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of the reader —— Orate pro animâ miserrimi peccatoris.” Humility, and not ostentation, was the characteristic of that day, as appears from the following Latin-English old Epitaph, which probably suggested to O'Keeffe the amo amas of LINGO:
“ Hic jacet Tom Shorthose,
Sine cloak, sine shirt, sine breeches.” Effusions of a similar tendency may be still seen in our church-yards. The writer's curiosity was once attracted by four lines, scarcely legible, which were rudely cut upon a piece of timber, that seemed bowing to the dust whereof it was treating. After much labor, not ill bestowed, as it was effectual, the following couplets were made out :
" I've been a Pauper upon Earth-
The joys made for the Poor in Spirit !" It was evident why an humble piece of wood, instead of marble, bore this mendicant's inscription—but what of that? This poor Lazarus may rise from his modest bed of clay to a glorious inheritance, sooner than all the Diveses in the same place, whose monuments were piles of Pride and Ostentation !
We may still in our church-yards discover the remains of common sense. The following expressive line, probably inz vented by the Romans, must strike every reader of sensibility “ Hodie' mihi, cras tibi”-“ To-day for me, to-morrow for thee.” The writer candidly acknowledges he was more affected by this line, than by the elegiac verses of a neighbouring tombstone-burlesque in truth, for he was desired to join the marble in weeping. The sympathetic stone was indeed wet, but the tears were dew-drops from Heaven. These productions frequently set criticism at defiance-grammar is often violated. Near the communion-table of Christ's Church, by the excellent institution of which so many eminent scholars have been produced, is the following barbarous expression—" Here lies the remains," &c.
Monumental praise is indeed due to departed genius and virtue. The hero who, like Nelson, falls in his country's service, demands this last tribute from a grateful nation. The best Epitaphs for authors are quotations from their own works : who could have produced a better for Shakespeare, than the happily chosen one from his own play of the Tempest? The late John Palmer was highly deserving of the last words he NO.III. Aug. Rev.
VOL. I. X
uttered on the stage, in the Stranger-" There is another and a better world.” And the late Irish poet-laureat might have had an Epitaph from his own Tragedy of the Count of Nar. bonne :
“ Nature's common frailties set aside,
I'll meet my audit boldly.” A tax upon all Epitaphs written by partial friends, would doubtless have been more satisfactory to the public than the additional tax upon newspapers. It has been argued in favor of the latter measure, that the proprietors of diurnal prints, have gained considerable emolument in consequence of the interesting events of the last twenty years; and as the future events are likely to be equally interesting, the additional tax can be no object to the public, and therefore the proprietors can be no losers. It is to be hoped, that war and slaughter may not continue another twenty years; but if continued, we cannot see why the public should pay dearer for their future information, than they have paid for their past. The reader will pardon this digression, when he finds the introduction of newspapers, in some degree, allusive to the subject in question. Characters are frequently misrepresented by Epitaphs—so they are by newspapers. The dead are falsely panegyrised by the former; the living are sometimes represented as dead by the latter-How often has Bonaparte been killed by the editors of newspapers ? His gallant antagonist, Wellington, has been assassinated in the same sources of information. A Sunday paper gave us a recent instance of premature death-Mr.Kemble, it was said, died precisely at half past six o'clock in the evening. This gentleman, however, lives, and it is to be hoped, that we may yet see him die on the stage, in the character of Coriolanus, at half past nine o'clock.
The tax which the writer has proposed on Epitaphs, should be so much on every letter, cut on a tomb-stone, and double the money on every revival. A couplet would then often supply the place of an elegy, and perhaps a common hic jacet, with name, age, &c. serve instead of a tedious panegyric. Let Man, while living, endeavour to erect his own monument by his works, that when dead, he may have a claim to those expressive words, which so eloquently declare the merits of that great architect, Sir Christopher Wren
« Si monumentum requiris,
THE PHILOSOPHY OF THE HUMAN SKULL, Dr. Gall, and Dr. Spurzheim as his continuator, have given to the world a fund of entertainment in their book on Craniology. We have been tempted to peruse that celebrated work, not however as physiologists, or as anatomists; but as admirers of the science of Physiognomy, for their profound skill in which, both the one and the other have long been greatly and justly renowned.
Most people admit that a human being consists of body and mind. About the manner of existence and residence of the one, except in the case of downright vagrants, mankind do not now dispute--the police magistrates and the writers on the history of civil society having settled that point. But about the essence and position of the other, we all have doubts and sometimes make anxious inquiries ; none of the metaphysicians, from Locke down to Stewart, having been able to satisfy us. In one or two particulars, however, we all agree ; that there is a mind, and that its operations are much affected by the state of the brain. Now another fact, as to which mankind are rarely sceptical, is this, that the brain is deposited in the skull; and, we may add, that in proportion as it is more or less commodiously lodged, its agency contributes more or less to strength and vigor of intellect. In short, a well-formed cranium is to the brain, what a wellbuilt house is to its inhabitant. Now for the purpose of satisfying themselves and others, anatomists and physiologists have turned their attention to the position as well as the capacity of the cranium; and hence we cannot enter the apartment of almost any virtuoso, without being charmed with a long row-sometimes a magnificent vista, of well-scraped skulls, rising in regular gradation from that of the ape or jack-ass—up to that of the Lord of the creation himself. Ovid has described very happily, the grovelling position of the one, and the upright, sublime attitude of the other. But it is the size of the cranium that now principally concerns us ; and on this we are to observe, that Dr. Spurzheim does not merely require, as all his predecessors have done, that the head be large, and that it be more remarkable for its extension fore and aft, than for its depth, but that it be formed so as to exhibit certain defined protuberances on certain fixed places. For the sake of making the matter intelligible, one might state that the physiologists of the German school, do not, like the German sovereigns, desire to have their dominions nicely round. ed; but rather, for the sake of a freer traffic with neighbours, strongly marked by a variety of capes and headlands. Dr. Spurzheim's mental diagnosis is neither more nor less than
those eminences on the cranium to which we have alluded. The knowledge of them, as signs of intellectual powers of a distinctive kind, is easily acquired; nor is a student of much discernment likely, at any time, to mistake an ordinary bump for one of them—with such exactness is their locality fixed by the professor,
Our remarks shall be few and brief.-It is obvious that, according to the new system, the signs of a superior understanding are all external; and that the criterions by which pneumatologists and craniognomists judge, are very different. The task of the former was abstruse and difficult : that of the latter is apparent at first sight—except in the two cases of those who wear wigs, and those who appear in cavendishes. The number of persons of both these descriptions have increased wonderfully within the last twelve months-an irrefragable proof, in our opinion, of the prevailing power of Dr. Spurzheim's ingenious theory. The crania of the crops of latter times, have been found, in many instances, to discover so much absolute flatness, that the close crop has been almost universally abandoned for the umbrageous cavendish: and should this charitable covering of so many defects by and by fall into disuse, we venture to predict, that the wig, which has from time immemorial been the accompaniment of distinguished greatness in every department of knowledge, will again be in high vogue among persons of all ages and sexes. We really cannot conceive a surer test of conscious superiority in any man, who can afford to purchase an artificial covering for his head, than his now venturing to appear in any learned society with a bald pate.
But even to the wisest of men, if they have not patiently studied craniology-we earnestly recommend a careful perusal of Dr. Spurzheim's thirty-three categories, which will lead to a thorough knowledge of the signs, the causes and the consequences of Amativeness, Philoprogenitiveness, Inhabitiveness, Combativeness and Destructiveness (O for a peep at Napoleon's cranium, Covetiveness, Secretiveness, Philapprobativeness, Mysterizinge ness and so forth.
When the allies recollect, that the bad faith of the enemy has been the cause of the war; that the happiness of Europe depends on their being successful; and that there is no human
power capable of preventing their success; they can look back to the commencement of the struggle with self-approbation, and forward to its issue with anticipations of joyful congratulation. At no time for the last three months, have we thought it requisite to ask why surrounding nations should take up arms against France : Napoleon was there, and that was enough. And now that suitable preparations have been made, much expense incurred, and an extraordinary measure of glory acquired; we should lament seeing the sword sheathed on any conditions but those of the disturbers being effectually deprived of every means of doing mischief, and of the French throne's being filled by a prince in whom mankind can confide. No concession he could make, will reconcile us to any treaty with him; not even the actual surrender of all bis barrier towns, and all bis colonies. We should be less rigorous, were there a civilized nation on the globe which he has not sought to injure, or a government which he bas not set himself to deceive; not to mention his late enormous offence against all Europe at once.
“ Whatever is, is right.”—Even Bonaparte's having broke loose from Elba : for we ought to reckon upon the result, not the steps that lead to it. By any pacification which it is reasonable to expect to follow such a war as military men contemplate, the treaty of Fontainebleau, which was at first deemed so safe and so moderate, will be got rid of, and the treaty of Paris be explained, perhaps improved. The thrones of Europe will be placed on solid foundations; and the inhabitants of its various countries delivered from the constant apprehension of the return of unprovoked hostilities. Such of Napoleon's guards as may unfortunately escape the sword, will be disarmed, disbanded, and vigilantly watched; while his perjured marshals and vulgar nobles, will be stripped of their rank and titles, and driven back with scorn into their native obscurity. How devoutly to be wished must such a consummation he, by every Frenchman of ancient family, liberal education, and gentlemanly habits! The prevailing sentiment of honor, and the respect due to public decorum, demand of Louis XVIII., to submit no more to the presence, much less to the guidance of the vilest of his subjects. One would indeed think, that such men would not again aspire to power of any kind; content to have been permitted to live, if indeed such permission can, through any excess of clemency, be granted to them. When last among his people, Louis had no