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SETTLEMENT OF GEORGIA.

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CHAPTER XXI.

CONFLICTS BETWEEN THE ENGLISH AND FRENCH.
Relations Between the English and the Five Nations

-The Hostility of the Latter to the French-King
William's War-Destruction of Dover—The Jesuit
Missionaries Incite the Indians to Attack the Eng-
lish-Expedition against Quebec-Attack on Dus-

BOOK III.

The French and Indian War.

CHAPTER XXII.

OUTBREAK OF HOSTILITIES.

England Claims the Valley of the Ohio-Organiza-

tion of the Ohio Company—The French Extend

their posts into the Ohio Country—Washington's
Mission to the French at Fort Duquesne-His Jour-

ney-Reception by the French-His Journey llome

-A Perilous Undertaking-Organization of the

Virginia Forces—Washington Made Second in

Command—The French Drive the English from the

Head of the Ohio—Fort Duquesne Built by Them

-Washington Crosses the Mountains— The Fight at

Great Meadows--Beginning of the French and In-

dian War-Surrender of Fort Necessity to the

French-Unjust Treatment of the Colonial Officers

-Congress of the Colonies at New York--Frank-

lin's Plan of a Union of the Colonies--Its Failure-

Reasons of the British Government for Rejecting It

-England Assumes the Direction of the War–Ar-

rival of General Braddock-Plan of Campaign-

Obstinacy of Braddock—He Passes the Mountains

-Defeat of Braddock—Heroism of Washington-

Retreat of Dunbar beyond the Mountains— Vigor-

ous Action of Pennsylvania—Armstrong Deseats the

Indians and Burns the Town of Kittanning ... 27

CHAPTER XXIII,

SANGUNIARY STRUGGLES ON THE FRONTIER.
Expedition against Acadia—Brutal Treatment of the

Acadians—They Are Expelled from their Country
-A Sad Story-Fate of the Acadians-Johnson at
Lake George - March of Dieskau-Battle of Lake
George-Failure of Shirley's Expedition-Arrival
of the Earl of Loudon-Montcalm in Canada-

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Capture of Oswego by the French-Outrages of the
Earl of Loudon upon New York and Philadelphia
– Expedition against Louisburg—How the Earl of
Loudon Beat the French-Capture of Fort William
Henry by Montcalm-Massacre of the Prisoners by
the Indians--Efforts of Montcalm to Save Them-
The Royal Officers Attempt to Cover Their Failures
by Outraging the Colonies . .

298

England Persists in Her Determination to Tax Amer-
ica--Passage of the Stamp Act--Resistance of the
Colonists—Meeting of the First Colonial Congress
--Its Action-William Pitt-Repeal of the Stamp
Act-Franklin before the House of Commons-
New Taxes Imposed upon America-Increased Re-
sistance of the Colonies—Troops Quartered in Bos-
ton--The “ Massacre " -The Non-Importation As-
sociation-Growth of Hostility to England--Bur:-

ing of the “Gaspé”—The Tax on Tea Ketained by

the King-Destruction of Tea at Boston-Wrath

of the British Government-Boston Harbor Closed

-- Troops Quartered in Boston- The Colonists Come

to the Assistance of Boston-Action of the Virginia

Assembly-General Gage in Boston--The Regulat-

ing Act-Its Failure-Gage Seizes the Massachu-

setts Powder--Uprising of the Colony-- Meeting of

the Continental Congress---Its Action--Addresses to

the King and People of England–The Earl of

Chatham'sIndorsement of Congress-- The King Re-

mains Stubborn.

327

CHAPTER XXVI.

PROGRESS OF THE WAR.

Gage fortifies Boston Neck-- He Sammons the Gen-

eral Court --Recalls his Proclamation--The Provin-

cial Congress of Massachusetts--It takes Measures

for Defence—The Militia Organized— The Minute

Men-Friends of America in England-Gage re-

solves to seize the Stores at Concord–Midnight

March of the British Troops—The Alarm given-

Skirmishes at Lexington and Concord— Retreat of

the British-A Terrible March-Uprising of New

England-Boston Invested— Dunmore seizes the

Virginia Powder—Is made to pay for it-Uprising

of the Middle and Southern Colonies—The Meck-

lenburg Declaration of Independence—Capture of

Ticonderoga and Crown Point-Meeting of the Sec-

ond Cantinental Congress-Congress resolves to sus-

tain Massachusetts-Renewed Efforts for Peace-

Congress Assumes the General Government of the

Colonies—A Federal Union Organized—Its Charac-

ter-A Continental Army formed-George Wash.

ington Appointed Commander-in-chief - General

Officers Appointed--Condition of the Army before
Boston—Inaction of Gage-Battle of Breed's Hill
-A Glorious Defence—The Battle Equivalent to a
Victory in its Effects upon the Country-Arrival of
Washington at Cambridge--He takes Command of
the Army-He Reorganizes the Army-Difficulties
of the Undertaking--The Invasion of Canada Re-
solved upon-March of Montgoniery and Arnold
Rapid Successes of Montgomery–He Captures

CHAPTER XXV.

