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have found the means to continue their either censuring him or vindicating the struggle until successful. In the uneducated memory of their dead heroes. Whoever Virginian community of 1676 the presence should speak ill of Berkeley or his friends of a bold, capable, and resolute leader was a was to be whipped. necessity, and his sudden removal left the At last the end came, and Berkeley repopular party helpless. The grand struggle turned to England. His departure was degenerated into a series of petty insurrec- celebrated with rejoicings throughout the tions; the royalists took heart, and Robert colony; bells were rung, guns were fired, Beverley, their most competent leader, was and bonfires blazed. Berkeley hoped to be able to destroy in detail the resistance of the able to justify his conduct in England, but patriots and to restore the supremacy of upon his arrival in that country he found his Berkeley,

course sternly condemned by the voice of

public opinion. Even Charles II. censured A Woman's Self-Sacrifice.

him with all the energy that soulless monarch The governor now proceeded to take a was master of "The old fool," said the summary vengeance upon the patriots, and king, “has taken away more lives in that more than twenty of the best men of the naked land than I for the murder of my colony gave their lives on the scaffold for father.” His disappointment and mortificathe liberties of their country. The first of tion were too much for the proud man, and these martyrs for freedom—the first Ameri- he died soon after his arrival in England. can to die for the right of the people to govern

Revival of Abuses. themselves—was Thomas Hansford, a Virginian born, and a noble specimen of the The failure of Bacon's rebellion brought chivalrous sons of the Old Dominion.

many serious misfortunes to Virginia. The The wise of Edmund Cheesman, upon the insurrection was made the excuse by the capture of her husband, flung herself at the king for refusing a liberal charter, and the governor's feet, and declaring that her ex- colony was made dependent for its rights hortations had induced her husband to join and privileges entirely upon the royal will. Bacon, begged to be allowed to die in his The assembly was composed almost explace. The brutal Berkeley repelled the clusively of royalists, and at once proceeded heroic woman with a gross insult. When to undo the work of the popular party. All Drummond was taken and brought before the laws of Bacon's assembly were repealed; him the governor received him with mock the right of suffrage was restricted to freecourtesy 'I am more glad to see you," he holders, and the iniquitous taxes were resaid, “than any man in Virginia; you shall imposed. All the abuses that had led to the be hanged in half an hour.” The royalist rebellion were revived. assembly, horrified at the cruelty of the gov- In 1677 Lord Culpepper, one of the favorernor, appealed to him to “spill no more ites to whom Charles II. had granted Virblood." The property of the victims was ginia, was appointed governor of the colony confiscated, and their helpless families were for life. The new governor regarded his turned out upon the charities of the people office as a sinecure, and while receiving its for whom the martyrs had died. Not con- emoluments desired to remain in England to tent with these cruelties Berkeley attempted enjoy them. In 1680, however, the king to silence the people, and prevent them from compelled him to repair to his government

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in person. He brought with him authority mouth's rebellion. A number of prisoners from the sovereign to settle all past griev- were taken in this struggle by the royal ances, but he used this power for his own forces, and many of these were sent out to profit. He extorted money from all parties, the colonies of Virginia and Maryland to be and when he had acquired a considerable sold as servants for a term of ten years. sum returned to England, having spent less Many of them were men of education and than a year in Virginia. He left the colony family. The general assembly of Virginia in the greatest distress. The Virginians, refused to sanction this infamous measure, robbed of the profits of their labors for the and, in spite of the prohibition of King enrichment of their rulers, were reduced to James, passed a law declaring all such perdespair. Riots took place in various places, sons free. Indeed at this time the practice and the whole colony was on the verge of of selling white servants in America had be: insurrection.

come so profitable that quite a thriving A Plunderer.

business was carried on between the west of Rumors of these disturbances having England and Virginia and Maryland. reached England the king ordered Culpepper Not only persons condemned for crime, to return and reduce the colony to obedience. but innocent people were kidnapped and He did so, and caused several influential men sold in the colonies for a term of years for to be hanged as traitors, and used the power money. “At Bristol,” says Bancroft,“ the intrusted to him to wrest from the council mayor and justices would intimidate small the last remnant of its authority to control rogues and pilferers, who, under the terror his outrages upon the people. This accom- of being hanged, prayed for transportation plished, he proceeded to force the settlers of as the only avenue to safety, and were then the Northern Neck to surrender their planta divided among the members of the court. tions to him, or pay him the sums he de- | The trade was exceedingly profitable—sar manded for the privilege of retaining them. more so than the slave trade and had been

