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partakers of the benefits of the death of Christ. Archdeacon Pott has set this matter in so clear a light,' that the reader will readily pardon us for delivering our notions in his words.
“ The holy Baptist preached repentance, for none can be disciples of the Christian school, but such as will fursake their sins. Our Lord, when entering on his ministry, preached repentance and faith, saying, the time is fulfilled, and the kingdom of God is at hand; repent ye, and believe the Gospel.' The same teachers instruct us how to build upon these foundations: accordingly, the Baptist says, ' bring forth, therefore, fruits meet for repentance;' for no one can continue Christ's disciple, but such as will keep the precepts of their Master. Our Lord to the same effect declares, that every tree that bringeth not forth good fruit, is hewn down, and cast into the fire:' and in that solcmn charge and commission which he gave to his Apostles, he says, “go ye, therefore, and teach all nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost; teaching them to observe all things whatsoever I have commanded you.' St. Paul unites the several parts of the Condition, and declares at once the order and the substance of it, when he relates to King Agrippa, that his preaching both to the Jews and Gentiles was, that they should repent, and turn to God, and do works meet for repentance.'—The baptismal vow, the particulars of which are repeated when the Christian Covenant is renewed at the table of the Lord, presents the same terms, and sets forth the same general obligations."
“ The benefit of pardon, grace, and glory, will arise as the purchased blessings procured for us by the blood and merits of uur only Saviour, though the grant of those gifts be suspended on Conditions, which are calculated to our best improvement, and graciously adapted to a state of trial or probation, consistent with our present circumstances and capa. city. Ii will still remain indubitably clear, that those unspeakable ad, vantages are procured for us by the Saviour's merits, they are bestowed only for his sake, and purchased at a price to which we contribute nothing; though the same gifts be coupled with such terms as are inseparable from the nature of a state of trial, and from the moral character of man.” 2
“ Thus, then, it is one thing to be the only valuable Cause by which salvation is procured, and it is another thing to be the Condition upon which that gift is graciously bestowed. From the formuer, that is, from the meritorious Cause, we exclude not only our own works of every kind, but repentance and faith also. Under the latter, that is, under the Condition, we find repentance, faith, and obedience, to be constantly required. -The distinction here proposed, is not a nice or a subtle thing. The simplest man may understand the difference between the Canse and the Condition of his hope.”3
i Considerations on the General Conditions of the Christian Covenant, 8vo. London, 1805, p. 1.
2 Considerations, p. 12.
3 Considerations, p. 13.-Respecting the error of the Church of Rome concerning this point, see the same work, p. 94: and for a complete demonstration that the terms Condition and Merit have no connection, sce
When our Creed on this subject is thus explicitly and distinctly stated, surely we ought not to hear the unjust and unwarrantable charge which is so generally brought against the established Church by rash and uncandid men, that we hold the abominable doctrine of merit, a doctrine which we dislike as much as can the strictest Calvinist. Indeed, the only difference between us on the mere point of justification, is, that they hold faith to be the only part of the Condition which it is necessary for us to perform; while we believe our part of the Covenant to be, repentance, faith, and obedience : in other words, while they perform what we consider merely a part, we endeavour to perform what we think the whole.We close our reflections in the words of Mr. Daubeny."
“Whilst pressing the necessity of those works of righteousness, which under the Evangelical dispensation are expected from man, for the pur pose of qualifying hin for the salvation which has been freely provided for him, he" (nainely, the preacher of the Gospel) “ will of course, as a saster in Israel, in conformity with the doctrine of our Church, com pletely: shut them out from the office of justifying.?? In this view of the subject, the whole salvation of fallen man, from justification on his admission into a state of grace at baptism, through his successive sanctification by the Holy Spirit, to his final perfection in glory, will be uniformly represented as having its beginning, its continuation, and its ending, in Jesus Christ : .in whom, as we read, all the promises of God are yea and amen.!
“Should we'indeed admit, that the works of righteousness required under the Gospel dispensation had been performed; for the performer of them to build his hope of salvation on the ground of his own personal merit, instead of placing it on the ground of that divine philanthropy, from which alone his title to it can be safely derived; is to tear up the foundation on which the Christian building stands, • Whereas,' to use the words of the judicious Hooker, the little part we have in holiness, it is, God knoweth, corrupt and unsound; we put no confidence at all in it; we challenge nothing in the world for it; we dare not call God to reckoning, as if we had him in our debt books; our continued suit to him must be, to bear with our infirmities, and to pardon our offences.'”
From all we have advanced, our readers will readily perceive the value of this Charge. We cannot, however, dismiss the subject, without wishing that it may be put into the hands of such as have not time or inclination to enter deeply into the controversies on which it treats. There can be no doubt but that it will occupy a distinguished place in the libraries of those, who are enabled, by leisure and opportunity, to study the subject in its different bearings; and who are well disposed to “ fight the good fight of faith,” to “contend earnestly for the faith once delivered to the Saints,” and to worship the God of
their fathers “ in spirit and in truth," as delivered in the book
IV V V bao M
ART. VI.-Chrestomathia Syriaca maximam partem ex Codd.
manu scriptis collecta, Edidit Gustavus Knös. Göttinga.
Small 8vo. pp. viii + 120=128. W!
