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NOTE 1. A finite verb: is one that is limited by number and person: Hence, all verbs are finite except the verb in the infinitive mood.
Note 2. The principal objects which Syntax has in view, are the agreement which words have with each other in person, number, gender, or case; and the government which they exercise in causing words to be placed in some particular mood, tense, or case. Hence, written or spoken language, embodied in sentences, should have reference to all the foregoing rules for the principles of government and agreement. Also, to the following iliustrations of the same rules under the head of false Syntax, in the correction of bad grammar,
Spelling.--Lesson 5. Easy words of ihrce syllables;-accent on the 2d;-vowels short, -băn” dòn in-těr' prět
pro-hib' it ă-măl' găm in-těs' tāte
trăps-mit' tăl à p-păr' ē) in-trep' id
ă-bol' ish ăs-săs' sin
in-věst' měnt a-põs' tate dē-văs' tāte mă-těr' năl
dē-mon' strāte ěm-p: n' něl
mē-měn' to de-spon' dent en-ăměl pă-těr nál
în-sol věnt e-stă b'lish
ré-fresh' ment re-mon' state in-hăbit rē-pěl' lent
re-spon' dent mū-lăt' to
re-sple,' dért di-ur' năl ăl-těr' nāte sū-pěr' năl
il-lūs' trāte de-fěn' dănt ũn-bre la
ob-jūr' gate dē-těr' měnt be-gin' ning pro-mul' gate ēm-běl' lish dis-fig' üre Accent on the 3d. e-něr' väte dis-pir' it
ăp-pré-hěnd' ē tēr' năl
dis-tribūte in-ter-spěrse' fdr-gět' fül ěl-lip'sis
sub-tri-hăng? fră-těr' năl ē-nig må
vi-o-lin' in-fěr' năl
fûl-fil' měnt in-těr-rüpt' in-těn' dănt in-dig' nănt ré-im-bŭrse in-těr' měnt in-spis' tāte in-těr", nål mă-lig' nănt
The Simple Series.Lesson 6. Rule 3. When four single words commence a series, the first and fourth take the RISING and the second and third, the FALLING inflection. Thus:-
Metals', minerals', plants, and meteors', contain many curious properties:
Health', peace', fortune', and friends', may be ranked among the most soothing blessings of life!
The high', the low', the rich', and the poor', return to an common level,
Obs. 1. When four single words form the closing series, the first and fourth take the FALLING inflection, and the second and third the RISING. Thus:-
The four elements into which philosophers classed the material world', are fire', water', air', and earth'.
Changes are constantly taking place in customs), manners', minds', and opinions'.
When so good a man as Socrates fell a victim to the madness of the people', there fell with him', knowledge', virtue', innocence', and truth',
RULE 4. When the simple series extends to five or more single words, it may be divided into periods of three particulars each: then, the right hand period, in the commencing series, must be read agreeably to rule second, all the others, agreeably. to Obs. rule second, and the odd particulars, agreeably to rule first. Thus:
Mines of gold', copper', lead', iron', and allum', are found in Norway
The elk', the deer', the wolf, the fox', ermine, and martin', are found in the Russian dominions'.
The Amazon', La Plata', Mississippi', Missouri', St. Lawrence, Oronoco', and Ohio', are among the largest rivers of the new world'.
When this long list of single words, occur in the closing series, they have the same division, and are pronounced as the closing series of three numbers; to wit:--The first and third take the falling, and the second, the rising inflection. Thus:-
Some of the chief cities in the U. States, are New-York', Philadelphia', Baltimore", Boston', Charleston', and NewOrleans
The Americans, from the fertile shores of their leagued domain, export to foreign markets, a variety of lumber', fish', beef', pork', butter', cheese', and nour'. The soul can exert itself in many
of action : it can understand', will', imagine', see', hear', feel', love', and discourse!
SIMPLE INTEREST.--LESSON , CASE 2.
When the given time is for two or more years. RULE.--1. Find the interest for one year, agreeably to the provisions of the 1st case.
2. Multiply that interest by the given years; the product will be the answer.
Thus:-(1) What is the Interest of $225 for 5 years at 7 per cent. 225X7=15.75*100=$15.75 Int. for 1 year.
and $15.75X5=$78.75 Ans. (2) What is the Interest of $781, for 4 years, at 6 per cent. per annum.
Ans. $187.44. Note. Per cent. means a hundred, and per annum, means a year;-lience the proposition is, what will the use of $781 come to, (at the rate of $6 for each $100 for 1 year,) used for 4 years.
