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of Orange (no idea of uniting the courts of St. Petersburgh and of the Hague by a matrimonial union could then exist;) and by way of propitiating Prussia, they have agreed to her power being increased much beyond what she deserved, or even de sired. Alexander's manners are the mildest imaginable ; his policy, like his demeanour, is uniform and smooth; and withal, it is deep. Something of the same pature may be said, if not of Franeis, at least of his cabinet. Now, what do their imperial majesties get in consideration of this remarkable instance of self-deniał ? Nothing but permission to help themselves to what they please of the dominions of Turkey. This ill-governed empire, it is well known, has long subsisted on mere sufferance-a virtue that has arisen, not out of moderation, but of mutual jealousy: No European government respects, or can respect, the Porte: Russia bas again and again, on occasions the most critical, had just cause to hate it. All Europe knows, that, in the year 1812, when Russia had to defend herself against Napoleon and his numerous vassals, Turkey was the invader's willing ally; and that when the restless tyrant left Elba, and Murat marched into Tuscany, the senseless Ottomans, under pretence of chastising the Servians, were once more up in arins. Murat has paid the penalty of his offence, and so, in due time, must the Grand Seignior.
But to what does Alexander aspire ? To just as much of the Furkish territory as will render him secure from that quarter in he case of his again having to fight the battles of Europe? The ontinental writers say, that being of the Greek Church, and aving learned of his grandmother that a spirit like that which ace animated the Greeks might be revived, did the Russian vay extend over Greece, he is anxious to become the head of eir church, and to exbibit them once more as patterns of eleloce and wisdom. Few princes have been more praised than exander : few indeed have been more justly entitled to praise. it we cannot say that he is praler laudem nullius 'avarum : for do not believe, that considerations about religion and social
improvement leave a predominating influence on his determinations. Like a prudent monarch, he doubtless wishes for a certain number of square miles contiguous to his southern possessions, with some millions of souls on the same though, in military governments, human bodies are more valued than human souls, Moldavia and Wallachia, with the free navigation of the Dardanelles, and a convenient port in the Mediterranean, are his objects;' and they will satisfy hiin, uvless the Porte act very imprudently. We remember a time when England and Prussia fiew to arms, although the views of Russia were infinitely less aspiring than they are at present. But circumstances are altered. Of the weights belonging to the European balance, sonne have been thrown away, as if corroded through time, and their equivalents have been thrown into the scale with some of those that are to be retained. Even the notions which we had from our fathers about mercantile rival. ship have 'undergone a remarkable change-such a one that, knowing that nothing but colonies can create an extensive foreign commerce, and that without commerce with distant colonies, there can be no formidable navy, England will not be alarmed should Russia obtain actual possession of all Greece. But if this would occasion no uneasiness, much less will the occupation of the Turkish provinces north of the Danube. And as to Austría opposing such occupation, nothing is so little to be apprelievided-every project of the kind having, no doubt, been 'annicably settled. Besides, Austria will herself lay in a claim to no inconsiderable boon' to Belgrade for instance, and the whole district west of the Drin. And why should Great Britain be denied the recompense of her generous acquiescence ? An island iix the Levant might be acceptable ; and we know quite as much 0. the ancient Greeks, and can lend a polish to the minds and the manners of their posterity just as well as the Muscovites. We thus speak of the Greeks of this day as being the descendants of the men who were once the light of the world. But be they who
they, may, their condition will presently be improved, if it be true that their country has such attractions for Alexander; and if Francis be so anxious, as we are told he is, to see Dalmatia closely connected with his hereditary, states. In this case, no apology, no ordinary concession will be sufficient to appease the Imperial courts. It is not a slight affront, or a trivial offence, that is to be atoned for, but serious aggressions and injuries, which can be neither forgotten nor forgiven; and now that fair pretexts have been found, ample redress will be demanded in peremptory terms, as soon as the parties can assume an imposing attitude,