CAUSES OF THE STRUGGLE FOR INDEPENDENCE.

injustice of Great Britain towards Her Colonies—The

Navigation Acts—Effects of these Laws upon the
Colonies-Great Britain Seeks to Destroy the Man-
ufactures of America-Writs of Assistance— They
Are Opposed—Home Manufactures Encouraged by
the Americans– Ignorance of Englishmen Concern-
ing America-Great Britain Claims the Right to
Tax America---Resistance of the Colonists--Samuel
Adams--- The Parsons' Cause -- Patrick Henry-

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CHAPTER XXVII.

- THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE.

The Siege of Boston—Difficulties of the American

Army-Activity of the Privateers—Clinton's Expe-

tion-Colonel Knox arrives from Ticonderoga with

Cannon-Seizure of Dorchester Heights by Wash-

ington—The British Evacuate Boston-Royalist

Plots in New York-Paper Money Issued by Con-

gress—Gates sent to the North—The British Attack

Charleston-Baltle of Fort Moultrie—The Howes in

New York Bay—Change in the Character of the War

-Growing Sentiment in Favor of Independence-

-Virginia Proposes the Colonies Assert their Inde-

pendence-Action of Congress—The Declaration of

Independence-Articles of Confederation Adopted

by Congress—Lord Howe's Efforts at Conciliation-

Addresses a Letter to Washington-Battle of Long

Island--Defeat of the Americans—Retreat from

Long Island— Evacuation of New York by the

Americans–Loss of Fort Washington, Washington

Retreats through New Jersey—He Crosses the Del-

aware—Darkest Period of the War-Washington's

Determination to Continue the War-Lord Howe's

Proclamation—Its Effect-Congress at Baltimore-

Carleton invades New York-Defeats Arnold on

Lake Champlain—Carleton Retires into Canada,

Battle of Trenton-Happy Effects of the Victory

-Congress confers Dictatiorial Powers upon Wash-

ington-Commissioners sent to France :. 377

CHAPTER XXVIII.

THE YEAR 1777

Howe Attempts to Crush Washington--Battle or

Princeton--The British Confined to the Seaboard--

Recovery of New Jersey—The American Army in

Winter Quarters at Morristown—Effects of the

American Successes--Difficulty of Procuring Troops

- Washington Pefuses to Exchange Prisoners-His

Course Approved by Congress--Measures of Con-

gress-Naval Affairs-Tryon Burns Danbury--Gal-

lantry of Arnold-Troubles in the Northern Depart-

ment--Congress Adopts a National Flag—“The

Stars and Stripes"-Course of France towards the

United States-France Decides to Assist the Amer

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of Marion and Sumter-Advance of Cornwallis-
Battle of King's Mountain-Gates Succeeded by
General Greene-Knyphausen's Expeditions into
New Jersey-Arrival of the French Fleet and
Army-Arnold's Treason- The Plot for the Be-
trayal of West Point-Arrest of Major André-
Flight of Arnold—Execution of André-Mutiny of
the Pennsylvania and New Jersey Troops—Meas-
ures of Congress-Arnold Captures Richmond, Vir-
ginia—Batile of the Cowpens—Masterly Retreat of
General Greene-Cornwallis Baffled-Battle of
Guilford Court House-Cornwallis at Wilmington
- Battle of Hobkirk's Hill—Siege of Ninety-Six-

ecution of Colonel Hayne-Battle of Eutaw
Springs—Washington Decides to Attack New York

- The French Army on the Hudson-Financial
Affairs-Resumption of Specie Payments—Message
from the Count De Grasse-Cornwallis at York-
town—The American Army Moves Southward-
Siege of Yorktown-Surrender of Cornwallis-Ef.
fect of the News in England-Indian Troubles
Efforts in England for Peace-Negotiations Opened

- Treaty of Paris--End of the War—The Army
Disbanded—Washington Resigns His Commission 450

