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Service for the contribution they are making to river basin water resource planning and development in cooperation with the States and other Federal agencies and support their participation in basin planning because we feel strongly that the conservation and development of water and land resources in upstream watersheds is an important part of water resources use and development. Watershed protection and flood prevention

We support the watershed protection and flood prevention program under Public Law 566, 83d Congress. These multiple-purpose projects are making a real contribution to irrigation farming in many areas of the reclamation States which we represent. They prevent floodwater and sediment damages to reservoirs, canals, and laterals and to irrigated farmland. They reduce annual operation and maintenance costs to irrigation farmers. These projects are also important to the farmers and ranchers who operate the nonirrigated watershed lands of the West but of course I do not speak formaily for them as I do for the irrigation water users.

I understand that there are hundreds of local organizations throughout the West that have made application for assistance under this authority that will have to wait their turn to get help because of the popularity of this program and the limited funds and technical personnel available. We urge that adequate appropriations for planning and construction of watershed protection and flood prevention projects be made available so that the USDA can continue this popular cooperative water resources program on a scale commensurate with the public recognition of its importance.

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE Soil and water research

Our association has been intensely interested in soil and water research over a long period of years. Our special committee appointed to deal with this subject was set up and organized in 1950. It has worked arduously and consistently in support of this program throughout all these years.

SENATE COMMITTEE REPORT COMMENDED We especially appreciate the action taken by this committee, as indicated in Senate Report No. 156, in recommending the continuation of soil and water research programs at various locations where effective work is needed and a good program is being carried on by the local stations,

It is possible that our NRA committee might disagree with your report regarding the soil management station at Hays, Kans., and the Soil Physics of Irrigation; soil management at New Mexico: University Park. However, it is noted that your report states that effective studies are currently being carried on elsewhere which will provide information applicable to the areas served by the stations in question.

We especially appreciate the recommendations of your committee regarding the studies on soil management under irrigation at both Huntley, Mont., and Mitchell, Nebr.

FORTUNE MAGAZINE Although we disagree in many instances with statements contained in the article, "Water Shortage Is a Frame of Mind" by William Bowen, which appeared in the April issue of Fortune magazine, we did consider it very significant that the article specifically called attention to the work of the research program, soil management under irrigation, which although the article did not say so, is located at Mitchell, Nebr.

The following is quoted from this article:

"Experiments carried out by the Department of Agriculture and State universities indicate that, under some circumstances, a lot of extra water may bring only a little extra crop yield. Tests in Nebraska showed that irrigation bean plants could get along with remarkably little water over the course of the growing season and still produce abundant crops so long as they got plenty of water during the period of flowering and fruiting. Plants that received only 6 inches of water applied on an optimum schedule produced 48 bushels per acre; plants that got three times as much water produced only 2 additional bushels per acre. Vistas of great gains in irrigation efficiency open up here."

Again, we do especially appreciate the recommendations by this committee as shown in Senate Report No. 156, page 12, endorsing the research program carried on at this station.

The position of our association is set forth in two documents. First, the report of our agricultural research committee which was submitted to our board of directors and then to the membership at our last annual meeting in November 1964. The following is the report of this committee:

This committee met at Palm Springs, Calif., on November 9, 1964. In the reports presented to the association during the past several years, emphasis has been placed on the need for increased agricultural research on soil and water relations. We find today that this problem is still of the same, or possibly greater, magnitude than it has been in the past, with increasing needs for the better use of water in the growing of agricultural products.

Comments have previously been made of the lack of appropriate progress in the implementation of the recommendations of Senate Document 59. More recently the Congress has passed Public Law 88-379, but with substantial eliminations in certain phases of the original bill, S. 2.' Senate Document 59 was approved by the 86th Congress, and yet we find that very little progress has been made in the implementing of the various projects outlined in that document. It seems to the agricultural research committee that some of the most important phases of the recommendations contained in that document should be given a much higher priority rating than is the fact today. The committee feels that items 38, 39, and 32, in that order, should be placed in a high priority position, since they involve very important research for the interest of all of the States in the association. Item 38, for example, would provide a laboratory for the conducting of basic research on design of water applications systems, applications efficiencies, infiltration, downward percolation, etc. Item 39 would provide, in the southern area, a laboratory to conduct basic research on the hydraulics of flow in natural channels, flood plains, etc. Item 32 would provide, in the central Great Plains area, a laboratory to conduct basic research to develop the principles relating to the effect of wind, sunlight energy, heat, and humidity as they might affect the moisture-holding characteristics of soil.

