in its operations. The stream of form a State government. The moment that proc
tire Congress. The secret on it is this: that the Cabine
the United States have found theinselves in difficulty od this public authority, under American liberty, running in this lamation saw the light, it was denounced by a
question: they are in ditficulty about the Wilmot prose; channel, has the strength of the Missouri, while its waters portion of the people and acquiesced in by others. and Mr. Thomas Butler King (it may be others) is set bare are as transparent as those ol'a crystal lake. It is powerful
The largest and most enthusiastic meeting ever for the purpose of influencing the people to establish a de for good. It produces no tumult, no violence, and no wrong ; then held in California was held at San Francisco,
government, and to include the entire territory. Sirls “Though deep, yet clear; though gentle, yet not dull;
a political quarrel at home into which they wish to druge and after being addressed by Dr. Gwin, Mr. GilStrong without rage, without o'crflowing, full.'»
the new State of California." bert, and others, repudiated that proclamation as
Again he says: What legalauthority, I ask you, Mr. Chairman, | unauthorized and illegal. 'The election took place.
" When this proposition comes before them, sub had this election of the 4th of January? What The apportionment of representatives was fixed
members, those from slavcholding States, will see it in guards and what qualifications? If the regular and by General Riley upon an arbitrary basis, founded troun beneath their feet an enormous track of maty is legalized action of the people of Kansas in their upon a Mexican law which had been in force which they may desire to introduce slavery nerealiai. 14 formation of their constitution, from the period of wbile California was attached to Mexico; and
to that the further argument of the enormous, pietr. their call for a convention to that of the 21st of De- under such an arbitrary ratio, thirty-seven dele
ritory it includes, and then add to that the farther argun
that a large portion ofthat territory has not been report cember, is to be thus disregarded and trampled gates were authorized to be elected.
in this body-tiat the feelings and wishes of the prep under foot, then anarchy riots over law. No, sir, The qualification of suffrage appears, also, to not known--and I think you leave opeu ground enesh no! I thank God we have a firmer basis for Amer- have been arbitrarily determined upon by Gen
them to build an argument that will defeat yoor Coch
tion. It is true the boundary is enormous. ican freedom. Our system finds its base in law, eral Riley. He allowed the right of suffrage to
wishes to include the whole of it." not in anarchy. It preserves its equilibrium in le- three classes of actual residents over twenty-one ** Another reason, and one which ought to appeal to 51 gal, constitutional, organized forms, rather than years of age, as follows: first, American citizens; strong terms here, is the fact that the popuiation ! in factious, tumultuous outpourings of the unre- l second, Mexicans, who had elected under the northeast portion of the territory are unrepresented
Gentlemen say we could not reach them and hare rete strained commotion, which makes and unmakes treaty to become Americans; third, Mexicans who
in six months. We are to acknowledge them as a p in a breath, and ruthlessly overturns the barriers had been forced to leave their country in conse- of the population of the territory; we include them w which the people have erected as an intrench- || quence of giving aid and succor to the American our limits, and then say it is not our fault. Can uity ment around their liberty and property! arms during the recent war. The convention met
the gift of prophecy, that they can know, without seri
formation reaching them, that a convention is briu ***, We are told, Mr. Chairman, of the immense on 1st September, 1849, and some ten delegates
and that they should have their delegation here? I frauds which were committed in the election of only appeared; when, after a temporary organi- sir, it is our fault; and when we are so in fault, sest na delegates to the convention, and on the 21st of De. zation, they adjourned over to the 3d ot' Septem- do them the justice to leave them out- to lease there cember as well as on the 4th of January. I have ber. Upon reassembling, a communication was
to forin a government for themselves, if they think proper
It is an act of gross injustice to force upon them uc no doubt, Mr. Chairman, that frauds were com. received from H. W. Halleck, Secretary of State,
stitution and limits you prescribe here." mitted, and upon both sides. But why was not and also an officer of the United States Army,
Let Mr. Botis speak. He says, (Debates, page application made for their correction to the con- giving the names of some thirty-seven delegates
193:) vention? Why were not memorials presented to elected to said convention, with the districts which
“ We meet here under no express law; we mert * that body, and all the alleged frauds brought to they represented. The convention was also in
previous legislation; we meclio produce order out of c*: light? Had the convention refused an investiga- formed that in the town of Stockton, in San Joa- we meet here, sir, under what is sometimes si yled ape tion, then there might have been greater ground quin district, the election had been held on the lamation, and sometimes a suggestion, of Generalitat
Be it one or the other, it is the basis of our action her. for complaint. There can be no serious assault || 16th, instead of the 1st August—the election day
Now, if you will refer to that document which has been made, Mr. Chairman, upon the vote of the 21st appointed. The communication recommended
adopted as a basis by the people from whom we can a of December. If there had been fraudulent voting, additional delegates, in consequence of an increase whom we represent, you will find this question sttuad # still it could not have impaired the good votes cast of the population since the proclamation was is.