CHAPTER XXXII.
THE ADMINISTRATIONS OF JOHN ADAMS AND THOMAS

JEFFERSON.
Inauguration of John Adams—Aggressions of France

upon the United States—The American Commis-
sioners Insulted by the French Government–The
Alien and Sedition Laws—The United States Pre-
pare for War with France-France Signifies her
Willingness to Treat—New Commissioners Ap-
pointed-Settlement of the Dispute-Hostilities at
Sea-Capture of the “ Insurgente” and “Ven.
geance"-Death of Washington-Removal of the
Capital to Washington City-The Second Census-
Inauguration of Thomas Jefferson—The President's
Message-Ilis First Measures--Admission of Ohio
-Louisiana Purchased by the United States—War
with the Barbary Powers—Burning of the “ Phila-
delphia"-Re-election of Mr. Jefferson—Aaron Burr
Kills Alexander Hamilton in a Duel-Burr's Subse-
quent Career-Fulton's Steamboat-Outrages of
England and France upon American Commerce-
American Vessels Searched and American Seamen
Impressed by England-Efforts to Settle these
Questions-Aftair of the “Chesapeake” and “Leop-
ard”—The Embargo-Results of this Measure-
Losses of the Eastern States Election of James
Madison to the Presidency-Repeal of the Embargo. 496

BOOK V.
From the Close of the Revolution to the

Civil War.

CHAPTER XXXI.
THE ADOPTION OF THE CONSTITUTION-WASHINGTON'S

ADMINISTRATION.
Unsettled Condition of the Country-Failure of the

Articles of Confederation-Desire for Reform-.
Meeting of the Federal Convention at Philadelphia
-The Constitution of the United States--Adoption
of a Decimal Currency—The Northwest Territory
-Washington Elected President- His Journey to
New York-Establishment of the New Government
- The First Cabinet-Financial Measures-Re-
moval of the Capital Agreed Upon—The Govern.
ment at Philadelphia, The First Census—The In-
dians of the Northwest Conquered—Re-election
of Washington-Division of Parties—The French
Revolution—The United States Neutral-Citizen
Genet-Efforts to Commit the United States to the
French Alliance-Genet's Recall DemandedThe
“Whiskey Insurrection”—Jay's Treaty with Eng.
land-Opposition to It-Negotiations with Algiers
-Political Disputes—Hostility to Washington-His
Farewell Address—Its Effect upon the Country-
Election of John Adams to the Presidency-Admis-
sion ci Vermont, Kentucky and Tennessee-Retir
ment of Washington-His Administration . . . 481

CHAPTER XXXIIJ.
THE ADMINISTRATION OF JAMES MADISON—THE SECOND

WAR WITH ENGLAND.
Inauguration of Mr. Madison-Negotiations with Mr.

Erskine-Their Failure-Seizure of American Ves.
sels in France-Sufferings of American Ship-owners
-Great Britain Stations her Ships of War off Amer-
can Ports-Affair of the “ President” and “Little
Belt ”_Trouble with the Northwestern Indians-
Tecumseh-Battle of Tippecanoe—Meeting of the
Twelfth Congress-Measures for Defence-Admis.
sion of Louisiana into the Union-Death of George
Clinton—The British Ultimatum-War Declared
Against Great Britain--Opposition to the War-The
British Offer of Settlement Rejected— The War for
Free Trade and the Sailors' Rights"– Mr. Madi-
son Re-elected—Campaign of 1812—Preparations
for the Invasion of Canada--General Hull Sus -
renders Detroit to the British-Loss of the North
western Frontier--Failure of the Attack on Queens.
town—Exploits of the Navy-Capture of the “Guer
rière” by the “Constitution"— The Privateers-
Russia Offers to Mediate between the United States
and England—Financial Affairs—Harrison's Cam
paign-Massacre the River Basin --Desen of
Forts Meigs and Stephenson-Perry's Victory on Lake

Renew the Charter of the United States Bank-De-

bate Between Hayne and Webster— Jackson's Quar-

rel with Calhourn-Death of ex-President Monroe

- The Cholera-Black Hawk's War-Re-election

of President Jackson—The Tariff— Action of South
Carolina-The Nullification Ordinance-Firmness
of the President—The Matter Settled by Compro-
mise—Patriotism of Henry Clay—The Removal of
the Deposits-—The Seminole War Begun-Great
Fire in New York-Settlement of the French
Claims-Arkansas Admitted into the Union - The
National Debt Paid-Death of ex-President Madi.
son-Martin Van Buren Elected President-Michi-
gan Admitted into the Union—The Panic of 1837–
Causes of It-Suspension of Specie Payments—
Great Distress throughout the Union—The Sub-
Treasury-Repudiation of State Debts—The Can-
adian Rebellion-- The President's Course—The
Seminole War Ended— The Anti-Slavery Party-
Resolutions of Congress Respecting Slavery-
William Henry Harrison Elected President- The
Sixth Census

561

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