It would seem appropriate that immediate recommendations be made to the Congress for sufficient funds to provide the cost of planning the facilities proposed in these three items.

With reference to Public Law 88–379, this bill provides funds to be allocated under the direction of the Secretary of the Interior for the use, under title I, of the land-grant colleges and universities of the various States of the Union, and under title II, as modified by the conference committees of the Senate and House, a nominal appropriation for use, through the Secretary of the Interior, of research by other private and public universities, and other research agencies.' Title II, as originally contained in the bill, S. 2, more realistically covered the research needs and provided for the fulfillment through modest, but adequate, appropriations but had been completely removed by the House committee. Steps should be taken to either modify the present legislation or to reinstate the original concepts of title II of Senate bill 2.

The problem of noxious weeds is becoming a serious threat to the agricultural land. The cost of controlling or eliminating these weeds has become a serious financial burden to the landowners. Research to determine more economical methods for controlling these weeds is urgently needed.

GEORGE L. HENDERSON, Chairman, California.
WAYNE M. Akin, Vice Chairman, Arizona.
ORVILLE BENTLEY, South Dakota.
DALE BOHMONT, Nevada.
GEORGE D. CLYDE, Utah.
GEORGE L. CROOKHAM, Jr., Idaho.
R. C. SETTERSTROM, Montana.

MARVIN N. SHEARER, Oregon.
Second, the resolution which was adopted at the same annual meeting in
November 1964:

RESOLUTION No. 17-SOIL AND WATER RESEARCH

Whereas this association has for many years urged an acceleration in programs of soil and water research; and

Whereas the amount of Federal funds spent on soil and water research of value to the reclamation States is inadequate to meet their increasing demands and should be materially increased: Now, therefore, be it

Resolved, by the National Reclamation Association, That those provisions of Senate Document 59 relating to the needs of the reclamation States be implemented, and the program be accelerated so that important major research programs of value to the reclamation States be accomplished at any early date; and be it further

Resolved, That Public Law 88–379 (Senate bill 2) be amended by including in title II thereof the original provisions of said title contained in S. 2 as introduced; and be it further

Resolved, That research relating to the control of noxious weeds, to reduce injury to agricultural crops, be materially increased; and be it further

Resolved, That copies of this resolution be forwarded to the Appropriations Committees of the Congress, the Budget Bureau, and the Secretaries of Agriculture and the Interior.

We do appreciate the splendid support which this committee has given to the important programs referred to in my statement above. Respectfully submitted.

WILLIAM E. WELSH, Executive Director.

Soil CONSERVATION SERVICE PROGRAMS Mr. Welsh. My name is William E. Welsh. I am executive director of the National Reclamation Association.

My purpose in presenting this statement to your committee this morning is to bring before you the views of the members of our association-especially the water users or irrigation farmers. Every major irrigation district in the West has representation in our association. It is these people who are especially interested in the programs which are before your committee for consideration.

We are especially interested in the programs of two agencies with the Department of Agriculture. They are the Soil Conservation Service and the programs in which we are interested, including: Technical services to water users; snow surveys and water supply forecasting; river basin planning; and watershed protection and flood prevention.

The other agency is the Agricultural Research Service, and we are especially interested in its programs relating to soil and water research.

First, I will discuss with you the programs coming under the jurisdiction of the Soil Conservation Service.

TECHNICAL SERVICES TO FARMERS

Farmers on irrigated land of the West rely heavily on the technical assistance available from the Soil Conservation Service through local soil conservation districts. This is no doubt true of most farmers throughout the country but it is particularly essential to farmers on irrigated land since proper and efficient application of irrigation water requires accurate leveling of land and a carefully designed farm distribution system.

Technical assistance of a high quality is required for such work in addition to the types of technical services needed by farmers who do not farm irrigated land. Consequently, technical assistance available from the Soil Conservation Service is of even greater value to irrigation farmers than to other farmers. This is especially true during the first few years of operation where new lands are brought under irrigation.

The Soil Conservation Service has been most cooperative in assigning capable technicians to local soil conservation districts, including new irrigation projects, who have helped materially in laying out the farms for proper irrigation practices. Some of our State reclamation associations as well as the National Reclamation Association adopt resolutions each year supporting the Soil Conservation Service technical services program.

