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(1) What principal at Int. for 8 years at 5 per cent. a year, will amt. to $840?
Ans. $$600 100 X 05=$5.00 X 8=40+100=$140 amt. of $100 at rt.
Then, as $140:100:: 840 : $600 Ans. for, 840 X 100 140=$600.600 X 05=30.00 X8=240+600=$840. proof.
(2) A lent B his money for 6 years at 4 pr. ct. a year, and rec'd. $1240;-what was the principal Ans. $1000.
CASE 8. When the principal, amt. and time are given to find the rate.
RULE 1. Subtract the principal from the amt. and the remainder will be the Int.
2. As the principal is to the whole Int. so is 100 to the Int. of 100 for the whole term, which, divided by the time will give the rate. Thus:
(3) At what rate per cent. will $600. amt. to $744. in 4 years?
Ans. at 6 per cent? 744-600= $144 Int. then as 600 : 144 ::100: 244=6 Ans.
(4) A lent B $834 for 2 1-2 years and rec'd. $927.825; what per cent. did he charge?
Ans. 4 1-2. CASE 9. When the principal, amt, and rate are given to find the time.
RULE. Divide the Int. on the principal for the whole time, by the Int. of the principal for 1 year, the quotient will be the answer.
Thus: (1) In vhat time will $400 amt. to $520 at 5 per ct. a year? 520-400=$120 Int. for the whole time, and 400 X05=20.00 Int. for 1 year, theris 120---20=6 Ans.
(2) $1000 at 4 1-2 pr. ctó a year amt. to $1281.25; what was the time?
Ans. 6 1-4 years.
FALSE SYNTAX.--LESSON 32.
Rule. Every adjective refers to some noun expressed or implied, in qualification;- As Mary writes a long letter.
He lived in a manner agreeably to the dictates of reason. This sentence is faulty, for the adverb, agreeably, is employed to qualify the noun, dictates, to which it refers; in violation of rule 7: hence, agreeably, should be agreeable. Thus:--He lie ed in a manner agreeable to the dictates of reason.
He adressed an exhortation suitable to the occasion.
The study of Grammar should be attended to previously to that of punctuation.
OBs. 1. Some adjectives do not admit of comparison, and can be used only in the positive state.
A method of attaining the rightest happiness.
His is the perfectest copy. Theirs is the universalist profession.
Obs. 2. Double comparatives and superlatives should be carefully avoided.
A more serener temper. The most strictest sect. A more superior work. It is more easier to build two chimnies than support one. This apple is the best of the two, is bad language, for the superlative degree can be applied only when three or more things are compared: it shouid be the better.
The boy wore a new cap, and a new pair of boots;--the boots were new and not the pair: hence, a pair of new boots is better language.
SPELLING.LESSON 33. foc-u-lence fěk'ū-lense leg-is-late légʻis-lāte tel-on-y
fel'ün-e lep-ro-sy lēp' pro-sē fem-i-nine fěm'ē-nine leth-ar-gy lēt'h'ăr-jē fer-til-ize fěr'til-ize
lev-el-ler lěy'vil-lur fer-ven-cy fer' věn-sē
main-te-nance măn'tē-nanse fes-ti-val fes'tê-văl
meas-ure-ment mězh’úr-ment fir-ma-ment fěr'mā-měnt mech-a-nism měk'ā-nizm flex-i-ble Aěks'ē-b] med-l-cal měd'ê-kål flex-u-ous flěk'shū-ūs med-i-cine měd'de-sin gen-er-ous jěn'ēr-us
mel-o-dy měl'lo-de gen-u-ino
mem-bran-ous măm/brăn-us ger-mi-nate jěr'mē-näte mem-or-y
měm'mür-ē hec-a-tomb hěk'ā-toom men-di-cant měn'dē-kănt hem-i-sphere hěm'ê-sfēre mer-can-tile měr'kăn-til hep-tar-chy hěp'tăr-kē mer-chan-dise měr'tshăn-dize her-al-dry hěr'ăl-drē mer-ci-ful měr' sê-ful her-e-sy
her'ē sē mer-ci-less měr' sê-lės her-e-tic hér'ē-tik mer-ri-ment měr'rē-měnt her-i-tage
mes-sen-ger měs'sěn-jăr her-mit-age
met-a-phor mět'tā-für her-o-ine hěr'ō-in
meth-o-dise mět'h'o-dize her-o-ism hěr’o-izm
meth-0-dist mbthö-dist hes-i-tate hěz'e-tate
irk-some-ness irk'sŭm-nēs nec-ta-rine ' něk'tăr-rin jeal-ous-y jellūs-ē neg-li-gence négʻle-gēnse jeop-ar-dy
jěpūr-de pec-ca-ble jes-sa-mine jes'sã-min pec-u-late pek'kū-late Tec-tur-er lek'tshūr-ur ped-a-gogue pěd'dā-gog leg-a-cy lég'ă-se
ped-an-try ped/dan-trẻ Jag-i-ble lēj’ē-bl ped-es-tal pēd'děs-tal
LESSON 34. Application of the the Inflections to the exclamation point.
RULE. When this point follows a phrase or sentence, which, otherwise pointed, would require the rising or falling inflection, then the appropriate slide is adopted. Thus:
Whither shall I turn?' wretch that I am!' to what place shall I betake myself?' Shall I go to the capitol?' Alas! it is overflowed by my brother's blood!' or shall I go to my house?' There I behold my mother, plunged in misery,' and weeping in despair!
Oh the dark days of vanity!' when here, how tasteless! and how terrible when gone! gone!' they ne'er go: when past they haunt us still!'
