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according arbitrary arising assembly authority belong body branch called Canon causes Church citizens civil society common consequences considered constitution court depends direct distinction Divine doctrine Domat Droit des Gens duties ecclesiastical Edition effect engagements equal essential established executive exercise exist follows foreign founded fundamental given gives Grotius human human society important individuals institution interests judges judicial jurisdiction jurisprudence justice king legislative liberty limited Loix mankind matters means ment monarchy municipal laws natural law necessary object obligations observes opinion origin particular persons political positive possession practical present primary laws principles Public Law Pufend question reason reference regard regulated relation requires Roman rules Savigny says seen separate shows sort sovereign power sovereignty spirit Story temporal territory things tion United universal whole
第 255 頁 - The two great points of difference between a democracy and a republic are: first, the delegation of the government, in the latter, to a small number of citizens elected by the rest; secondly, the greater number of citizens, and greater sphere of country, over which the latter may be extended.
第 297 頁 - When the legislative and executive powers are united in the same person, or in the same body of magistrates, there can be no liberty; because apprehensions may arise, lest the same monarch or senate should enact tyrannical laws, to execute them in a tyrannical manner.
第 200 頁 - God hath over all : and by the natural law, whereunto he hath made all subject, the lawful power of making laws to command whole politic societies of men belongeth so properly unto the same entire societies, that for any prince or potentate of what kind soever upon earth to exercise the same of himself, and not either by express commission immediately and personally received from God, or else by authority derived at the first from their consent upon whose persons they impose laws, it is no better...
第 154 頁 - The true foundation on which the administration of international law must rest is that the rules which are to govern are those which arise from mutual interest and utility, from a sense of the inconveniences which would result from a contrary doctrine, and from a sort of moral necessity to do justice in order that justice may be done to us in return.
第 252 頁 - If we resort for a criterion to the different principles on which different forms of government are established, we may define a republic to be, or at least may bestow that name on, a government which derives all its powers directly or indirectly from the great body of the people, and is administered by persons holding their off1ces during pleasure, for a limited period, or during good behavior.
第 255 頁 - ... refine and enlarge the public views by passing them through the medium of a chosen body of citizens, whose wisdom may best discern the true interest of their country and whose patriotism and love of justice will be least likely to sacrifice it to temporary or partial considerations.
第 337 頁 - ... an instructive but afflicting lesson to mankind how little dependence is to be placed on treaties which have no other sanction than the obligations of good faith, and which oppose general considerations of peace and justice to the impulse of any immediate interest or passion.
第 342 頁 - Were it wholly national, the supreme and ultimate authority would reside in the majority of the people of the Union ; and this authority would be competent at all times, like that of a majority of every national society, to alter or abolish its established government. Were it wholly federal, on the other hand, the concurrence of each State in the Union would be essential to every alteration that would be binding on all.
第 128 頁 - I do declare that no foreign prince, person, prelate, state, or potentate hath, or ought to have, any jurisdiction, power, superiority, preeminence, or authority, ecclesiastical or spiritual, within this realm : So help me God.
第 297 頁 - Again, there is no liberty, if the judiciary power be not separated from the legislative and executive. Were it joined with the legislative, the life and liberty of the subject would be exposed to arbitrary control; for the judge would then be the legislator. Were it joined to the executive power, the judge might behave with violence and oppression.