The National Reclamation Association is concerned about the proposal to establish user fees for technical services to farmers and is opposed to such a plan. There has also been public discussion of a proposal to reduce the funds available to the Soil Conservation Service to render technical assistance to cooperators. Reduction in the amount or quality of technical services available to irrigation farmers or establishment of user fees for the services of the Soil Conservation Service would have an adverse effect upon every irrigation project in the West. We trust that the Congress will provide for an increase in the technical assistance now available to farmers rather than curtail any of the services now provided.

SNOW SURVEYS AND WATER SUPPLY FORECASTING

Water is always an important subject. This is particularly true in the arid areas of the West. Many of the streams in this area are snow fed; receiving their supply of water from the melting snows on the high mountains. It is highly beneficial to users of this water to know in advance how much will flow down the river systems and at what rates. It is essential that accurate and detailed information be obtained to provide a reliable estimate of the amount of water that will come from the mountains.

The Soil Conservation Service conducts snow surveys and provides water supply forecasts for this purpose. There is a growing need for more frequent snow measurements, peak period forecasts and updating the data gathering procedures to allow speedier and more efficient collection systems. Field trials are underway in developing remote snow measuring equipment which promises to greatly increase the efficiency of snow survey operations. This activity is of vital importance to the membership of our association and we urge a level of appropriations that will permit the Soil Conservation Service to meet these needs of the water users as rapidly as possible.

RIVER BASIN PLANNING

We support the coordinated river basin planning being accomplished throughout the country by water resource agencies. We commend the Soil Conservation Service for the contribution they are making to river basin water resource planning and development in cooperation with the States and other Federal agencies and support their participation in basin planning because we feel strongly that the conservation and development of water and land resources in upstream watersheds is an important part of water resources use and development.

WATERSHED PROTECTION AND FLOOD PREVENTION

We support the watershed protection and flood prevention program under Public Law 566, 83d Congress. These multiple-purpose projects are making a real contribution to irrigation farming in many areas of the reclamation States which we represent. They prevent floodwater and sediment damages to reservoirs, canals and laterals, and to irrigated farmland. They reduce annual operation and maintenance costs to irrigation farmers. These projects are also important to the farmers and ranchers who operate the nonirrigated watershed lands of the West but, of course, I do not speak formally for them as I do for the irrigation water users.

I understand that there are hundreds of local organizations throughout the West that have made application for assistance under this authority that will have to wait their turn to get help because of the popularity of this program and the limited funds and technical personnel available. We urge that adequate appropriations for planning and construction of watershed protection and flood prevention projects be made available so that the U.S. Department of Agriculture can continue this popular cooperative water-resources program on a scale commensurate with the public recognition of its importance.

AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH SERVICE PROGRAMS

SOIL AND WATER RESEARCH

Our association has been intensely interested in soil and water research over a long period of years. Our special committee appointed to deal with this subject was set up and organized in 1950. It has worked arduously and consistently in support of this program throughout all these years.

SENATE COMMITTEE REPORT COMMENDED

We especially appreciate the action taken by this committee, as indicated in Senate Report No. 156, in recommending the continuation of soil and water research programs at various locations where effective work is needed and a good program is being carried on by the local stations.

It is possible that our NRA committee might disagree with your report regarding the soil management station at Hays, Kans, and the soil physics of irrigation; soil management at University Park, N. Mex. However, it is noted that your report states that effective studies are currently being carried on elsewhere which will provide information applicable to the areas served by the stations in question.

We especially appreciate the recommendations of your committee regarding the studies on soil management under irrigation at both Huntly, Mont., and Mitchell, Nebr.

FORTUNE MAGAZINE ARTICLE

Although we disagree in many instances with statements contained in the article, “Water Shortage Is a Frame of Mind” by William Bowen, which appeared in the April issue of Fortune magazine, we did consider it very significant that the article specifically called attention to the work of the research program soil management under irrigation, which, although the article did not say so, is located at Mitchell, Nebr.

The following is quoted from this article:

Experiments carried out by the Department of Agriculture and State universities indicate that, under some circumstances, a lot of extra water may bring only a little extra crop yield. Tests in Nebraska showed that irrigation bean plants could get along with remarkably little water over the course of the growing season and still produce abundant crops so long as they got plenty of water during the period of flowering and fruiting. Plants that received only 6 inches of water applied on an optimum schedule produced 48 bushels per acre; plants that got 3

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