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Measurement of superficies or area s. 1. SQUARE. This is a figure of four equal sides, and of as many right angles, the area of which is found by the following

Rule. Multiply either side into itself and the product will be the area. Thus:-


С B's garden, (A, B, C, D,) is 124 feet 124 on each side; what is its superficial con- 124

124 tent? Ans. 15376 ft.


ГВ for, 124 x 124=15376 sq'r. ft.

124 2. LONG SQUARE. (Parallelogram.) This figure has four sides and four angles, the opposites of which, are respectively equal, and the area of which, may be found by the following

Rule. Multiply the length into the breadth, and the product will be the area. Thus:

A's house lot, (A, B, C, D,) is 1631 163 C by 56 ft; how many square feet does it contain? Ans. 9128 sq’r. ft.

56 A

B 3. A Rhombus. This figure has four sides, the opposite of which are equal; and also four angles, the opposites equal, but two of them are obtuse,(that is, more than 90°,) and two, acute, (that is, less than 90°,) the area of which is found by the following

RULE. Multiply one of its sides, by a perpendicular line let fall from one of the obtuse angles to the opposite side, the product will be the area. Thus:A's parlour floor, (A, B, C, D,) D 16.5

С is 16.5ft. and a line from C to E perpendicular to A E B is 13.5ft.; what is the area? Ans. 222.75

13.5. 16.5. X 13.5. 222.75



E E 4. A Rhomboides. The Romboides is a figure of four sides and four angles, the opposite of which are respectively equal, and its area is found by the following

RULE. Multiply one of the longest sides by a line drawn

from one of its obtuse angles, perpendicularly to the oppo site side; the product will be the area. Thus:

B's house floor, (A, E, B,- D 38.25 C, D,) is 38.25, and a line from C to E is 24 ft. How

24 inany feet of boards will cover it? 28.25 X 34=918 ft. Ans.

E B REMARKS, &c.---LESSON 4. Extracts erhibiting the correct application of the Metapher.

Note. Metaphor. This figure may be advantageously employed in serious and dignified subjects. It contributes to give light and strength to description, and, by imparting colour, substance, and sensible qualities to intellectual objects, to render them visible to the eye.

"In a word,” says Bolingbroke, "about a morth after their meeting, he dissolved them; and, as soon as he had dissolved them, he repented;--but he repented too late. Well might he repent;--for the vessel was now full, and the last drop made the waters of bitterness to overflow. Here we draw the curtain, and put an end to our remarks.”

“Banish all your imaginary wants, and you will suffer n ne that are real. The littie stream that is left, will suthce to quench the thirst of nature ; and that which cannot be quench ed by it, is not your thirst, but your distemper."

"I will be unto her a wall of fire round about, and the glory in the midst of her.” "Thou art my rock and my fortress.” Thy word is a lamp to my feet, and a light to my h.”

While the half-penny calculating bookvender, shuns the author's first production, he i.equently makes liberal terms to those whose reputation is established, and almost as frequently suffers:

:-nor has he a right to complain;---for if he pays too learly for the lees, he had the first squeezing of the grapes

to nothing.

Together let us beat this ample field;
Try what the open, what the covent yield;
The latent tracts, the giddy height explore,
Of all who blindly creep, or sightless soar.


SPELLING LESSON 5. inn-move-a-ble im-môy'ă-bl in-con-stan-cy in-kõn'stăn-se im-mu-ni-ty im-mū'nē-tē in-cor-po-rate in-kòr'por-āte im-pal-pa-ble im-păl'pă-bl in-cred-i-ble in-krěd'e-bl im-pas-sa-ble im-păs'sa-blin-cred-u-lous in-krěd'yū-lue im-ped-i-ment im-pěd'ē-měnt in-cum-ben-cy in-kúm'běn-së im-pen-i-tence im-pěn'ē-těnse in-cu-ra-ble in-kū'rā-bl im-per-a-tive im-pěr'rā-liv in-de-cen-cy in-dē'sěn-sē im-pe-ri-al im-pe're-ă] in-def-i-nite in-děf'e-nit in-per-son-al im-pèr sũn-l in-del-i-ble in-děl'e-bl im-per-ti-nenceim-pěr'tē-něnsein-del-i-cate in-děl'e-kãi im-per-vi-ous im-pěr'vē-ŭs in-dem-ni-fy in-děm'nē.fi im-pet-u-ous im-pět' yū-ŭs in-dic-a-tive in-dik'ā-tiv im-pla-ca-ble im-plakă-bl in-dif-fer-ence in-dif fer-ěnse im-plic-it-ly im-plis'it-lē in-dig-e-nous in-díj'é-nūs i-pol-i-tic im-põl'e-tik in-doc-i-ble in-dos'ë-bl im-port-u-nate irn-pòrt'yû-nätein-dus-tri-ous in-dūs'trē-ŭs im-pos-si-ble im-pos'sē-b] in-e-bri-ate in-z'bré-äte im-preg-na-ble im-prēg'nā-bl in-ef-fa-ble in-ěf'fà-bl im prob-a-ble im-prób'a-blin-fal-li-ble in-făl'lė.bl in-prov-a-ble im-proy'ā-blin-fat-u-ale in-făt'yū-ate am-prov-i-dent im-prov'ē-děnt in-fer-i-or in-fērēūr im-pu-ni-ty im-pū'nē-te