You will find that the districts of Sacramento, for the constitution, and there would still have sued, and that in consequence of the absence of
Joaquin, Sonoma, San Francisco, Santa Barbara, Lost
geles, San Diego--that these districts are the portions as been a large majority. As to the alleged frauds many of the legal voters in the iniddle and south
resented here, and have started to establish a govern on the 4th of January, the returns have been given ern portion of the country, the number of votes Now, sir, I ask you this question: is it possible that the to the free-State men, which gives them a major- | polled would form an imperfect criterion by which people can establish a government for others iban the
selves? ity in the Legislature. My word for it, Mr. Chair- to judge of the true relative population of the dif
Can they give us the power that they themse
do not possess? I would like io ask you, if this beau man, they will do full justice, and no poor Le- ferent districts.
which of these districts lies the Salt Lake with thirty? comptonite will be allowed to remain as a member The convention acted promptly on these sug. sand inhabitants?. Yes, sir, I am told there are thing that of that body, around whom hangs the slightest gestions, adopted a new and somewhat arbitrary
sand people east of the Sierra Nevada which roupa semblance of fraud. While upon this subject,
to include in your limits? Are they in the district of Spaapportionment, and increased the number of dela
ma, or Sacramento, or Monterey? Thirty thousand in however, sir, I cannot resist the suggestion that legates to scventy-three-forty-eight of whom only men unrepresented! Do you know by wbat role it is a somewhat remarkable fact that all the ever took their seats in the body. A constitution constituents I sit on tiris floor? I will tell you : Irony events which occurred on the 4th of January, and was adopted, and the convention adjourned on
ninety-six votes. I, who am modestly requested to leave which are now urged most warmly as the chief
for thirty thousand people I never saw, am sent by 13th October, 1849. The constitution was sub
ninety-six votes. My colleague, who makes the preparation arguments against the admission of Kansas, have mitted to the people on the 13th November, 1849, received twenty or thirty more; and as for the remajsarro occurred since the bill was introduced, and since || for ratification; and out of an estimated popula- my colleagues, 1 believe they are worse off than 150 the distinguished Senator from Illinois opened his tion ofsixty thousand, twelve thousand and sixty: Let Dr. Gwin, the distinguished Senator from batteries against the Lecompton constitution on one were cast for the constitution, eight hundred the Pacific in the other end of the Capitol, anash the 9th of December. All the objections urged in and eleven against it, and some fiftcen hundred Ilear him: that speech seemed to be removed, and the great blanks.
" Sir, ne ire not licre forcing r government upona obstacles now urged have all occurred since. The convention, thus called together in this tion of the people of California, whose delegates have by
35th Cong....1st Sess.
Admission of Kansas-Mr. Stevenson.
Ho. of Reps.
their recorded votes stated the fact that their constituents can constitution, regularly ordained, through all from the Union; and, by such united patriotic are unanimously against a state government, and in favor of a territorial organization? Do you not expoet and re
the regular forms of law, because there is the sem- action, nerve the arms, and encourage the hearts, quire they shall sutain this Governinent, and become a part
blance of slavery upon her brow, her request for of that national organization of patriots of every o it?
