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chanan in 1806, and presented to the University of Cambridge, in which the sections of each book, and sometimes the words, are numbered. 12 The manuscript is supposed to be of the seventh century, and contains all our books, except the Revelation.13 The addition of three books in this copy, and the marks of extreme care in the transcriber, give a considerable value to this discovery in itself, besides that derived from its falling in with the previous copy of the second century. Both concur in supporting our authentic books.
Again, Sir Thomas Rowe in the year 1628, brought over a manuscript of part of the New Testament, as a present to King Charles the First, from Cyrillus Lucaris, patriarch of Constantinople. It is called the Codex Alexandrinus, and is now in the British Museum. Dr. Woide, who published a fac-simile in 1786, considers it of the date of about A.D. 370. It agrees with our books.
12 The Title, for instance, to St. John's Gospel is, “ The holy Gospel preached by John the Apostle.” The Subscript, “ Here endeth the holy Gospel preached by the Apostle John; preached at Ephesus. Its words are 1938.” At the close of the four Gospels is the General Subscript, “ Here end, by the aid of divine grace, the books of the holy Gospel of Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John. All the words, according to their letters, are 9937.” At the close of the Epistle to the Hebrews is a second Subscript, “Here endeth the writing of the fourteen Epistles of the blessed Paul, the holy Apostle and wise master-builder of the Church of Christ.”
13 See Dr. Yeates' interesting account of this MS.
Once more. In 1817, M. Angelo Mai, whom we have already mentioned, discovered in the library of St. Ambrose, the Mæso-Gothic Version of the New Testament, made by Ulphilas, the Bishop of the Mæso Goths, in the year 370. We had previously only some considerable portions of the four gospels, and fragments of St. Paul's Epistle to the Romans. Two MS. copies of the thirteen Epistles are now found, and some parts of the Old Testament; which last are the more valuable, because not the smallest portion of the Old Testament was known to be in existence, and they contain fragments of the books of Kings, which refute the idle tale of Gibbon, repeated after Philostorgius the Arian,14 “ that Ulphilas had prudently suppressed the four books of Kings, as they might tend to irritate the fierce and sanguinary spirit of his countrymen." It is thus that the scoffs of the unbeliever are from time to time exposed by the contradiction of facts.
I come now to a most curious and important discovery. Eusebius, (A.D. 315,) speaking of the writings of the “ ancient ecclesiastical
14 Gibbon, vi. 269. Lardner, in loc. Horne.
men,” says: “There is also come to our hands a dialogue, a disputation of Caius, held at Rome in the time of Zephyrinus, (A. D. 195– 214,) with Proclus, a patron of the Cataphrygian heresy, in which be reproves the rashness and audacity of his adversary, in composing new writings or scriptures, and makes mention of only thirteen Epistles of the holy Apostle, not reckoning that of the Hebrews.” St. Jerome, in his book of illustrious men, refers to the same work, and says, it was a very celebrated disputation.
After citing this passage of Eusebius, Dr. Lardner expresses his deep regret that Eusebius had not given us the catalogue itself; our first complete one being that of Athanasius, 120 or 130 years later,
Now it is remarkable, that in the year 1740, more than fifteen centuries after the time of Caius, a fragment, which is most probably a part of the lost dialogue, and if not, is confessedly of the same age, was discovered by Muratori, in a MS. volume in the Ambrosian library at Milan, written in the eighth century. The present learned President of Magdalen College, Oxford, published a critical edition of the fragment a few years since.15 It was probably
15 Dr. Martin Routh, in his Reliquiæ Sacræ, Oxon. 1814, vol. ii. 1–32. & vol. iv. 1—37. He has completed what Muratori, written towards the close of the second century, if not earlier. It contains not merely a distinct
Gallandius, Stoschius, Keilius, Mosheim, and Freindaller had begun. As the fragment is exquisite, and has never, I believe, appeared in our language, I shall be excused if I attempt a translation, so far as the imperfect state of the reading will allow. It begins of course abruptly.
— “At which, however, he was present, and thus he described things. In the third place, is the book of the gospel according to St. Luke. Luke the physician wrote it in due order, in his own name, after the ascension of Christ, when Paul had taken him with him, as one also studious of truth. Yet neither did he see the Lord in the flesh; but as he had a perfect knowledge of every thing, he begins to speak from the birth of John. In the fourth place, the gospel of John, one of the disciples. He upon being urged to write it by the fellow-disciples and bishops, said to those around him, Fast with me now for three days, and what shall be revealed to each, let us communicate, that we may know whether the gospel shall be written or not. The same night It was revealed to Andrew, one of the apostles, that John sbould write every thing in his own name, all the rest giving it their authority. And, therefore, although various points are taught in the several gospels, yet the faith of those who believe does not differ; since by one guiding and over-ruling Spirit, the same things are declared in all the books concerning the nativity, the passion, the resurrection, the conversauon of the Lord with his disciples, and his two-fold advent; the first when he was despised in his humiliation, as it was foretold ; the second which is yet future, when he shall be glorious in royal power. What wonder, therefore, if John so confidently declares every thing in his epistles also, saying of himself, Those things which we have seen with our eyes
reference to certain books of the New Testament by name, but a formal catalogue of those
and heard with our ears and our hands have handled, have we written. For thus he professes himself, not only a be: holder and hearer, but also a writer in due order, of all the wonderful things of the Lord. .
“ But the Acts of all the Apostles are written in one book. Luke comprehends them in the work addressed to the excellent Theophilus, because every thing took place in his presence: as other accounts clearly declare the sufferings of Peter and the journey of Paul from Rome to Spain." ..
“ But the Epistles of Paul, what they are, from what place they were sent, or from what cause, he himself declares to those who are willing to enquire; first of all forbidding heresy and schism to the Corinthians, and circumcision to the Galatians. He wrote, however, more at length to the Romans, according to the order of the scriptures, teaching that Christ was the chief end of them. Each of which things we must of necessity discuss, since the blessed apostle Paul himself, following the order of his senior John, writes only to seven churches by name, in such order as this; first to the Corinthians; secondly to the Ephesians; thirdly to the Philippians; fourthly to the Colossians; fifthly to the Galatians; sixthly to the Thessalonians; seventhly to the Romans. But although he wrote a second time to the Corinthians and Thessalonians for reproof, yet but one church is acknow. ledged, scattered over the whole world. And John also in the Apocalypse, although he writes to seven churches, yet speaks to all. Further, one Epistle to Philemon, and one to Titus, and two to Timothy, from affection and love; yet are they sanctified and counted sacred, in the honour of the Catholic church, and in the direction of ecclesiastical discipline. There is circulated also another to the Laodiceans, and