NOTE. The exclamation point is generally applied to strong and passionate language, and generally adopts the falling inflection, but to this rule there are many exceptions. SIMPLE INTEREST ON PARTIAL PAYMENTS.--LESSON 35.
RULE 1. Find the Int. on the principal to the time of the first payment, which subtract from the payment, and the reinainder from the principal.
2 Find the Int. on the residue of the principal from the Ist to the 2d. payment, and subtract as before.
3 If at any time the payment is less then the Int. for the time being-then place the payment on one side in the form of a memorandum.
Continue to find the Int. on the principal, until the amt. of the partial payments, exceed the amt. of Int. and then subtract as in the first instance.
5 Proceed through all the payments, and what is left after the deduction of the last payment, will be the true balance.
(1) Thus:-B holds C's note for $300 bearing date Mar. 4, 1820, on Int. at 6 per cent. on which are endorsed the fol. lowing payments.
Sept. 16, 1820, $46.50 time 6 mo. 12 ds. Int. $20.35. Jan. 4, 1821, $50
3 18 ds. do 10.98. Mar. 22, 1822, $162.56 14 20 ds. do. 41.86. What was due Mar. 4, 1824?
Ans. $127.48. 1 prin. $300; pay't. 46.50--Int. $20.35=26.15 & 30026.15=$273.85.
2 prin. $273.85; do 50-10.98=39.12. & 273.85--39.12 = $234,73.
3 prin. $234.73; do 162.56---41.86=120.70 & 234.734 120.70=$114.03.
4 prin. $114.03;--time 23 mo. 18 ds. Int. $13.45. X114. 03=$127.48. Ans.
(2) D holds A's note foi $520. dated May 6, 1825, Int. at 6 per cent. after 3 mo, on which were endorsed the following payments. Aug. 9, 1825, $87.375;-Feb. 25, 1826, $100,-May 12, 1826, $102:- What was due Oct. 1, 1827.
Ans. $270.93. Note. This is the only equitable mode of casting Int. on partial payments; and this is equitable only when the payments are promptly made. If made too early, it works a loss to the borrower; but if too late, the loss falls to the lender.
SYNTAX.--LESSON 36. Rule 8. Adverbs refer to verbs, participles, adjectives, and other adverbs, in modification,--As, Sophia writes daily, &c. Joseph's brother acted noble though unsuccessfully.
This sentence is faulty, because the adjective, noble, is en uloyed to modify the verb, acted, in violation of the Sth rule. Noble, should therefore be nobly. The sentence amended will read thus:--Joseph's brother acted nobly though unsuccessfully. We
may live happy though we are not rich. He awards just, and deals honourable. Joseph rights the matter entire clear.
Obs. 1. The adverb requires an appropriate situation in the sentence in which it is employed;--generally as near the word which it is designed to modify as possible. It is usually put before the adjective, but after the verb, and between the helping verb and the principal verb.
These things should be never separated in the sentence.
OBS. 2. Two adverbial negatives in the same sentence, per*certs the meaning, and it becomes an affirmative.
I do not want no more;-implies [ want more.
We need not, nor do not limit him. This man does not act wise, nor take no care.
SPELLING.--LESSON 37. ped-i-gree pěd'de-gree
pret-a-cy prět'tā sē pel-i-can
pěl'lě-kan pres-by-tex prěz'bē-těr pel-li-cle
pěl'le-kl quer-u-lous kwěr'rū-lūs pen-al-ty pěn'năl-të rec-i-pe rěs'sē pē pen-du-lum pěn'jū-lům rec-og-nise rěkskóg-nize pen-e-trate pěn'nā-träte rec-om-pence rék'kõm-pěnse pen-i-tence pěn'nē-těnse rec-on-cile rěk'kõn-sile pen-ta-teuch pěn'tā-tuk rec-on-dite rēk'kön-ditc pen-ta-cost pěn'tå-kost rec-re-ant rčk'krē-ant pen-u-ry pěn'nū-re
rec-re-ate rěk'krē-ate per-fi-dy pěr'fe-de rec-tan-gle rèk tăng-gle per-il-ous pěr'ril-us
rec-ti-fy rek'te-fi per-ju-ry pěr'jū-re rec-ti-tude rēk'tē-túde per-i-wig
pěr'rē-wig rec-tor-y rěk'tùr-ē per-quis-ite pěr'kwiz-it
ref-er-ence ref fer-ěnse per-se-cute pěr'sē-kūte ref-lu-ent réf Au-ent per-son-age
pèr sũn-idje reg-i-cide rējē-side per-ti-nent pěr'tē-něnt reg-is-ter rēj'is-túr per-vi-ous
pěr' vě-ús rel-a-tive rěl'a-tiv pes-ti-lence pěs'te-lěnse rem-e-dy rěm'mē-dē pet-ri-fy pět'tre-fi rem-e-grate rěm'e-grāte pet-u-lance
pět'tshū-lănse ren-o-vate rěn'nő-vāte phlig-ma-tic flég'mă-tik rep-ro-bate rép'ro-bate pleas-an-try plēz'zăn-trē re-qui-site rěk'we-zit plen-a-ry
plěn'a-re res-i-dence rěz'ē-děnse plen-e-tude plěn'nē-tüde res-i-due rés'sē-dū plen-te-ous plěn'tshē-ŭs res-in-ous rēz'in-ūs prec-i-pice
prés'sē-pis res-o-lute rēz'ö-lūtē pref-er-ence préfér-ěnse ret-i-na ret'tē-nă prej-u-dice prējóū-dis ret-i-nue rět'e-nū
Application of the Inflections to the parenthesis. Rule. When the parenthesis has no associate pointing or is accompanied by the comma, the rising inflection is applied both before and at the close of the parenthesis. Thus: