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and mountains, and of the relative positions of the masses of which they are composed.
« Gealogy comprises the s'ndy of rocks in the mass; Mineralogy, of the individual portions, or substances which, by entering into con:bination, forin the inass. A knowledge of Mineralogy is therefore essential to the geologist, and for this reason we shall begin with Mineralogy." pp. 1–3.
After some remarks relative to the elements of the ancients, he adds,
“ It is now considered that there are 9 earths, 2 alkalies, 27 metals, and , simple substances, which may be considered as the bases of those termed combustibles; and these elementary substances in the simple or compound state, according to the present state of our knowledgs form all the various constituent masses of the globe.” p. 3.
In treating of the various subjects which his plan embraced, Mr. Phillips is in general extremely careful in explaining the derivation of the terms, and in stating the precise sense in which they are used ; in pointing out the distinguishing properties by which different bodies, or classes of bodies, are characterised; in specifying the situations and quantities in whicha they are found ; and in marking the practical purposes to which they are applied. A good deal of information is also conveyed in notes, respecting the parts of compound bodies, and the relative proportions of their integrants. The author's plan necessarily imposes brevity on his explanations, but this is rather an advantage to the student than otherwise, when it does not preclude perspicuity. Instances of this defect are seldom met with in the work before us. Nor can it be expected that the information relative to Mineralogy, which he has been able to condense into the space of sixty pages, should extend much beyond the mere elements of the science.—Instead of extracting the author's observations on one subject, in this part of the work, as a specimen of the manner in which the rest are treated, as we once intended, we shall recommend an attentive perusal of the whole; and satisfy ourselves with giving his concluding remarks relative to what are generally denominated the simple or pure earths.
“ These nine earths enter, in very difierent proportions, into the composition of the globe.
“ It is considered that silex is the most abundant of all. It forms theo greatest ingredient of the oldest rocks, is largely found in others, and in clays and soils; in these, alumine is the next in abundance; to it succeeds lime, which is less common in primitive rocks, thuugh very plentiful in the transition and fætz, or secondary rocks,
“ Magnesia and barytes occur in comparatively very small qnantities. The tirst enters but little into the composition of rocks and soils; the latter rarely.
" Stronian, zircon, glucine and yttria, are very spasingly Cound; the first may be said to be the most common of the fonr, the others are only found in pari, ille components of a few mineral substances, some of which are occasumally enclosed in rocks; but rarely does any one of these four earths coter into the composition of rocks or of soils.
“ Baryres, nagnesia, strontiun and lime, are Dever found pure; but mosily conbined with acids." pp. 23, 4.
The following are the subjects discussed in the geological part--- Lecture III. Of the objects of Geological inquiryHypotheses-Geological positions--Of the low and level parts of the Earth-Of the chalk basins of Paris, of London, and of the Isle of Wight.--Lecture IV. Organic remains visible in hills and on the sides of elevated mountains-Scrata of the Brocken mountain--Summits of lofty mountains contain no organic remains-Heights of mountains, Division of Rocks into primitive, transition, and flatz (or secondary) and alluvial their definitions.--- Lecture V. Of Mineral Veins-Of Salt Deposits - Of Coal Deposits --Of Volcanoes Of the Deluge Of the Internal Structure of the Earth-Concluding Observations."
In this part of the work, also, simplicity and utility have been the author's guiding principles. The four plates referred to in the title, are the comparative heights of mountains ; the forms of primitive crystals ; section of the Brocken mountains Veins in tin croft, and in the Pink Mines. The concluding obe servations contain an epitome of the results of the author's inquiries and exhibit the general inferences he draws from the whole : they will therefore be gratifying to our readers, as proofs both of his knowledge, and of his views of creative der Bign.
* We have the most indubitable evidence that the crust of the globe has been subject to revolutions, buth partial and general. We are assure ed by the numerous facts that have been quoted, and by far more numerous which yet remain, that the sea must have changed both its place and height. Proots have been addmeed that animal lite has repesielly and largely fallen the victim to these terrible events; there seems reason to cunclude that some animals have been destroved by sudden inunda tions; that others have been trid dry in consequence of the bottom of the bea being suddenly elevated, and that thre:e calamities have caused great changes in the outer crust of the globe.
« It seems also clear, that since these first and greater cow motions, those which followed, uniforinly acted at a less depeh and less generally, We have seen that the researches of geologists have ascertained that of those animated beings, of which the remains are enclosed in these
rocks, which immerliately rest upon primitive rocks, the race bave become extinct: that the newer rocks contain the remains of animals more nearly approaching to, but not absolutely of the same species as those indebiting our present seas; but that the newest contain only the remains of such aniinals as now exist in the seas, together with the bones of large land and amphibious animals.
“ Every part of the globe distinctly bears the impress of these great terrible events. The appearances of change and ruin are stamped on every feature. Charze and ruin wy which not a particie of the creation has been lost, but which have been repeated and are distinctly marked by time trenéra and species of the organic remains they enclose.