How can the Greeks brook the idea of becoming the subjects of a Northern power--of having Scythians for their instructors in the liberal arts ? Their pleasure will not be consulted. But if it should, they will rejoice at the prospect opening upon them. They know well, that neither they, nor the Russians, are what their ,forefathers were a few centuries, ago-that the Russians have risen as much above both the moral and the political condition of their progenitors, as they have sunk beneath those of their progenitors. Besides, the idea of a change-without considering well whether for the better or the worse, will delight most of them. They will view it as a translation, if not assuredly to a happy state, at least from one that is wretched. No where is the Turkish yoke borne with patience, And if the Asiatics are sick of it, and the Egyptians sometimes, spurn it from them, how can we expect the Greeks to endure it? We are very desirous to see a people called by such a name, and inhabiting such a country, placed in favorable circumstances. We are not convinced that the Russians are the fittest națion on earth, to civilize and instruct them: but they are, fit enough to do so. Before the French Revolution, there could be uo difficulty in pronouncing who were the people whose manners, and taste, and pursuits bore the closest resemblance to those of the accomplished Athenians. The Russians are, in some strong
points of character, downright Spartans They have not been to much celebrated as some other nations for their skill in the fine arts, their productions in the belles lettres, their metaphy sical researches, or their philosophical discoveries: but the manners of their gentry are polished, their knowledge of general literature is considerable, they study modero languages assiduously and successfully, and they are able statesmen well acquainted with the interests of nations. We need not add that they are good soldiers. - It would be a blessing to the **hole of Turkey to come under the government of any country as powerful and enlightened as Russia is ; though the general policy of Europe will forbid the occurrence of such an event. The Russian discipline would tame the Janizaries, and prevent massacres ; a more rational mode of living 'might obviate the plagwe; and the knowledge of affairs that would be introduced 'would stimulate industry and promote national prosperity. We care but little who become lords of the degraded nations over whom the Sultan reigns, provided that the sovereigns who have for a time held in their hands the destinies of Europe, manage soʻas not to disturb the equilibrium they have been striviug to establish
The transition from Greece to Italy was always natural to one at all acquainted with books. ' But it is not, as yet, Greece or Athens, of which we ought to speak, but Turkey or Constantinople where the measures of a feeble government often take their tone from the influence of the Janizaries, just as the policy of Rome will, by and by, do from the influence of the society of Jesuits. Nothing, however, can be more dissimilar than the characters of these two extraordinary bodies of men. In the one we see rudeness and ferocity_such as become soldiers whe feel no impulse but that of interest or revenge: in the other, extremne civility and smoothness of deportment. The individuals of the one are untettered and ignorant; while those of the other are respectable for their learning and varied knowledge.
The first, like the nation to which they belong possess great physical power, but are vis expers consilü: the last, like the religion which they profess but do not always practise, have great spiritual power, and can cause their counsels to be felt where they themselves, do not appear. Now this, which is the most striking trait in their character, is the one to which we have the most rooted dislike. Studied concealment is suspicious in any case; but studied systematic concealment in the religious practice of a Christian is, abominable, as it is both unnecessary, And savours much of what infidels have been happy to have opportunities of terming pious fraud. To inquire whether the system of the Jesuits be good, would be to examine almost the whole-certainly the more latent part of the Catholic code, which we cannot conveniently do; nor would we, were we free from avocations, persuaded that ibe task will be ably performeel by Mr. Fletcher in his lectures. That is the best religion for e man's self, of which his reason and his conscience the most fully approve, and that is the best form of religion for a state which, cæteris paribus, tends the most to maintain its civil constitution; and to facilitate the administration of its laws. It deserves to be remarked, that the Jesuit branch of the Papal church is a constant, zealous, firm friend, not to any one of the Popista governntents exclusively, but to all of them wherever they exist : And were we convinced, that it is capable of preventing, for 20 or $0 years, such revolutions in those governments as may affect our island, we should feel no desire to make a single proselyto from their body-did we believe it practicable (which we do not) Kor human art to convert an experienced Jesuit. Their attachment to the faith they profess, their zeal, and their constancy, are worthy the imitation of all Claristians. And if they really are among the securities for the stability of Catholic thrones, they must be a security, in a peculiar mamer, and degree, for that of the Papak chair; and the Pope has at, length found a trusty ally. Unliappy man! : bis misfortunes in big grey hairs