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Note. The propriety of this rule is very obvious. Apposition means another name for the same thing. Thus : This man is Barns the farmer. Now, the farmer is Barns, and Barns is the farmer. Both terms stand for the same person, and should therefore have the same case,
SPELLING..LESSON 21. bur-gla-ry būr'glă-rē gov-ern-ment güv'úrn-měnt clum-si-ly klūm'ze-lē
gov-ern-our güv'urn-úr com-ba-tant kūm'bă-tănt
gūn'nŭr-e come-li-ness kóm'lē-něs house-wife-ry húz'wif-re com-fort-er kúm'fúr-túr hum-ble-bee ŭm'bl-bēē com-pa-ny
kūm'pă-në hur-ri-cane hurrẻ-kíp con-jur-er kūn'jūr-ŭr hus-band-ryhúz'bũn-dre con-sta-ble kūn'stă-bl jour-ney-man jur nē-măn cov-e-nant kūv’ē-nănt jus-ti-fy jūs'te-fi coy-er-ing kúy'úr-ing luck-i-ly lūk'ke-lë Cov-er-let kův'ùr-lit lux-u-ry
lúk'shû-rë Cov-ert-ly kúy'urt-lē mul-ber-ry măl'běr-rë Cov-ert-ure kūv'úrt-ūre mul-ti-form mŭl'te-form cov-e-tous kūy'ē-tūs mul-ti-ple mul'te-pl cum-ber-some kūm'bur-sům musk-mel-lon musk'mēl-un cup-bear-er kūp'bár-ur nour-ish-ment nŭr'rish-měnt cur-ren-cy kūr'rěn-se
nul'lė-të cur-ri-cle kūr're-kl nun-ci-o nūn'she-o cur-ry-comb kūr'rē-kom
kūr'ső-rē „pub-li-can pub/le-lăn cur-vat-ure kūr' văt-ūre pul-chri-tude pūl'krē-trūde cus-to-dy küs'to-dē
pul-ver-ise půl'věr-ize drudg-e-ry drūdjʻūr-ė punc-tu-al punk'tshū-ă] drunk-en-ness drunk'n-nės
pun-gen-cy pūn'jen-se fluc-tu-ate Alūk'tshū-āte pun-ish-ment pủn'nish-měnt fur-ni-ture
für'ne-tshüre pus-tu-lous püs'tshū-lūs fur-ri-er für'rě-úr rud-de-ness rúd'dē-nes glut-ten-ous glūt'tūnūs rus-ti-cate rüs'te-kate gov-ern-ess guyũrn-ẽs
The cataract of Niagara. 1. The cataract of Niagara,' is confessedly one of the most awfully sublime spectacles in the whole range of nature's cabinet! Genius is too barren',--language, too poor', to picture the scene'. If drawn in parts', the effect is divided', and identity obscured'; and, if taken in the whole', proportion fails', ayd space becomes too limited'
2. In the presence of this tremendous display of elements, no man has the power of portraying the deep sensations which thrill his soul, and rouse his apprehension with startling emotions for his personal safety', or his own comparative little
3. There is nothing within the compass of his distorted vision', calculated to restore the springs of his defeated faculties', save the tame, campaign region of country in which this fall is placed', and which meets his eye in striking contrast', as he lifts it from the unmeasured abyss beneath his feet'.
4. The narrow, deep, dark gulf through which the frothy tide', spent with the mighty effort of the desperate leap', rolls off in sullen grandeur', is hardly seen ten paces from its vergel. The thundering roar', the trembling earth', and clouds of rising spray', dressed in the showery bow', first call the attention up', and bid the plodding traveller beware that danger lies ahead. 5. The thoughts are strange', Niagara', that crowd into my
Promiscuous Exercises in Equation and Interest. (1) A's Bond for $884.84 on int. at 6 per cent. a year, falls due in the following manner, to wit : $221.21 a year, for four years in succession, but he chooses to discharge the whole at one payment :--what is the time and amount?
Ans. 2 1-2 years. Amt. 1018.066. (2) A bought 16 chests of tea, weighing 1574 gross, tare 18 lbs. per chest, at $1 1-4 a lb. payable in 4 equal payments, at 9, 12, 15 and 18 months, with int. after 6 months, at 6 per cent. a year ; but subsequently agreed to pay the whole at one time:--what is that time, and what the amount?
Ans. 13 1-2 mo. Amt, $1667.78...
(3) C's acct: with D was $412.88, payable $112.88 in 8 ino. $150 in 12 mo. sand $150 in 15 mo. with int. at 7 pr ct. a year; but he chose to make but one payment of the whole, and before the expiration of the equated time, he failed, and paid but 37.5 cents on the dollar : --what was D's receipts?
Ans. $165.7875. (4) E holds F's bond for $500, payable $125 in 5 mo. $150 in 8 mo. and the bal. in 13 mo.;--but they agree that the whole shall be paid in 9 months : -which has the advantage in time, and how much? Ans. E gains 1-2 a mo.
FALSE SYNTAX.LESSON 24. RULE 16. When nouns or pronouns are used in the form of an address, they are put in the nominative case absolute. As, iny son, strive to obtain knowledge.
Note. This rale is seldom violated except by those who effect to use the simple antique style, adopted by the society of Friends. With those the oblique case of the pronoun thou, holds all kinds of relation, and every species of case. As, thee has a friend. Thee's friend is here. Give it thee's friend, &c.
