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government of Massachusetts.” In plainer treasured his memory with the gratitude and terms, Parliament claimed the right to revoke respect it so richly deserved. the charter of the colony, as the king had Though so successful in asserting her own done at the outset of the civil war. The liberties, Massachusetts had not yet learned danger was great, and Massachusetts met it the lesson of religious tolerance. When with firmness. The general court met on the Baptists began to appear in the colony, the fourth of November, and sat with closed severe measures were inaugurated to crush doors to discuss the claim of the English them, and one of their number-Holmes—a government. It was resolved “that Massa- resident of Lynn, was whipped unmercifully. chusetts owed to England the same allegi- Still greater were the severities practised ance as the free Hanse towns had rendered towards the Quakers. This sect had grown to the empire; as Normandy, when its dukes out of the Protestant Reformation, and conwere kings of England, paid to the monarchs stituted at this day the most advanced of France.”
thinkers upon religious matters to be found
in England. They claimed a perfect freedom Parliament Must Keep Hands Off.
in matters of faith and worship, and regarded The court also refused to accept a new all laws for enforcing religious systems as charter from Parliament, as that action might works of the devil. They were persons of imply a surrender of the original instrument, pure lives, and even their most inveterate or to allow Parliament to control in any way
enemies could not charge them with wrong. the independence of the colony. Great as doing. Previous to their appearance in this claim was, it was admitted by the Eng- Massachusetts exaggerated reports reached lish Parliament, in which the rights of the the colony concerning them. They were colony were stoutly maintained by Sir Henry represented as making war upon all forms of Vane and others; and in reply to a respectful religion and government. address of the general court setting forth the views of that body, a committee of Parlia
Intolerance Toward Quakers. ment declared: “We encourage no appeals The first of this creed who came to New from your justice. We leave you with all England were Mary Fisher and Ann Austin, the freedom and latitude that may, in any who reached Boston in July, 1656. In the respect, be duly claimed by you.” Later on, absence of a special law against Quakers, upon the establishment of the common- they were arrested under the provisions of wealth, Parliament invited the people of the general statute against heresy; their Massachusetts to receive a new patent from trunks were searched and their books burned that body; but the colonial authorities wisely by the hangman. Their persons were examdeclined to do this, or to allow the home ined for marks of witchcraft, but nothing government any hold upon the administra. could be found against them, and after being tion of the affairs of the province.
kept close prisoners for five weeks, they were In 1651, Cromwell, who had subdued sent back to England. Ireland, offered that island to the Puritans of During the year eight others were also sent New England as a new home; but they back to England. Laws which were a disdeclined to leave America. Cromwell proved grace to an enlightened community were himself in many ways a judicious friend of now passed prohibiting the Quakers from New England, and the people of that country entering the colony. Such as came were imprisoned, cruelly whipped, and sent away. severities were of no avail. When William In 1657 a woman was whipped with twenty Leddro was being sentenced to death, the stripes for this offence. In 1658 a law was magistrates were startled by the entrance into enacted that if any Quaker should return the court-room of Wenlock Christison, a after being banished, his or her offence Quaker who had been banished and forbidshould be punished with death. It was hoped den to return on pain of death. Christison that this barbarous measure would rid the was arrested, but the complaints of the colony of their presence; but they came in people became so loud that the magistrates still greater numbers, to reprove the magis- were obliged to pause in their bloody work. trates for their persecuting spirit, and to call | Christison and twenty-seven of his com
panions were released from custody, the persecution of the Quakers was discontinued, and the general court, in obedience to the will of the people, repealed the barbarous laws against that sect.
The Apostle to the Indians. In pleasing contrast with these severities were the efforts of the Puritans to spread a knowledge of the gospel among the savages. Chief among those engaged in the good work was John Eliot, the minister of Roxbury, whose labors won him the name of “the apostle Eliot.” He went among the red men in the forests, and acquired a knowledge of their language that he might preach to them in their own tongue. When he had become sufficiently proficient in it, he translated the Bible into the Indian language. This translation was printed at Cambridge, and a part of the type was set by an Indian
compositor. He spent many years in the them to repentance. In 1659 Marmaduke preparation of his Bible, and made a good Stephenson, William Robinson, Mary Dyar use of it during his life; but it is now valuand William Leddro were hanged on Boston able only as a literary curiosity and as the Common for returning to the colony after evidence of the devotion of the translator to being banished.
his noble work. The destruction of the race These cruelties were regarded with great for which it was intended has made it a discontent by the people of the colony, whose sealed book. humanity was shocked by the barbarity of Eliot gathered his savage converts into a the magistrates. Their opposition grew settlement at Natick, and taught the men the stronger every day, and at last it became evi- art of agriculture and the women to spin and dent to the magistrates themselves that their to weave cloth. He had to encounter the opposition of the chiefs and medicine men with the words; “Brother, you are welcome; or priests, who resented his efforts to win but retire to your study and pray that I may their people from the worship and habits be gone.” His last words on earth were of their ancestors, but he persevered. He the triumphal shout with which he eatered was greatly beloved by his disciples, and upon his reward: “Welcome joy!” continued his labors among them far into Many of the Quakers, after the persecuold age, and to a limited extent to tion against them was over, joined Eliot in the day of his death, which took place his labors. He had other fellow-workers. when he had attained the ripe age of The two Mayhews, father and son, Cotton, eighty-six years. “My memory, my utter
“My memory, my utter. and Brainerd thought it a privilege to labor ance fails me," he said near the close of his for the souls of the poor savages. Native life; “but I thank God my charity holds out preachers were ordained, and at last there still.” When Walton, a brother minister, were thirty churches of "praying Indians visited him on his death-bed, he greeted him under such preachers.
