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CHAPTER XVI

The Settlement of New York

Toyages of Henry Hudson-He is Employed by the Dutch—Discovery of the Hudson River-Early Dutch Voyagna

Adrian Block-Fate of Hudson—The Dutch Build a Fort on Manhattan Island—Settlement of New Amsterdam The Province Named New Netherlands-Fort Nassau-Peter Minuits Governor- The Dutch Settlement of Dela. Fare_Wouter Van Twiller-Kiest Governor-His Unjust Treatment of the Indians Massacre of the Indians at Hoboken—The Indian War-Stuyvesant Appointed Governor_Disputes with the English in Connecticut— The Swedes Settle Delaware-Stuyvesant Captures the Swedish Forts—Growth of New Amsterdam-Disputes Between the People and Governor-Growing Spirit of Popular Liberty—The People Appeal to the States General—Capture of New Netherlands by the English—The Name of the Province Changed to New York-Results of the Eng'ish Conquest-Progress of New Jersey--Andros Governor of New York—He Fails to Establish His Authority Over Connecticut-New York Allowed an Assembly-Discontents of the People—Leisler's Rebellion-Execution of Leisler and Milbourne-Fletcher Governor His Attempt to Obtain Command of the Connecticut Militia—Episcopacy Established in New York—The Freedom of the Press Sustained—New Jersey a Royal Province.

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HEN the hope of finding a promised so little, and the “bold Englishman, northwest

passage to India the expert pilot and the famous navigator” began to die out, a company found himself out of employment. Every

of “certain worshipful mer- effort to secure aid in England failed him, and, chants” of London employed Henry Hud- thoroughly disheartened, he passed over to son, an Englishman and an experienced Holland, whither his fame had preceded him navigator, to go in search of a northeast The Dutch, who were more epterprising passage to India, around the Arctic shores and more hopeful than his own countrymen, of Europe, between Lapland and Nova lent a ready ear to his statement of his Zembla and frozen Spitzbergen. These plans, and the Dutch East India Company worthy gentlemen were convinced that since at once employed him and placed him in the effort to find a northwest passage had command of a yacht of ninety tons, called failed, nothing remained but to search for a the “Half Moon," manned by a picked northeast passage, and they were sure that if crew. On the twenty-fifth of March, 1609, human skill or energy could find it, Hudson Hudson set sail in this vessel from Amsterwould succeed in his mission. They were dam and steered directly for the coast of not mistaken in their man, for in two şuc

Nova Zembla. He succeeded in reaching cessive voyages he did all that mortal could the meridian of Spitzbergen, but here the ice, do to penetrate the ice-fields beyond the the fogs and the fierce tempests of the north North Cape, but without success.

drove him back, and turning to the westAn impassable barrier of ice held him ward, he sailed past the capes of Greenland, back, and he was forced to return to London and on the second of July was on the banks to confess his failure. With unconquerable of Newfoundland. He passed down the hope, he suggested new means of overcoming coast as far as Charleston Harbor, vainly the difficulties; but while his employers hoping to find the northwest passage, and praised his zeal and skill, they declined to go then in despair turned to the northward, dis to further expense in an undertaking which covering Delaware Bay on his voyage.

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On the third of September he arrived off the natives who came out to the “Half Moon" a large bay to the north of the Delaware, ' in their canoes, that the river came from far and passing into it, dropped anchor “at two beyond the mountains, convinced him that cables' length from the shore,” within Sandy the stream flowed from ocean to ocean, and Hook. Devoting some days to rest, and to that by sailing on he would at length reach the exploration of the bay, he passed India—the golden land of his dreams. through The Narrows on the eleventh of Thus encouraged, he pursued his way uf September, and then the broad and beautiful the river, gazing with wondering delight *inner bay” burst upon him in all its upon its glorious scenery, and listening with

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splendor, and from the deck of his ship he gradually fading hope to the stories of the watched the swift current of the mighty natives who flocked to the water to greet river rolling from the north to the sea. He him. The stream narrowed, and the water was full of hope now, and the next day con- grew fresh, and long before he anchored tinued his progress up the river, and at below Albany, Hudson had abandoned the nightfall cast anchor at Yonkers. During belief that he was in the northwest passage. the night the current of the river turned his From the anchorage a boat's crew continued ship around, placing her head down stream; the voyage to the mouth of the Mohawk. and this fact, coupled with the assurances of Hudson was satisfied that he had made a great discovery-one that was worth fully as The discovery of Hudson was particularly much as finding the new route to India. He acceptable to the Dutch, for the new country was in a region upon which the white man's was rich in fur-bearing animals, and Russia eye had never rested before, and which offered a ready market for all the furs that offered the richest returns to the commercial could be sent there. The East India Corr ventures. He hastened back to New York pany, therefore, refitted the “Half Moon” Bay, took possession of the country in the after her return to Holland, and despatched name of Holland, and then set sail for her to the region discovered by Hudson on Europe. He put into Dartmouth, in Eng- a fur trading expedition, which was highly land, on his way back, where he told the successful. Private persons also embarked