in-fin-i-tive in-fin'e-tiv im-pu-ta-ble im-pū'tă-bl in-fir-ma-ry in-fěr'mā-rē in-an-i-ty in-ă n'é-tē in-fir-mi-ty in-fěr'mē-tē in-au-gu-rate in-âw'gū-räte in-fam-ma-ble in-făm'mă-bl in-car-ce-rate in-kar'sē-rāte in-gra-tia-ate in-grā'shē-āte in-cin-er-ate în-sin'ŭer-āto in-her-it-ance in-her'rit-ănse in-clem-en-ry in-klēırı'měn-sēin-im-i-cal in-im'z-kă] in-cog-ni-to in-kog'nē-to in-j-qui-ty in-ik'kwê-se in-con-gru-ous in-kõng'grü-ŭs

LESSON 6. John Adams' reply to the foregoing objections to the declar

ation of Independence. 1. Sink or swim, live or die, survive or perish, I give my hand and my heart to this vote! It is true, indeed, that, in the beginning, we did not aim at independence: but there is a Divinity which shapes our ends. The injustice of England, zas driven us to arms, and, blind to her own interest, she has persisted until independence is now within our grasp.

We have but to reach forth to it and it is ours. Why then should we defer the declaration?

2. Is any man so weak as to hope for reconciliation with England that shall leave safety to his country or safety to hi own life, or honour? Are not you, sir, who presides over our deliberations, and is not our venerable colleague near you, are you not both proscribed? cut off from royal mercy, and a price set upon your

heads? If we postpone this declaration, do we mean to give up the war? Do we mean to submit to the Boston port-bill, and all? Do we mean to consent that we ourselves, shall be ground to powder, and our country, and rights trod in the dust?

3. I know we do not mean to submit. We never shall submit. Do we intend to violate that most solemn obligation ever entered into by man, that blighting, before God, of our sacred honour to Washington. When putting him forth to incur the dangers of the war, we promised to adhere to him to the last extremity, with our fortunes and our lives. I know there is not a man here who would not rather see a general conflagration sweep over the land, or an earthquake sink it, than that une jot or tittle of our plighted faith should fall to the ground.

4. For myself, having twelve months since, in this place, moved you that George Washington be appointed commander of the forces raised, or to be raised for the defence of American liberty, may my right hand forget her cunning, and iny tongue cleave to the roof of my mouth, if I hesitate or waver in the support I give him. The war then must go on. We must fight it through. And, if the war must go on, why put off the declaration of independence?

5. The measure will strengthen us. It will give us charater abroad. The nations of Europe will then treat with us, which they never can do while we acknowledge ourselves subjects in arms against our sovereign. Nay, I maintain that England, herself, will soon treat for peace with us, on the footing of independence; she consents by repealing her acts, to acknowledge that her whole conduct toward us, has been a course of injustice and oppression. Why, then, sir, do we not, as soon as possible, change this from a civil to a national war? And, since we must fight it through, why not put ourselves in a state to enjoy the benefits of the victory which we shall win?


Trianglus. Triangles are figures which have thrcc sides and three angles,--they are of several kinds. Their contents may be found by the following

Rule. Multiply the base by half the perpendicular;-_or bualf the base by the whole of the perpendicular;--or multiply the base by the perpendicular, and take half the product; either of these modes will give the answer. Thus:-

In the right angle triangle; 1, B, C,) the base A, B, is 16.8ft. the perpendicular, B, C, is 14.5; what is the area? Ans. 121.8 feet.

14,5 16.8 X 14.5=213.60=


16.8 121.8ft. Ans.


In the oblique angled triangle, (A, B, C,) the base A, B, is 32.2 feet, but no perpendicularis given; a line however from C to D 23,5 ft divides the givon angle into two right angles, and the perpendicular is commonto both; the whole of which multiplied in the base will give the area of the oblique angle. Thus:-32.2 X 23.5=821.- A

B 10 st. Ans.

Oes. Had the length of the three sides been given, the areu might have been found without the help of a perpendicular, by the following

RULE. 1. Add the three sides together, and take half their


2. From this, subtract each side severally.

3. Multiply the half eu : & the three differences continually; the square root of the last product will be the area.----

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