As $100 is to 6 :: $781 : $46.86
And as 1 year,: 4 years, :: 46.86 : $187.44. Ans. Obs. When the given time is years and parts of years, then inultiply the Interest for one year by the given years, and take even parts of the Interest for the parts of the year. Thus:-
(3) What is the Interest of $122, for 3 3-4 years at 6 per cent, per annum? 122x6=7 32-100=$7.32X3 =$21.96, Int. for 3 years. 2-4=1-2 of a year, and $7.32-1-2 =3.66, Int. for 1-2 ys. 1-4=12 of 2-4, and 3.66-1-2 =1.83 Int. for 1-4 ys.
$27.44 Ans. 3 3-4 ys. (4) What is the Interest of $225 for 5 2-4 years, at 7 per cent. a year?
Ans. $86.625. (5) What is the Interest of $123 for 3 1-4 years, at 6 per cent. a year?
Ans. $23.985. SYNTAX.LESSON 8. Application of the rules of Grammar, to the correction of faulty language, in a series of practical parsing exercises, with notes and illustrations.
RULE 1. The verb must agree with its subject in person and number, as, good advice has its influence.
What signify good advice unless properly regarded? This sentence is faulty, because, signify, is a verb of the plural number, and does not agree with its subject, advice, which is singitar; in violation of the first rule of syntax:--therefore, signify, should be signifies; thus:--Whal signifies good advice, unless properly regarded?
Daily blessings has been conferred upon him.. I does all the work, and I pleases him. They sees how little has been done for the poor. Nothing but foolish pursuits delights the young. Has the goods been sold, and has the buyers made
a bargain? They directs him to go. The mechanism of clocks and watches were recently unknown. The good is esteemed. The bad is despised.
Note. The scholar should not only make the language correct, but afterwards, parse the whole as corrected.
Easy words of three syllables;-accent on the first;---vowels long. ä'ö-rist
vē'hē-měnt po'těn-tāte â'rē-ă di'ăl-ling
rõ'mă n-ize rē'ăl-ize i'do-lize
fūněr-ă] të' dē-um vi'o-lāte
nū'měr-ăl ihē'ő-rēm vi'ö-let
ăl-lē'gro ă rē'nă
a-bāte'niễnt ar-ma'dă bă-rā'nă bră-vā'do ēr-rā'ta lē-vā'tòr po-mā'tìm põ-ta'to sõ-nā'tă tòr-nā'do yer-bā'tim vi-rā'go al-bē'it
Accent on the second syllable.
să-i'vă i dē’ăl
ěn-rõl'měnt pri-me'-văl õp-po'něnt tòr-pe'do
in-hũ mắn dē-spīte'ful pur-sū'ant ho-ri'zón
ăm-bas-side băl-us-trade ser-e-nade ăb-sěn-tēē ăp-pěl-lēz' dev-6-tee găz-et-tēēr in-těr-fēre in-těr-vēne lég-ă-tēe'
Accent on the third syllable.
prõv--dore' sū-pěr-sēde im-mă-tūre sū-per-vēne im-por-tūne' võl-ūn-tēēr' õp-por-tūne' im-po-lite' pré-mă-tūre
Easy words of three syllables, accent on the firsi, second, and
third syllables. The broad, grave, and sharp sounds of the vowels, and the dipthongs. ar'sē-năl ēm-bar go
ăp-pár/ént harmo-nize ab-sor/bănt tráns-pár ént ap-palment ěn-dòrse'měnt ăp-pointment in-stäl'měnt ē-nòr'mūs
pān-tă-lôôn in-thrål'ment im-mòr'tăl
păr-ā-mount' im-prove'měnt în-formant
COMPOUND SERIES.LESSON 10. Nore. The compound series consists of two or more successive mem bers composed of two or more words, of similar arrangement.
Rule 1. When two or more compound members, occur in the commencing series, they all adopt the falling inflection, except the last, which takes the rising. Thus:
The poet's imagination and the warrior's bravery', are subjects of high admiration'.
The ignorance of the moderns, the scriblers of the age', and the awful decay of poetry', are the topicks of detraction with which the fop enters the world'.
The descriptive part of this allegory, is likewise very strong, and full of sublime ideas:- The figure of death'; the regal crown on his head'; his menace of satan'; his advancing to the combat', and the outrage at his birth', are circumstances too noble to be passed over in silence'.
Obs. The only exception to this rule, is when the members of the series commence with some suppositive phrase; such as when, where, though, &c. for then they adopt the RISING inflection.
So when the faithful pencil has designed