He found his residence among a people he conducted for years." had come to plunder very disagreeable, and in the course of a few months returned to

Uprising for Freedom. England amid the bitter curses of the Vir- One of the last acts of Charles II. with ginians. The council reported the distress reference to Virginia was to forbid the setof the province to the king, and appealed to ting up of a printing press within the limits him to recall the grant to Culpepper and of the colony; James II. continued this proArlington. Arlington surrendered his rights hibition. Effingham endeavored to take to Culpepper, whose patent was rendered from the colony the few privileges left to it. void by a process of law, and in July, 1684, The result was that the party of freedom Virginia became once more a royal province. increased rapidly. Many of the aristocratic Lord Howard, of Effingham, was appointed party seeing that the king and the governor to succeed Culpepper, but he was a poorer menaced every right and privilege they posand more grasping man than his predecessor, sessed went over to the popular side. The and the change afforded no relief to Virginia. assembly began to assert the popular demand

In 1685 James II. came to the throne of for self-government, and became so unmanEngland, and in the same year occurred the ageable that in November, 1686, it was disinsurrection in England known as Mon- solved by royal proclamation.

A new assembly was convened, which reason a check upon its freedom of debate. met in April, 1688, a few months before the The only means of resistance to the measBritish revolution. The governor and coun- ures of the government which the assembly cil found this body more indisposed to submit retained was to refuse to vote supplies in to the aggressions of the crown than its pre- excess of the permanent revenue. This right decessor had been. The people sustained was sometimes exercised, and the governor their delegates, and a new insurrection was was prevented from carrying out unpopular threatened. Effingham was in the midst of measures by the lack of the necessary a hostile population, without troops to funds. enforce his will, and was obliged to conduct Soon after the accession of William and himself with moderation. The royal authority Mary to the throne an effort was made to was never stronger in Virginia than during establish a college in Virginia, although the this reign, but it was found impossible to printing press was still forbidden. Donations establish it upon the ruins of the liberties of were made by a number of persons in the colony. The result of all the long years England, and the king bestowed several of oppression we have been considering was liberal grants upon the proposed institution. simply to confirm the Virginians in their The measure was carried through to success attachment to their liberties, and in their by the energy of the Rev. James Blair, who determination to maintain them at any cost. was sent out by the Bishop of London as Virginia remained to the end an aristocratic commissary, “to supply the office and juriscolony, but it was none the less “a land of diction of the bishop in the outplaces of the liberty."

diocese." The college was established in

1691, and was named William and Mary, in Founding a College.

honor of the king and queen. Mr. Blair The revolution of 1688 in England did was its first president, and held that office for not change affairs in Virginia materially as regarded the forms of the colonial govern- The ministry did not approve the action ment. The liberties of the colony were of the king in granting even the very moderate established by law too securely to be any endowments which he bestowed upon the longer at the mercy of an individual, but the college. They regarded Virginia merely as power of the governor was still very great. a place in which to raise tobacco for the Every department of the colonial administra English market, and cared nothing for the tion, the finances, and even the management interests of the people. They treated the of the church, was made subject to his con- colony with injustice and neglect in everytrol. He had the power to dissolve the thing. The planters could sell their tobacco assembly at pleasure, and was sure to exer- only to an English purchaser, who regulated cise it if that body manifested too great a the price to suit himself, and supplied the spirit of independence. He also appointed planters in return with the wares they needed the clerk of the assembly, who was for this at his own prices.


fifty years.



The Colonization of Maryland

Extent of the Territory of Virginia-Clayborne's Trading Posts Established—Sir George Calvert, Lord Baltimore--Be

comes Interested in American Colonization-Obtains a Grant of Maryland— Terms of the Charter-A Colony Seni Out-Arrival in the Chesapeake-St. Mary's Founded-Character of the Colony-Friendly Relations Established with the Indians—First Legislature of Maryland— Trouble with Clayborne—Rapid Growth of the Colony-Progress of Popular Liberty—Policy Respecting the Treatment of the Indians—Clayborne's Rebellion-Law Granting Religious Toleration Enacted— Condition of Maryland Under the Commonwealth—The People Declared Supreme--Lord Baltimore Recovers His Proprietary Rights-Characteristics of the Colony-Rapid Increase in Population--Charles Calvert, Governor-Death of the Second Lord Baltimore—Roman Catholics Disfranchised—Maryland Becomes a Royal Province - Triumph of the Protestants—Annapolis Made the Seat of Government-Restoration of the Proprietary Government-Continued Prosperity of Maryland.


HE second charter of Virginia same region. Sir George Calvert, a man of

granted to that province the country noble character, liberal education and great north of the Potomac as far as the political experience, had become at an early

headwaters of the Chesapeake Bay. day deeply interested in the question of This grant included the territory of the colonizing America. Having embraced the present State of Maryland. The discoveries Roman Catholic faith, he relinquished his of Captain John Smith had brought the office of Secretary of State, and made a pubregion along the head of the bay into notice, lic acknowledgment of his conversion. His and other explorers had confirmed his state- noble character commanded the confidence of ments as to its value.

King James, and he was retained as a memA very profitable trade was established ber of the Privy Council, and was made Lord with the Indians of this section, and, in order Baltimore in the Irish peerage. He was to develop its advantages, William Clayborne, anxious to found a colony in America, which a man of great resolution and of no mean might serve as a place of refuge for persons abilities, a surveyor by profession, was of the Catholic faith, and obtained a patent employed by the Governor of Virginia to for the southern part of Newfoundland. explore the region of the upper Chesapeake. That region was too bleak and rugged to His report was so favorable that a company admit of the success of the enterprise, and was formed in England for the purpose of the attempt to settle it was soon abandoned.

trading with the Indians. Under authority Lord Baltimore next contemplated a set

from this company, Clayborne obtained a tlement in some portion of Virginia, and in license from the colonial government of October, 1629, visited that colony with a Virginia, and established two trading stations view to making arrangements for his plantaon the bay; one on Kent Island, opposite the tion. The laws of Virginia against Roman present city of Annapolis, and one at the Catholics were very severe, and immediately mouth of the Susquehanna. These posts upon the arrival of so distinguished a Cathwere established in the spring of 1631. olic the assembly ordered the oaths of

In the meantime efforts were being made allegiance and supremacy to be tendered in England to secure the settlement of the him. Lord Baltimore proposed a form which he was willing to subscribe, but the ent of it. The colony was left free from the colonial government insisted upon that supervision of the crown, and the propriwhich had been ordered by the English Par- etor was not obliged to obtain the royal liament, and which was of such a character assent to the appointments or legislation of that no Catholic could accept it. There his province. The king also renounced for was nothing left for Calvert but to withdraw himself, his heirs and his successors, the from Virginia, and his reception there con- right to tax the colony, thus leaving it vinced him that that province was not the entirely free from English taxation. place for the plantation he wished to estab- These were vast powers to intrust to one lish.

man; but they were placed in safe hands.

The first Lord Baltimore was a man who Large Grant to Lord Baltimore.

hated tyranny of all kinds, and who had The region north of the Potomac was still carefully observed the effects of intolerance uninhabited, and seemed to promise advan- and arbitrary rule upon the efforts that had tages equal to Virginia. Calvert applied to already been made to establish successful Charles I. for a patent for this region, and colonies in America. He designed his colwas given a territory corresponding very ony as an asylum in which men of all creeds nearly to the present State of Maryland in could meet upon a common basis of a faith extent. The king granted him a liberal in Jesus Christ, and his conviction that religcharter, which, while it provided for his icus freedom is necessary to the success of a interests as proprietor, secured the liberties state confirmed in him his attachment to the of the colonists. In this it was simply the principles of civil liberty. expression of the wishes of Lord Baltimore, who desired to establish a settlement of

Practical Charity. freemen. The country embraced in the He invited both Protestants and Catholics grant was given to Lord Baltimore, his to join him in his enterprise, and adopted a heirs and assigns, in absolute possession. form of government, based upon popular They were required to pay an annual tribute representation, well calculated to secure them to the crown of two Indian arrows and one- in the possession of all their privileges. In fifth of all the gold and silver which might honor of the queen of Charles I., he named be found.

the region granted to him Maryland. Before The colonists. were to have a voice in the patent was issued, Lord Baltimore died, making their own laws, and they were to be on the fifteenth of April, 1632, leaving his entitled to all the rights and privileges of son, Cecil, heir to his designs as well as to Englishmen. No taxes were to be imposed his title. The charter granted to his father upon them without their consent, nor was was issued to him, and he proceeded at once the authority of the proprietor to extend to to collect a colony for the settlement of their lives or property. It was enjoined that Maryland. the exercise of the faith and worship of the Lord Baltimore delegated the task of conestablished Church of England should be ducting the emigrants to Maryland to his protected in the colony, but no uniform brother, Leonard Calvert. On Friday, Nostandard of faith or worship was imposed by vember 22, 1632, a company of two hunthe charter. The new province was carefully dred, chiefly Roman Catholics of good birth, separated from Virginia and made independ with their families and servants, sailed from

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