HEN we consider the great utility of the Syriac language, and also its extreme facility, we cannot refrain from expressing our surprise that it has not been more generally cultivated. While Hebrew has been carefully studied, and, to say the truth, very tolerably understood ; and while the difficult and copious Arabic has been made the subject of deep and accurate investigation, the Syrian has received but a very small portion of attention, and its real merits seem to have been entirely overlooked: it appears to have been forgotten, that it was the vernacular tongue of the great founder of our faith : and critics of eminence have ransacked the Hebrew, and resorted even to the Arabic, for a solution of difficulties, which a very slight attention to the Syriac idiom would have removed. Such has been the case, at least, in our own country: in Germany, it is true, it has met with better treatment. It is there made a subject for public lectures, and is a principal object of study among the candidates for orders. Michaelis, in his valuable Introduction to the N. T.,' has shewn its utility to an interpreter of the N. T.: and he says ;? “ a knowledge of the Hebrew and the Syriac (under which latter language he includes the Chaldee, on account of the Syriasms which are not to be learnt from the Septuagint, is absolutely indispensable."
In the Syriac tongue there are works, which may be very useful to any one who turns his attention to Oriental History. Such is the Chronicon Syriacum of Bar Hebræus, which was published by Bruns and Kirsch ; and many more interesting passages of the same
may be seen in Asseman's Bibliotheca
· Vol. 1. pt. 1. p. 135. Ed. Marsb. 8vo. Lond. 1802. 2 Vol. 1. pt. 1. p. 179.
Orientalis Clementini Vaticana.To those, who, like our. selves, are strongly interested in every thing which concerns the history of the East, we do not hesitate to recommend the little work before us, which contains among other things the following:
1. Fata Nestorianismi in Persia.
VI. Jacobi cujusdam carmen de Alexandro Magno, metro Jacobitico conscriptum.
M. Knös gives, in his Preface, the following account of his undertaking :
“ Carmina ad apographa Parisiensia aucurate exprimenda curavimus, non nisi manifestis erroribus sublatis. Puncta ad finem versuum addita non omisimus, quamvis non semper indicent sensum esse finitum. Cone servavimus etiam vocalium signa quamvis ea interdum sensui repugnare viderentur; diligenter caventes, ne qnid temere mutaretur. Quæ vero incuria librarii forte fuerint omissa aut mutata, iis emendandis operam dabimus in libello, qui tum versionem latinam particularum ineditarum, tum notas criticas et philologicas continebit.” (Præfat. p. iv. v.)
M. Knös recommends to his readers the Syriac Grammar published by Professor Adler at Altona in 1784: here we confess that we cannot entirely agree with him. Adler was certainly an eminent scholar; and his work on the Syriac Versions is by far the most valuable treatise we have on the subject: but still the very reason, which induces M. Knös to recommend his Grammar, is the most powerful argument against it. It is very short, and contains scarcely any thing except the paradigms : but Michaelis in the preface to his own Grammar has shown, that a jejune grammar considerably retards the advancement of the pupil; and he makes it pretty plain that in six or even five months, a very respectable knowledge of Syriac may be gained by a student, “ modo copiosam habeat et divitem grammaticam."
We conceive it may be useful to give the following list of Syriac Chrestomathiæ :
J. D. Michaelis Syrische Chrestomathie, annexed to his Abhandlung über die Syrische Sprache. 8vo. Göttingen. 1783.
Selecta e Scriptoribus Syris, at the end of Adler's Grammatica Syriaca, Altonæ, 1784. 8vo.
· Præf. ad Grammat. Syr. p. 1. 4to. Halæ. 1784.
G. G. Kirsch Chrestomathia Syriaca, small 8vo.
Selecta e Scriptoribus Syris, annexed to Tychsen's Grammatica Syriaca, Rostochii, 8vo. 1793.
Whoever possesses the above, with the one now before us, will have a very complete and valuable collection. Several copies of Michaelis’ Syrische Chrestomathie have been lately imported by Priestley in Holborn, and some of Knös by Boosey, near the Royal Exchange.
Art. VII.- A Classical Tour through Italy, exhibiting a View
of its Scenery, its Antiquities, and its Monuments ; with an account of the present state of its Cities and Towns, and occasional observations on the recent Spoliations of the French By the Rev. John CHETWODE EUSTACE. 4 Vols. 8vo.
Third Edit. Mawman. 1815. We consider some apology due to our readers for this tardy notice of a work so important as the present: for who does not feel his appetite for information sharpened by reading the title of « A Classical Tour through Italy”-that land of poesy and arts -the bare mention of which always awakens so many pleasing recollections ? The epithet Classical sufficiently points out the character, and the object of the work-which is, to trace the resemblance between modern and ancient Italy, and to take for guides and companions in the beginning of the nineteenth century, the writers that preceded or adorned the first century of our æra. The author has, of course, made a free use of the incidents of ancient history; and has dwelt with complacency on the finer poetical descriptions. The severity of criticism might, perhaps, be disposed to censure his citations from the Latin poets and historians as too profuse ; but it must be allowed that they are made judiciously, and seem to spring spontaneously from the soil he is treading.
In a Preliminary Discourse he offers a variety of interesting observations on architecture, medals, sculpture, painting, music, &c. chiefly intended for the information of young and inexperienced travellers. We cannot forbear an extract.
“Nations, like individuals, have their characteristic qualities, and these, like the features of the face, are more prominent and conspicuous in southern countries : and in these countries perhaps the traveller may