If not, let us require their delegates to retire from admission is met with the slogan cry from the party in every portion of the Union, upon whose this convention, apply to Congress for a territorial government, and exclude them from the state boundary. Gentle
Republican ranks," no more slave States." When strength and continuance rest the hopes of thirty men atteet to believe that in taking a large ex:ent of terri
the Senate Chamber is made to ring with the million freemen. tory not represented here, and from which no opposition 10 haughty and defiant notes of the Senator from Why keep open this strife? Why, hy a refusał our action has become known to us, we are doing a great New York, (Mr. SEWARD,) ibat the controversy
to seule this question, shall we afford io the eneact of injustice to that people, when, at the same moment,
can only be settled by the simple and direct ad- mies of the Democratic organization the weapons we have the DIRECT PROTEST against a State government of a portion of the territory here represented.”
mission of three new States as free States, with with which to weaken, if not destroy its nationMr. Chairman, I might go on and multiply | promise, and by the abandonment of all further it is claimed, they will readily apply the corrective
out qualification, condition, reservation, or com- ality? If the majority in Kansas be as large as extracts from those California debates, to show the irregularities and wrongs upon popular rights attempts to extend slavery under the Federal Conthere perpetrated. Yes, sir, this immense boundary stitution;" and ere the sound of these threatenings they have a right to change their government is was included, by political legerdemain, and a gov; it proper to announce his regret at the repeal of right to interfere. No free people yet, with a Le
a judicial question, with which Congress has no of this convention, merely to bring in this im- the Missouri line-which he had looked on always gislative majority in accordance with the popumense area of freedom, and shut it out from south- || allowed to entertain the opinion that it was con
as a measure of peace—and that he must still be || lar will, have ever yet failed to make the governmen. Sir, in the very early stages of the con
ment represent that opinion. If wrongs have vention, eight out of thirty-six delegates voted
stitutional, in despite of the decision of the Su- been committed, let the remedy be applied at the and protested against a State government. Mr. preme Court against its validity:
proper place, in the proper time, and by the proper Carillo said, (Debates, page 22:)
Sir, the personal honor and high bearing of that parties. I deny to Congress any such power of
distinguished Senator is above and beyond as- interference in the affairs of a Slate. Admit Kan“Ile represented one of the most respectable communi
sault." Far be it from me to say anything unkind, ties in California, and he did not believe it to be to the in
sas, and the corrective for every injury will soon terest of his constituents that a State government should
or to impugn in the slightest degree'the honest dic. follow. At the same time, as a great majority of this tates of his judgment. He will pardon me, how- Mr. Chairman, the bitter strife which has reconvention appeared to be in favor of a State government, ever, for asserting on this poor, that these senti- sounded through this Hall for the past three lie proposed that ihe country be divided by running a line ments of his will find, in my judgment, no response
months, betokens nothing of good to the perpetuwest from San Luis Obispo, so that all worth of that line might have a state government, and all south thereof a ter
in the hearts of a large majority of the people of ity of free Government. For what purpose, and ritorial government. He and his colleagues were under Kentucky. Kentucky, has played a prominent to what end, are these criminations and recriminainstructions to vote for a territorial goverument."
part in all the compromises which promised peace tions between representative brethren from the Yet, Mr. Chairman, California was brought in to the country and stability to the Union. 'The several sections of a great, glorious, and happy as a free State. Where then was the great so- South has always adhered in good faith to every country? Their continued repetition must tend to licitude for popular sovereignty of which we have compromise. It was the North that has repudi- | weaken, rather than unite, the bonds of our holy heard so much in this debate? Why slept the ated them. They refused to accede to the exten- fellowship. I was surprised to see in the printed ire of the opponents of Kansas, who then went | sion of the Missouri line to our Pacific posses- speech of the gentleman from Pennsylvania, (Mr. for a free State under such irregularities and outsions, and northern men have boasted that it was MORRIS,) a total perversion of the position of rages? In vain did the South protest against so against the sentiment of the North that the Mis- the distinguished Senator from Missouri, (Mr. gross an injustice to her rights. California was souri line was ever adopted. A different principle | Green,) on the power of the people of Kansas to brought in.
