« 上一頁繼續 »
He acts under the solemnity of an oath, and also under the penalty of the law, guaranteed by heavy bonds with good surety, replied the father, and he gets a fee for his services which amply repays his troubles.
- Do the duties of his office extend to nothing further? asked Horace; I think I have seen them in and about courts of sessions with long staves in their hands.
True, my son, said the father; it is a part of their duty to attend those courts for the purpose of keeping order, and attending to the commands of the sheriff; to take charge of juries and bring up culprits, &c. and they guard the court while going to and returning from the court house. I believe, continued Mr. Brown, that of the number that attend court, a part is taken to wait
upon the court, another part to attend upon the grand jury; and a third to take charge of the petit jury; and if they refuse or neglect to attend, they are liable to a fine of twenty five dollars.
I should suppose, said Horace, that, from a riew of the whole premises, the peace and safety of community is pretty well secured, and yet there are a great many crimes committed, I dare say, that go unpunished.
There undoubtedly are, my son, and such is the imperfection of all human institutions, and such the depravity of human nature, we shall continue to have crimes committed among us in an increased ratio, proportionate to the increase of our population, and the decay of that primitive virtue, which conspicuouslŷ preserved and honoured our forefathers.
THE MECHANICAL POWERS.-LESSON 19. The Screw.— The Screw is a third species of Machine employed to give motion to heavy bodies. The
power necessary to be applied in order to effect a given object with a screw, may be determined by the following RÚLE. As the distance between two threads of the screw,
Is to the circumference described by the power;
Thus: The threads of a certain screw are 2 1-2 inches asunder, the lever, 4 1-2 feet long, and the weight to be moved, 4480 lbs.; what power will effect the object? 4.5X2=9X3.14159=28.27431ft. or 339.29172 inches, the circle described by the power at the end of the lever.
Then, as 339.29172 : 2.5 :: 4480 : 33.2lbs. Ans. Suppose the threads of a screw are 3 3-4 inches asunder, the Jever which turns it 12 1-2 feet long, and the weight to be moved
16372lbs.; what power will it require to effect the object?
Ans. 65.2 nearly. The Pulley.-- This is the fourth mechanical power; it is applied in several forms, and is of great utility.
The weight capable of being raised by a moveable pulley, with a given power, may be found by the following RULE. As 1 is to the number of ropes attached to the tacle,
So is the given power to the weight it will move. Thus:Suppose the tacle with a moveable pulley has 3 ropes, and the power employed to be 130lbs.; what weight will it move?
As 1:3:: 130 : 390lbs. Ans. Therefore, the number of ropes attached to the tacle, multiplied by the power employed, will always show the effect that may be produced.
Suppose the tacle with a moveable puiley have 6 ropes, and the power employed to be 264lbs.; what is the amount of effect?
Ans. 1584lbs. Note. A full and clear understanding of the principles of the mechanical powers, and their application to practical purposes, is of primary importance to every enterprising pupil. Many valuable discoveries are undoubtedly yet to be made by a careful investigation of these powers and their application to useful purposes.
REMARKS, &c.--LESSON 20. Note. The following are extracts from Poetic pieces, designed to erercise the scholar in scanning the feet and refering them to their proper kind, and in marking the cesural and grammatical pauses, and the inflections of the voice:- They may also be used as reading exercises with critical questions.
But it is not for me in my hour of bloom
To speak of the ruin of the tomb
And the pine has a fringe of softer green
And the moss looks bright where my steps have been From the streams and founts I have loosed the chain They are sweeping on to the silvery main
They are flashing down from the mountain brows
THE EVENING BELLS.
Those evening bells those evening bells
CHRIST AT THE SEA OF GALILEE.
And over the water drearily
Sweeps the black evening blast
Beasts have their dens the bird its nest
He hath not where to lay his head
SPELLING.LESSON 21. con-cil-i-a-to-ry
pro-pish'ēnu tūr-ë re-ver-ber-a-to-ry
in-făl-e-bil'e-tē CONVERSATIONS, &C.--LESSON 22.
The Fence Viewer and Pound Master. I can hardly imagine, said Philo, the object of a town officer to view fences.
The object of the office, my son, is to keep up good fences and thereby secure the crops of the earth, encourage agriculture, and lessen the chances for petty and vexatious law suits among neighbours:--the source of so much bitter animosity.
If such be the importance of his office, we shall be glad te hear something of his duties? said Philo.
Father, said Horace, I expect I can inform Philo of what the fence viewer's duties consist, in part, at least: for, last year our neighbour, Ralph Rush, was fence viewer, and he told esquire Simpson, in my hearing, what belonged to his appointment.
Well, my son, returned the father, we shall be greatly pleased to hear your account of his trust.
I understood him to say that it was his business to know all the disputes in the town between neighbours in regard to parti
tion fences; that is, as I suppose, whether the fences are on the proper line and built according to law, and if there are any defects in these respects, to see that they are corrected; that, as fence viewer, he was to say how much of the partition fences must be made by the parties respectively interested.
Did you understand him to say, my son, that he had any powers in the case of damage done by unruly cattle?
Yes sir, answered Horace; in that case, he is the only person, who, in connexion with one or more of his brother officers, called in for the purpose, can lawfully determine the amount of damages and the sufficiency of the fence;-and his decision is conclusive in all matters submitted to his arbitration.
What security, asked Philo, have the people against partial and arbitrary decisions of the fence viewer?
He acts under the responsibility of an oath, replied the father, and his compensation is a fee, the amount of which is fixed by law; he therefore can have no reasonable inducement to a partial discharge of his trust.
But, father, I have always supposed, said Horace, it was greatly offensive and very wicked, to move a neighbour's fence or land mark, and punishable by severe penalty.
It is a high crime, my son;--it is nothing less than sinning against the laws of God and man; and no one, who values his reputation, the peace and order of society, the good will and wishes of his neighbours, the repose of his conscience or the salvation of his soul, will ever venture upon the deed.
The Pound Master. --The Pound Master is the last town officer which you named; it closes the list:--and I suppose his duty is to keep the town pound, said Philo.
You are right, my son, it is the pound master's business to superintend the common pound of the town, according to law; and although his office is simple and humble, yet it is of special importance to the peace and well being of society; nevertheless, the duties of the trust are discharged without the authority of
We shall be pleased to hear some of his duties and powers, said Horace; I suppose they are all defined by law.
They are so, said Mr. Brown; and they can be enumerated in few words. He is bound to receive the beasts that are brought to be empounded, to feed them and keep them until redeemed by the owners, replevied, or sold to pay the damages, &c.
How long must hé keep them before they can be sold for damages and fees, asked Philo?
After six days, returned the father, the keeper has a right to sell at public vendue, of which he is to give public notice.