Thee, is the objective form of the pronoun thou, both of which are very properly and very happily appropriated to sacred writ and poetic language. To apply the pronoun thee as the subject of a verb, or the possession of an object, would be as ungrammatical as to say, him has afriend, him's friend, give it to her's friend, &c. Scripture phraseology, though in itself simple, pure, and chaste, always beautiful, and often sublime, should be carefully preserved a separate and distinct language. Its promiscuous application to all subjects, has the appearance of sacralege, and certainly detracts from the salutary influence which the style of holy writ should exert upon the minds of man. It seems but decorous that some distinction should obtain between the language employed in addresses to the Deity, and that used in familiar intercourse with our fellow men and The brute creation.
SPELLING.--LESSON 25. scul-ler-y skúl lur-ē sup-pli-cate sõp plē-kāte scur-ril-ous skür'rěl-us sur-cin-gle sur'sing-gl slug-gish-ness slūg'gish-něs sur-ger-y sūr'jēr-ē sov-er-eign súv'er-in sus-ci-tate sus'sē-tāte south-er-ly sūt'h'ùr-lē thir-ti-eth t'hūr'tē-ěth stub-born-ness stūb'būrn-něs tur-bu-lence turbū-lēns sub-se-quent sub'sē-kwěnt tür-mur-ic túr'měr-ik
sub-si-dy sub'sē-de tur-pi-tude tūr'pe-tude sub-stan-tive súb/stăn-tiv ul-cer-ate ůl'sūr-āte sub-sti-tute
sübʻste-tūte ul-ti-mate ül'të-mate sub-ter-fuge súb'těr-fūje unc-tu-ous ŭnk'tshū-ús sub-tile-ness sub'til-nės un-du-late ūn'jū-lāte suc-cu-lent sūk'kū-lěnt up-right-ness úp'rite-nēs sud-den-ness sūd'děn-něs
ür jěn-së suf-fer-ance suf'fūr-anse ut-ter-ance ūt tūr-ănse suf-fo-cate súf'fo-kāte won-der-ful wūn'dūr-ful sul-ki-nes súl'ké-něs world-li-ness wūrld'lě-nës sul-len-ness sül'lin-něs wor-ship-er wūr'ship-pur sul-phur-ous sūl'fŭr-ūs
wor-thi-ly wūr't'hēlē sum-ma-ry
sūm'mă-rē wor-thi-ness wūr't'hē-něs sum-tu-ous sum tshu-us worth-less-ness würt'h'lěs-nēs. sup-li-cant süp'plė-kănt
The Poison Tree of Java. 1. On the beautiful island of Java', in the Indian ocean stands a tall and stately tree', called the Upaz'. It is said to be so poisonous', that it instantly destroys the life of every thing that goes within the reach of its tainted influence! No shrub or plant grows near it.' No venturous bird has ever made its boughs a resting place, and returned again to its mate'. It stands alone the undisputed tenant of the parched and naked heath'. To this death inflicting tree', the Javians send their convicts'; and, of the uncounted myriads that have been doomed to expiate their guilt by the foul embrace', no one has ever returned to tell the way thither', or describe the heaps of bleaching bones that whiten the ground, amid the withered leaves of the poison Upaz'.
Where seas of glass', with gay reflection smile',
No spicy nutmeg', scents the vernal gales';
LESSON 27 Promiscuous Exercises in Equation and Interest. (5) B, whose debts amounted to $4680, compounded with his creditors at 45 cents on the dollar, for which he gave his notes in equal payments at 15, 24, 32, and 48 mo. with int. at 6 per cent. a year. By a successful voyage of 32 mo. to I ndia, he cleared $20,000, and on his return called in his creditors, and paid them their full demand with interest:—what would have been the true equation? What would he have paid at 45 cents on the dollar, at the proper equated time? and what did he pay?
Ans. Equated time 29 3-4 mo. $2419.26 3-4. $5428.80.
(6) A owed $150, and agreed to pay $10 a mo, until the whole was paid ; but afterwards concluded to give a bond with surety to pay the whole at one time :--at what time did the bond fall due ?
-Filns. In 8 mo. (7) D gave his note to B for $600 payable in 2, 3 and 4 years, each $200 at 6 per cent. compound int. He chose to discharge the whole at one payment :--what were the time and amount ? Ans. Time 3 years, and amt. $702.6096.
FALSE SYNTAX.--LESSON 28. Rule 17. When the past participle is used without a helping verb, it then refers, like an adjective, to some noun or pronoun. As, James has a boy well taught.
Note. It is evident that in this example the helping or neutre verb is understood, and might be properly expressed before the participle. Thus: James has a boy who is well taught.
Hence it appears that the past participle, whether used with or without a helping verb, always refers to the noun or pronoun as an adjective; otherwise the omission of the verb would appear to create a new relation in language, and its insertion, another division of the verb, to wit: a passive verb. The passive verb, if admitted, is parsed in the following manner :--The boy is taught by the master. Boy, is a noun common, third person, singular number, masculine gender, and the subject of the verb, is taught ;--is taught, is an irregular, passive verb, indicative mood, present time, and agrees with its subject, boy, in the third person, singular number;-master, is a noun, under the government of the preposition, by. But the „scholar has been told that the subject of the verb, is the agent that does the act expressed by the verb. Here, however, he