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" and the picture both that and him, thirsting after

his adored image. But I am yet less unhappy, I “ enjoy her presence continually, and if I touch her, “ I destroy not the beauteous form, but she looks “ pleased, and a sweet smile sits in the charming

space which divides her lips. One 'would swear " that voice and speech were issuing out, and that " one's ears felt the melodious sound. How often « have I, deceived by a lover's credulity, hearkened " if she had not something to whisper me? and “ when frustrated of my hopes, how often have I “ taken my revenge in kisses from her cheeks and “ eyes, and softly wooed her to my embrace, whilst “ she, as to me it seemed, only withheld her tongue “ the more to infiame me? But, madman that I

am, shall I be thus taken with the representation

only of a beauteous face, and flowing hair, and “ thus waste myself, and melt to tears for a shadow ? “ Ah, sure it is something more, it is a reality! 6 for see her beauties shine out with new lustre, and " she seems to upbraid me with such unkind re

proaches. Oh may I have a living mistress of this “ form, that when I shall compare the work of na“ ture with that of art, I may be still at a loss which

to choose, and be long perplexed with the pleasing 5 uncertainty !

T,

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I HAVE sometimes amused myself with considering the several methods of managing a debate which have obtained in the world.

The first races of mankind used to dispute, as our ordinary people do now-a-days, in a kind of wild logic, uncultivated by rules of art.

Socrates introduced a catechetical methodof arguing. He would ask his adversary question upon question, until he had convinced him out of his own mouth that his opinions were wrong. This way of debating drives an enemy up into a corner, seizes all the passes through which he can make an escape, and forces him to surrender at discretion.

Aristotle changed this method of attack, and invented a great variety of little weapons, called syllogisms. As in the Socratic way of dispute you agree to every thing which your opponent advances, in the Aristotelic you are still denying and contradicting some part or other of what he says.

Socrates conquers you by stratagem, Aristotle by force : the one takes the town by sap, the other sword in hand.

The universities of Europe, for many years, carried on their debates by syllogism, insomuch that we see the knowledge of several centuries laid out into objections and answers, and all the good sense of the age cut and minced into almost an infinitude of distinctions.

When our universities found that there was no end of wrangling this way, they invented a kind of argument, which is not reducible to any mood or figure of Aristotle. It was called the Argumentum Basilinum, others write it Bacilinum or Baculinum, which is pretty well expressed in our English word, club-law. When thcy were not able to confute their antagonist, they knocked him down. It was their method in these polemical debates, first to discharge their syllogisms, and afterwards to betake themselves to their clubs, until such time as they had one way or other confounded their gainsayers. There is in Oxford a narrow defile, to make use of a military term, where the partisans used to encounter, for which reason it still retains the name of Logic-lane. I have heard an old gentleman, a physician, make his boasts, that when he was a young fellow he marched several times at the head of a troop of Scotists, and cudgelled a body of Smiglesians half the length of High-street, until they had dispersed themselves for shelter into their respective garrisons.

This humour, I find went very far in Erasmus's time. For that author tells us, that upon the revival of Greek letters, most of the universities of Europe were divided into Greeks and Trojans. The latter were those who bore a mortal enmity to the language of the Grecians, insomuch that if they met with any who understood it, they did not fail to treat him as a foe. Erasmus himself had, it seems, the inisfortune to fall into the hands of a party of Trojans, who laid on him with so many blows and buffets that he never forgot their hostilities to his dying day.

There is a way of managing an argument not much unlike the former, which is made use of by states and communities, when they draw up a hundred thousand disputants on each side, and convince one another by dint of sword. A certain grand monarch was so sensibleof his strength in this way of reasoning, that he writ upon his great guns-Ratio ultima Regum, “ The Logic of Kings ;" but, God be thanked, he is now pretty well baffled at his own weapons. When one has to do with philosopher of this kind, one

should remember the old gentleman's saying, who had been engaged in an argument with one of the Roman emperors. Upon his friend's telling him, that he wondered he would give up the question, when he had visibly the better of the dispute ; 66. I am never " ashamed,” says he, “ to be confuted by one who 6 is master of fifty legions."

I shall but just mention another kind of reasoning, which may be called arguing by poll; and another which is of equal force, in which wagers are made use of as arguments, according to the celebrated line in Hudibras.

But the most notable way of managing a controversy is that which we may call arguing by torture. This is a method of reasoning which has been made use of with the poor refugees, and which was so fashionable in our country during the reign of Queen Mary, that in a passage of an author quoted by Monsieur Bayle, it is said the price of wood was raised in England, by reason of the executions that were made in Smithfield. These disputants convince their adversaries with a Storites, commonly called a pile of faggots. The rack is also a kind of syllogism which has been used with good effect, and has made multitudes of converts. Men were formerly disputed' out of their doubts, reconciled to truth by force of reason, and won over to opinions by the candour, sense, and ingenuity of those who liad the right on their side ; but this method of conviction operated too siowiy. Pain was found to be inuch more enlightening than reason. Every scruple was looked upon as obstinacy, and not to be removed but by several engines invented for that purpose. In a word, the application of whips, racks, gibbets, gallies, dungeons, fire and faggot, in a dispute, may be looked upon as popish refinements upon the old heathen logic.

There is another way of reasoning which seldom fails, though it be of a quite different nature to that

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I have last mentioned. I mean, convincing a man by ready money, or, as it is ordinarily called, bribing a man to an opinion. This method has often proved successful, when all the others have been made use of to no purpose. A man who is furnished with arguments from the mint, will convince his antagonist much sooner than one who draws them from reason and philosophy. Gold is a wonderful clearer of the understanding; it dissipates every doubt and scruple in an instant ; accommodates itself to the meanest capacities ; silences the loud and clamorous, and brings over the most obstinate and inflexible. Philip of Macedon was a man of most invincible reason this way, He refuted by it all the wisdom of Athens, confounded their statesmen, struck their orators dumb, and at length argued them out of all their liberties.

Having here touched upon the several methods of disputing, as they have prevailed in different ages of the world, I shall very suddenly give my reader an account of the whole art of cavilling ; which shall be a full and satisfactory answer to all such papers and pamphlets as have yet appeared against the Spectator.

C.

No. CCXL. WEDNESDAY, DECEMBER 5.

3........Aliter non fit, avite, liber.

MART.

Of such materials, Sir, are books compos'd.

• Mr. Spectator, "I AM of one of the most genteel trades in the city, and understand thus much of liberal education, as to have an ardent ambition of being useful to man

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