New England after the Restoration
Arrival of the News of the Restoration of Charles II.—The Regicides in New England—They are Protected -Reviva!
of the Navigation Acts —Effect of this Measure upon the New England Colonies Massachusetts Delays the Proclama tion of the King-Connecticut Obtains a Charter-Union of New Haven with the Connecticut Colony-Rhode Island Given a New Charter-Massachusetts Settles her Difficulties with the Crown-Changes in the Government-Highhanded Acts of the Royal Commissioners Troubles with the Indians—Injustice of the Whites—King Philip's War-A Forest Hero-An Incident in the Attack upon Hadley-Sufferings of the Colonies–Destruction of the Narragansetts— Death of Philip-Close of the War—England Asserts her Right to Tax the Colonies—Massachusetts buys Gorges' claims to Maine---New Hampshire Made a Separate Province—James II. Revokes the Charter of Massachusetts—Dudley and Randolph in New England—Andros Appointed Governor-General–His Tyranny–He Demands the Charter of Con. necticut-It is Carried Away and Hidden- The Charter Oak-Fall of James II.- The People of Massachusetts take up Arms—Andros Arrested-Effects of the Revolution upon New England.
HE news of the restoration of Charles News was constantly arriving in the colo
II. to the English throne was nies of the execution of the men who had brought to Boston by Edward been the friends of America in the Parlia
Whalley and William Goffe, two ment, and a general sadness was cast over of the judges of Charles I. They came to the settlements by the tidings of the death of seek refuge from the vengeance of the king, Hugh Peters and the noble Sir Henry Vane. having offended him beyond forgiveness by From the first the people of New England their share in the death of his father. They saw plainly that they had little reason to remained about a year in Massachusetts, expect justice at the hands of the royal govprotected by the people, and preaching to ernment, and there was little rejoicing in that them. A few months after their arrival, region at the return of the king to “his own warrants for their arrest and transportation again." to England for trial arrived from the king, One of Charles's first acts was to revive in and to escape this danger they took refuge in a more odious form the navigation act of the New Haven.
Long Parliament. We have spoken of the The royal officers instituted a diligent effect of this measure upon the colonies of search for them, and they were obliged to Virginia and Maryland. This act closed the change their place of concealment frequently. harbors of America against the vessels of Great rewards were offered for their betrayal, every European nation save England, and and even the Indians were urged to search forbade the exportation of certain American the woods for their hiding-places. The peo- productions to any country but England or ple whom they trusted protected them, and her possessions. This was a very serious aided them to escape the royal officers until blow to New England, and was intended as the vigor of the search was exhausted. They such. The colonies of that region had ,then conducted them to a secure refuge in already built up a growing commerce, and the vicinity of Hadley, where they remained this, together with their activity in shipin seclusion and peace until the close of their building, excited the envy and the hostility lives.
of the British merchants, who hoped, by
inducing the king to place these restrictions ernor Winthrop was well known in England, upon the colonies, to compel the Americans and impressed even the profligate Charles. to depend upon them for the supply of all His reception was cordial and his mission their wants.
entirely successful. In 1662, the king granted Later on, America was forbidden not only to the colony a charter incorporating Hartto manufacture any articles, which might ford and New Haven in one province under compete with English manufactures in foreign the name of Connecticut, and extending its markets, but to supply her own wants with limits from Long Island Sound westward to her own manufactures. At the same time the Pacific Ocean, thus bestowing upon the Parliament endeavored to destroy the trade colony those rich western lands which were that had grown up between New England subsequently made the basis of the magnifiand the southern colonies by imposing upon cent school fund of Connecticut. The charter the articles exported from one colony to was substantially the same in its provisions another a duty equal to that imposed upon as the constitution adopted by the Hartford the consumption of these articles in England. colony. By it the king conferred upon the
colonists the right to elect their own officers Foul Injustice.
and to make and administer their own laws Thus did Great Britain lay the foundation without interference from England in any of that system of commercial injustice toward event whatever. Connecticut was made her colonies which eventually deprived her independent in all but name, and the charter of them, and which her greatest writer on continued in force as the constitution of the political economy declared to be "a manifest state after the period of independence until violation of the rights of mankind.” The 1818. policy thus established in the reign of Charles
Good Fortune of Connecticut. II. was never departed from. Each succeeding administration remained true to the prin- The colony of New Haven was much ciples of the navigation act, and consistently opposed to the union with Connecticut, and declined to admit the claim of the colonies it required all Governor Winthrop's efforts to just and honorable treatment at the hands to induce the people of that colony to accept of the mother country.
it. The matter was adjusted in 1665, when Charles II. was promptly proclaimed in the union was finally accomplished. The the colonies of Plymouth, Connecticut, New labors of Governor Winthrop were rewarded Haven and Rhode Island, and those provinces by his annual election as governor of Conwere administered in his name. Massachu- necticut for fourteen years. Connecticut was setts, distrusting his purposes towards her, a fortunate colony. Its government was ably held back, and waited until he should show and honestly administered; no persecutions his intentions more plainly.
marred its peace, and its course was uniformly Connecticut had purchased the claims of prosperous and happy. It was always one the assigns of the Earl of Warwick to the of the most peaceful and orderly colonies of region occupied by her, and had bought the New England, and for a century its popula. territory of the Mohegans from Uncas, their tion doubled once in twenty years, notwithsachem. The colony sent the younger Win- standing frequent emigrations of its people throp to England in 1661 to obtain a charter to other parts of the country. The colony from the king. The noble character of Gov- | at an early day made a liberal provision for