“ Thus, those fossils and perritactions which heretofore were carefully collecicd as curiosities, now possess a value greater than as mere curiosities. They are to the globe what coins are to the history of its inhabi tants; they deno!e the period of revolution; they ascertain at least comparative dates.
“ 'If the inquiry should arise, what benefit has resulted from ruin só extensive, and so general ? The answer is obvious; soil and fertility. Il for a moment we imagine a world composed only of those rocks which we call pri:nitive, which bear no marks of ruin, enclose no organic demains; we know from the nature of their component substances, that their exposure to the action of the elements during very many ages, would scarcely so separate and disintegrate them, as to produce a soit capable of any considerable vegetation; in other words, would fit the earth to receive and to maintain an extensive and almost universal population. A large and fertile part of England, is composed of the ruin of rucks to a considerable depth; and this greatly obtains in all the most level and most fertile parts of countries. Are we not then in deyrec justified in assuming that this great ruin was designed to fit and prepare the earth for the support of the numerous animal tribes that inhabit ii; most especially for man; who, doubtless from his superior intellectual endowments, has emphatically been termed the Lord of the Creation.'
“ But our inquiries into utility need not stop here. All our researches have eviticed such unquestionable proofs of design and contrivance, that it is impossible not to see them; and if we see them, it is or ought tu be equally impossible not to ascribe them to the great Artificer of the universe. This indeed is the reasonable end and aim of all our inquiries, and all our philosopbizing.
“ Without mountains wirat in all probability would be the earth? A swamp or a sandy desert: and the atmosphere a receptacle of noisome and pestilential exhalation. As conducwrs of the electric fluid, mountains contribute to the production of rain, which fertilizes the earth and purifies the atmosphere. They are the principal repositories of metallic ures. Their benefits, therefore, are great and extensive.
“ Hilliertu the labours of the Chymnist lave discoverell 27 metals, 9 earths, 2 fixed alkalies, and the two bases of combustible bodies, sulphur and carbon: and these (although some of them may possess some cham racters in commun) bave each sume peculiar to ihemselves, and are therefore termed elementary substances. It may be remarked that these, either in the simple or compound state are found in quantity admirably apportioned to their utility; and ia the saine proportion, with whatsvever
they may be combined; they are generally most readily and easily freed from those substances with which they are compounded. Is it possible for one moment to doubt whether all this exhibits design and contrivance for the benefit of Man.
“ But further; is not design manifest in regard to the depositions of salt and of coal, so essential to man? Suppose these to have taken place between the earlier rocks, or in the mas-es of primitive mountains, or any where except where we find them; that is just beneath the surface: they would in that case have been nearly lost to man. Can we appreciate their present benefits? Can we doubt that there was design in placing them where we find them?" pp. 138—192.,
ART. XVIII. A Tour throughout the whole of France ; or a
new Topographical and Historical Sketch of all its most important and interesting Cities, Towns, Forts, Castles, Palaces, Islands, Harbours, Bridges, Rivers, Antiquities, &c. &c.; interspersed with curious and illustrative Anecdotes of the Manners, Customs, Dress, &c. of the Inhabitants. By JOHN BAINES. London. 1815. 12mo. pp. 112.
“ Tour” is fortunately not a huge quarto, but a petites pocketable volume, which may be of use to a traveller, who has as yet seen nothing of France. It gives a short description of almost every place of note in that country, beginning at Calais, and proceeding westward round the coast to Bayonne, across to Marseilles, and thence northward to Paris. This is an unusual route, and the author gives the following reason for treating the subject in this order:
“ The following pages were originally written as 2 Key to Walker's Geographical Tour through France;' this is mentioned to account for the arrangement and succession of the articles, which were placed to correspond numerically with Walker's large map of France, upon which the instructive ard amusing Tour is made. No inconvenience will result froin this order; for, the numbers being still preserved any particular place sought after may be found by the Inder, which refers to the number of each article, and not to the page of the book, though the route supposed to have been pursued by Walker has been generally followed, as taking in the wholc of France; yet many alterations have been made in this edition, by leaving out some places of minor consideration, and inserting others of greater importance. In the performance of this task, the
limits set me, precluded my giving a full description of places noticedthe reader must only expect a sketch."
The book is embellished with a good map of France, on which the roads are plainly, and we doubt not, correctly laid down. It also presents us with engravings of the diligence and cabriola ; of an itinerant liquor shop ; a musician, who through the mistake either of nature or the engraver, is playing the fiddle with his left hand—as also of several others of the more remarkable of the ordinary characters that are daily seen in the streets of Paris.
ART. XIX. A New and Practical Course of Book-keeping;
in which Double Entry is rendered intelligible to all capacities, and Single Entry, by being approximated to Double, is made to possess equal proof and certainty of correctness. By P. THOREAU, Accomptant.
London : Law and Whittaker, 1815.
This little production has the merit of being plain and simple in its composition. To learners it will be found useful; first, from the number of entries it contains, tending to exercise the pupil in the application of the four fundamental rules of arithmetic to commerce; and then from its arrangement, which will convey a clear idea of Debtor and Creditor. The approximation of Single Entry to Double which it exhibits, fits it well for every desirable purpose of the retail trade.