was adopted by the compromise measures of 1850, | change their constitution. I will not believe that But gentlemen say that the constitution of which was itself a quasi repeal of the Missouri this perversion was intentional; still, the speech California was submiited and ratificd by the peo- || line; and when that principle came to be applied of the gentleman from Pennsylvania is scattered ple. How ratified? It received some twelve thou- practically to Kansas, the North, for the first time, I broadcast through the length and breadth of the sand out of sixty-odd thousand votes, half of showed its respect for the Missouri restriction: | land, with an ulter misstatement of Mr. Green's whom had never heard of the proclamation of We are now tauntingly told that slavery must true position. Though wholly unintentional, the General Riley, the convention, or the constitu- find no foothold in any territory of this Govern- || injury is not thereby diminished. tion! Yet gentlemen can take California, but re
The gentleman from Pennsylvania, after comject Kansas because a few hundred people were Mr. Chairman, no peans need be sung in behalf batting the position in the President's Kansas mes. not registered and represented in the Kansas con- of Kentucky's devotion to the Union. From prin- | sage, that the people of that Territory have a right vention; and when that failure was attributable, || ciple and from interest, she will cling to it as the to change their constitution, proceeds to say that as has been abundantly shown, to faction. They noblest achievement for civil and religious liberty | the President's position is repudiated by the Sencan see California brought in over law, order, reg. the world has ever seen. That Commonwealth ator from Missouri in the report for the admission ularity, or precedent, with immense boundaries, | knows no standard for the measurement of its of Kansas which he made in the Senate, and in included for the purpose of excluding slavery, || value. But, sir, with the doctrines now advanced, support of this alleged repudiation the gentleman and perpetuating the power of the North; and yet, the time for compromises of the Constitution have from Pennsylvania quotes the report, as follows: when Kansas asks for admission, southern men passed. Kentucky looks alone to the Constitu. “ However grievous its provisions may prove to be, they who rejoiced over the admission of California are iion for safety. The day has already arrived cannot change without resorting to revolution until the horrified at the want of an enabling act for Kan- | when, behind its bulwarks, the true friends of the sas, and at certain frauds alleged to have been Union can intrench themselves for safety. Ken.
This quotation would seem to support the text committed at their elections in that Territory. tncky proves her devotion to the Union by the of the gentleman's speech, but the fact is not so. Mr. Chairman, no man entertains a higher per- unanimity with which a large majority of her
An examination of Mr. Green's report will show sonal regard than I do for the distinguished gen- people, of all parties, are standing by the gallant that this quotation does him the amplest injustice: tleman (Mr. CrITTENDEN) who in part represents | Chief Magistrate of this nation, in his earnest and
and wholly misrepresents his true position. It the sovereignty of Kentucky in the other wing of patriotic desires to preserve the guarantees of that
will be seen that the quotation from ihe report of this Capitol. He has been the recipient, for many Constitution by bringing Kansas in. Kentucky
Mr. GREEN, as set out in the speech of the gentlelong years, of the most distinguished honors which abhors sectionalism, and greets all with fellow
man from Pennsylvania, begins in the middle of his native State could bestow, and his name prom- ship, from any portion of the Confederacy, who a sentence, and thereby makes Mr. Green deny inently appears on the brightest pages of her his- are willing to stand by the bond of that Union, the right of the people to change their constitu. lory. Sir, that Senator is my personal friend. I and perform its requirements. She desires sla
lion until 1864, when, if the whole paragraph, and heard him the other day, “ more in sorrow than very to be forced upon nobody; but when a State a few succeeding ones had been quoted, it would in anger,'' announce his purpose of ranging him- presents herself with a requisite population, and
have shown that the Senator from Missouri was, self on this question with the anti-slavery hosts à republican, though pro-slavery constitution, in that portion of the report from which the quoin this mighty hour of trial, when Kentucky and asking for admission; when patriots from the tation was taken, supporting the view of the Presher southern sisters lie bound and helpless-their North and West are facing the storms of ananging fo lowing quotation from the report itself, as fol
ident. I propose to make this manifest by the sovereignty and equality about to be crushed un
lows: der the insatiate Juggernaut of abolitionism. Sir, I their political existence in supporting the Presithat distinguished Senator was in the Cabinet of dent in his noble efforts to extend to it a guar
“Many generous persons, who are quite indisposed to
countenance the violence and contumacy of the Abolition. General Taylor, when the mighty injustice was antied right of admission, Kentucky insists that isis sent into Kansas for the purpose of excluding therefrom done of dedicating the whole Pacific coast to free- || Kansas shall not be excluded upon flimsy pre- all property not pleasing to them and their abertors, urgo dom, in direct contravention of the rights of a large || texts, which have been disregarded over and over that something might be done to lessen the hardships that
will fall upon them in the event of the admission of Kan. portion of the people of California, and under a pro- || again, in the admission of free States.