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story of his discovery. King James I. pre- , in similar enterprises, and within two years , vented his continuing his voyage, hoping to a prosperous and important fur trade wae deprive the Dutch of its fruits ; but Hudson established between Holland and the country took care to send his log-book and all the along the Mauritius, as the great river disship’s papers over to Holland, and thus placed covered by Hudson had been named, in his employers in full possession of the know-honor of the Stadtholder of Holland. No ledge he had gained. The English at length government took any notice of the trade for a released the “ Half Moon," and she continued while, and all persons were free to engage in it, her voyage to the Texel, but without her Among the adventurers employed in this commander.

trade was one Adrian Block, noted as one of

a

the boldest navigators of his time. He was engaged by an English company to made a voyage to Manhattan Island in 1614, make further explorations in their behalf. then the site of a Dutch trading-post, and He sailed to the north of his former route, secured a cargo of skins, with which he was reached the coast of Labrador, and passing about to return to Holland, when a fire con- through the straits, entered the bay which sumed both his vessel and her cargo, and bears his name. He spent the remainder of obliged him to pass the winter with his crew the season in exploring its coasts, and reon the island. They built them log huts on solved to winter there, hoping to push his the site of the present Beaver Street—the discoveries still further northward in the first houses erected on the island-and dur- spring. In the spring of 1611 he found it ing the winter constructed a yacht of sixteen | impossible to continue his voyage, as his

provisions had begun to run low, and with tears turned his vessel's prow homeward. His men now broke out into mutiny, and seizing Hudson and his son and four others, who were sick, they placed them in the shallop and set them adrift. And so the great navis gator, whose memory is perpetuated by one of the noblest of the rivers of America, and whose genius gave the region through which it flows to civilization, perished amid the northern seas. “The gloomy waste of waters which bears his name is his tomb and his monument.”

Forts Along the Hudson. In 1614 the Dutch built a fort on the lower end of Manhattan Island, and in the next few years established forts or trading houses along the river as far as Fort Orange, on the

site of Albany. These were merely tons, which Block called the “Onrust trading-posts, no effort being yet made to the “Restless.” In this yacht Block made occupy the country with a permanent colseveral voyages of discovery, and explored ony. In 1621 the Dutch West India Comthe coasts of Long Island Sound, and gave pany was organized for the purpose of tradhis name to the small island near the eastern ing with America, and took possession of the end of the sound. He soon after went backcountry along the Hudson, intending to hold to Europe.

it merely as temporary occupants. The In the meantime Hudson had not been States General of Holland granted them the permitted by the English king to take service monopoly of trade from Cape May to Nova again with the Dutch, and after apprising his Scotia, and named the whole region New employers in Holland of his discoveries, he Netherland. The Dutch thus extended their

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HENRY HUDSON.

claims into regions already claimed by Jersey, ascended the Delaware, then called the English and French, and prepared the South River, and built Fort Nasthe way for future quarrels and complica- sau, on the east side of the river, a few tions.

miles below the present city of CamThe English, now awake to the import- den. This was done in order to estabance of Hudson's discoveries, warned the lish the claim of the Dutch to this reDutch government to refrain from making gion. further settlements on “ Hudson's River," as In 1626 the West India Company sent out they called the Mauritius; but the latter, to New Amsterdam the first regular governor relying upon the justice of their claim, paid of the province, Peter Minuits by name. He no attention to these warnings, and in the brought with him a koopman, or general spring of 1623 the Dutch West India Com- commissary, who was also the secretary of pany sent over thirty families of Walloons, the province, and a schout, or sheriff, to or one hundred and ten persons in all, to assist him in his government. The only found a permanent colony.

laws prescribed for the colony were the These Walloons were Protestants from the frontier between France and Flanders, and had fled to Amsterdam to escape religious persecution in their own country. They were sound, healthy, vigorous and pious people, and could be relied upon to make homes in the

HUDSON STRAIT. new world. The majority of them settled around the fort on instructions of the West India Company. the lower end of Manhattan Island, and the The colonists, on their part, were to regard colony was named New Amsterdam. The the orders of the governor as their law. He remainder established themselves on Long was authorized to punish minor offences at Island, about where the Brooklyn navy yard his discretion, but cases requiring severe or now stands, and there Sarah de Rapelje, the capital punishment were to be sent to Holfirst white child born in the province of New land for trial. Minuits set to work with Netherlands, saw the light. Eighteen fami- great vigor to lay the foundations of the lies ascended the river and settled around colony. He called a council of the Indian

chiefs, and purchased the island of ManhatIn the same year (1623) a party under tan from them for presents valued at about command of Cornelis Jacobsen May, who twenty-four dollars in American money. He gave his name to the southern cape of New thus secured an equitable title to the island

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Fort Orange.

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