sas into the Union with the constitution made at Lecomp. iest from many of them against so gross a wrong! Let not such a precedent be added to the pow- ion; that, although it is truc the Abolivonists violently oplle was then for compromise. He rejoiced with erful majority now held by the North. Do not posed registration, would not vote at elections, held sham his native State that patriotic counsels ruled the permit fanaticism to justify itself, in its destructive
clections ou days subsequent to those appointed by law, and hour, and that the efforts of the great Commoner, || warfare upon the Constitution, by citing this ex
even refused to vote against the establishment of slavery, at
a time when they professed to believe their doing so would backed by patriots from every section, had been ample, in support of further and still more alarm- have excluded it, and thus have peacefully settled the quessuccessful in withdrawing from Congress the ing aggressions. Let Kansas be admitted. Lo- tion to their own satisfaction, yet they consider it would be question of slavery, by leaving that question to be calize this excitement by permitting the people of
too severe to compel such contumacious citizens, coen determined by the people themselves, and thereby that Territory to selte these difficulties for theme
though it is their own fault, to live under a constitution
whicli, however grievous jis provisions may prove, they becoming a second time prominent in preserving selves. Disarm the jealousy of our southern cannot change, without resorting to rerolution, until the the bonds of our Union. brethren, who have proclaimed that the rejection
year 1864." But now, when Kansas comes with a republi. Il of Kansas would atford cause for a separation It will be seen that it is the last two lines of the
35Th Cong....lst Sess.
Admission of Kansas-Mr. Gilmer.
Ho. of REPs.
above paragraph that were quoted by the gentle- ber on Territories who made the majority report, grounds for ribaldrous soldiery; all international man from Pennsylvania. It was not Mr.GREEN's are in direct antagonism on the question of a trade and communication cut off; all municipal argument, but that of many generous persons. power in the people of Kansas to change their and family peace destroyed; our sons dragord Mir. GREEN gives two answers to the paragraph | constitution.
from their homes, amid the sighs and tears ci af quoted, as follows:
fectionate mothers and sisters, to the bloody hulig "To such, without resorting to the ready answer that
ADMISSION OF KANSAS.
of civil strife; and all this growing out of a qu-3Congress has no power to modity or alter a State constitu
tion as to bow, when, or in what manner tary tion, and has expressly stipulated that the people of Kansas shall be permitted to form their own institutions, subject ONLY SPEECH OF HON.JOHN A. GILMER, I thousand people, only, in Kansas shall sectie in
themselves their own domestic affairs; or, rahat, to the Constitution of the United States, two replies may be
OF NORTH CAROLINA, given. The first one is this: the clause complained of in
how they shall soonest get clear of a few slavisa the Lecompton constitution, in this connection, is in these
IN THE HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, and get iwo “ Free-Soil” Senators and one Purpo words:
March 31, 1858.
resentative in Congress; I say, such a man Las He then proceeds to give the provision in the
no feeling in common with me, and none, I trust, Lecompton constitution, and says:
The IIouse being in the Committee of the Whole on the
with the great body of the honest yeomanry of state of the Union" That this provision is not objectionable to the Aboli
this country, of all sections. tionists, in fact, and is now urged by them and their friends Mr. GILMER said:
We have our troubles, I admit. We have had only for popular effect, is proved by the overwhelming fact
Mr. Chalaman: I have been an attentive listener sectional troubles of a similar kind before. We thalihe Abolitionists of Kansas inserted in their “Topeka constitution'the following more objectionable provision : to the arguments on this Lecompton question for have had, as now, disunion threatened, but thanks 666 Amendments to the Constitution.- Article xvi.
three months. Whilst some of the speeches have to the good sense of the people, they have never ** SECTION 1. All propositions for amendments to the
been calm and considerate, I feel constrained to yet inclined to take the prescriptions of those who constitution shall be inade by the General Assembly. say that by far the larger number have been vio- | boastingly decline to sing peans to the Union?
SEC. 2. A concurrence of two thirds of the members lent and extremely sectional, tending directly to England, from whom we derive our nature and clected to each House shall be necessary, after which such proposed amendments shall be entered upon the journals
wenken the respect which the North and the many of the free principles of which we boast, with the yeas and nays; and the Secretary of State shall
South should have for each other, and which is had her troubles. She has had her dissessionscause the same to be published in at least one newspaper in essential to the safety of the Union itself. I have | her white and red roses; her land has been tinged cach county in the State where a newspaper is published, heard and read speeches delivered both in this with blood in civil strife; and once the head of ber for at least six months preceding the next election for Sen
House, and in the other end of this Capitol, by King was brought to the block-but her people ators or Representatives, when suel proposed amendment shall be again referred to the Legislature elected next suc
gentlemen from the North and from the South, the were attached to their Government and their corceeding said publication. If passed by the second Legisla- true spirit and meaning of which is disunion. stitution. The storm passed away. The political ture by a majority of two thirds of the members elected to True, most, if not all, profess to love the Union atmosphere again became pure and healthful; and each llouse, such amendinents shall be republished, as atoresaid, for at least six inonths prior to the next general
and the Constitution. Their speeches are filled the Government was maintained and improved. clection, at which election such proposed amendments shall
with expressions of high veneration for the Con- || And it is my honest conviction that there is too he subinitted to the people for their approval or rejection ; stitution of our fathers. They indulge in patriotic much good sense in the people of these United and if the inajority of the electors voting at such election strains. Their addresses are robed in the most States to be led away with the idea of disunion, on shall adopt such amendments, the same shall become a part
beautiful habiliments, overflowing with profes- account of any difficulties growing out of this of the constitution.
6. Sec.3. When more than one amendment is submitted sions and assurances most imposing: The spirit | question, surrounded by such peculiar circum. at the same time, they shall be so submitted as to enable the of disunion is, however, the core. It is presented, stances. I predict they will not, unless mind electors to vote pon cach amendment separately.
and perusal and handling secured, as you would and deceived. But, figuratively speaking, tury ""Sec. 4. Noconvention for the formation of a new constitution shall be called, and no amendment to the constitu
an asp in a casket of beautiful howers. The de. will bring to the block the political beads or sil tion shall be, by the General Assembly, made before the year sign is evidently to infuse the poisonous spirit of who shall insist on any such remedy for such 1865, nor more than once in five years thereafter."" disunion where, for it, there could be no reception, complaint.
And then Mr. GREEN proceeds as follows: were proper labels attached. Professions of pa- Mr. Chairman, it is not to be disguised that our “ The second reply is this: suppose the grievance real,
triotism are uttered in loud and eloquent tones, | southern people are anxious about appearances for and that it ought to be redressed, it is unnecessary for Con. for peace and harmony, whilst the evident drift the future. They see the free States, in number gress to unlawfully interfere for that purpose, inasmuch as
is to exasperate and make wider the breach. and in representation, already in the majority in the Lecompion convention has provided a full, lawful, and perieet remedy for every conceivable grievance, and placed
With pain and regret am I forced to the belief both Houses of Congress, and this majority sa ihat remedy in the unrestricted hands of a majority of the there are gentlemen on this floor who, while they to be largely increased; that while the Souia iaus people, by inserting in the constitution of Kansas the follow- oppose the admission of Kansas with the Lecomp- | into this minority, they have witnessed, for tse ing distinct and unequivocal recognition of power:
ton constitution, do really desire the bill to pass last few years, among many people of the frie “6 All political power is inherent in the people, and all free
for the sake of certain consequences,
disastrous governments are founded on their authority, and instituted
States, an increasing spirit of bitter hostility is for their benefit, and therefore they have at all times an in- to the peace and harmony of the country, which the South and her institutions. But let us, jis alienable and indefeasible right to alter, reform, or abolish they expect to grow out of it.
statesmen, be calm, briefly trace the history of us their form oi government in such manner as they may think On the other hand, I fear that, among other gen- || thing, and inquire why it is. Though by the cei. proper.' "The Abolitionists of Kansas have thus far sought power
tlemen advocating this measure, there are some sus, the actual figures show that the natural i by methods unknown to the law and by violence, and not whose regret is that the Lecompton constitution, crease of population in the slave States has beze through the percful agency of the ballot-box. Claiming to and the manner of securing its presentation here, l equal to the natural native increase of the free bave a majority of the voters of the Territory, and therefore able to elect Legislatures and conventions, they yrtask Con
were not more odious to the people of Kansas and States, yet the free States have excelled us it is gress to wrongiully do for them what they may, at legal times the free States, so that their ultimate object might settlement of new Territories and raising up nex and legal places, rightfully do for themselves, that is, change be the sooner secured by a bloody conflict of States. or abolish their constitution."
northern and southern arms on the plains of Kan- In the first place, we of the southern States bare Thus it will be seen how an erroneous quota- sas, and, in case of a failure in this, such bitter | been, and now are, the advocates of free trade, ar! tion, however unintentional, may do injustice to sectional excitement shall certainly ensue as to many for direct taxes. We have opposed the pa a gentleman's position, and how easily, by a true produce a fusion of all political parties in the free icy of discrimination in favor of our own domesc quotation of all the text, the argument of the gen- | States, combined as a purely sectional party, industry in the old States, in regulating and us ileman from Pennsylvania (M«. MORRIS) is an- against a similar fusion of all parties in the slave | ing revenue, and no more than enough to dtiny swered. By such arguments and quotations from | States, by which disunion is made certain in the the expenses of the Government economically his own manuscript the fate of the Senator from end. These speeches I will not particularize. | ministered. Missouri might be made to resemble that of Zadig | They have unfortunately gone forth to the coun- To this policy we have made in substance, sa in Voltaire's tale. A fragment of paper was found try-those of the North to be read in the South, cessful opposition—thereby in a good degree cocontaining these verses, in his own hand-writing: | that they there may have samples of how north- ting off much of the inducement that would be “By crimes of deepest dye
ern people hate and despise southern men, and retained the industrious and energetic populat: lie's of the throne possessed;
those of the South to be read in the North that in the old States, who, in consequence, bare 'Gainst peace and liberty An enemy professed;"
they may know how they are scorned and de- moved to the Territories, there settled, made Der tested by the citizens of the South.
and free States, and became producers instead and these lines were construed into a seditious and
The designs and purposes of both sides, it is to consumers of the earth's productions. traitorous libel against the reigning Prince. But as they were leading poor Zadig to execution, a
be feared, are the same--to arouse, drill, and pre- In the second place, a majority of southern per
pare for strife the minds of a great people now iticians have uniformly favored the policy of 12parrot flew to the place with another fragment, || happy, with bright prospects for the future; and viting, alluring, persuading, and, in fact, hirwhich saved his life; for it exactly fitted the for
who, by their united energies in advancing the emigrants-not only the citizens of the States, i mer, and on it were written other words, which entirely changed the complexion of the supposed
industrial and literary pursuits of the whole coun- of the whole world—to move and settle in our Tea libel. The whole read thus:
try, are doing much more for the true happiness ritories. Homesteads, by way of preemptions, 13 and prosperity of us all.
the Territories, are offered to all the world. 11 “By crimes of deepest dye we've seen the earth made hell; Without intending to be offensive or personal, language of the whole policy is in substancescoc: lle's of the thirone possessed who all these powers can quell;
I must be permitted to say, I envy not the man ye all the earth and settle in our Territories: tert Gaiust peace and liberty love only wages war
who can look on our country as it is, and, with you can become citizens, and without waiting An enemy professed, and one we well inay fear." composure, anticipate its condition when severed be naturalized, according to the laws of the Unit,
This effort to condemn the Senator from Mis- || and divided. The man who can contemplate that you can vote and hold office;"the result of wbie souri out of his own mouth, as opposing the Pres- | terrible day, when, by reason of civil war, our has been to run from the old States (slave sid ident's view, signally failed. Thousands, how- beautiful and growing cities, towns, and villages | free) into the Territories, much of their popniaever, throughout the land, who read the speech of || shall be consumed by fire; our manufactories | tion, and particularly that portion, though you , the gentleman from Pennsylvania, will go to their razed to the ground; our commerce broken up; | industrious, and worthy, who have, or take i graves believing that the President, and the mem- our lovely fields and gardens made the foraging litle interest in the institutions of the South; 21