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STATEMENT OF AMERICAN FEED MANUFACTURERS ASSOCIATION

By Lee H. Boyd, Director, Feed Control and Nutrition Senator HOLLAND. I have received a statement from the American Feed Manufacturers Association pointing out the effect of the Salmonella contamination problem in connection with livestock.

The statement will be included in the record at this point. (The statement follows:) The American Feed Manufacturers Association, the national trade association resenting the feed manufacturing industry, appreciates the opportunity to file this statement. We would like to call your attention to the fact feed manufacturing is the largest industry serving animal agriculture. It is also unique in that its products consist primarily of materials originating on the farm which, following the manufacturing process, move back to the farm for use in animal production.

Animal agriculture today faces a serious problem which grows more intense with each day. The feed manufacturer, poultry and livestock producer, and the processor of animal products are confronted with the specter of Salmonella contamination of feed, animals, and food from animals. The danger of such contamination threatens to seriously impair the confidence of the consuming public in food of animal origin. The attention of the public is increasingly called to the existence of Salmonella in feed ingredients in feeds for poultry and livestock. Public attention is being directed to the problem through the press and other media. A few examples of attention getting" material can be found in the May 1965 issue of the Reader's Digest ("Food Poisoning—and How to Avoid It"), the March 1965 issue of the Communicable Disease Center's monthly Salmonella surveillance report, and the CDC color movie on Salmonella implicat. ing feeds as sources of Salmonella infections in animal products and, through animal products, to humans.

Salmonella is a bacteria which is present almost everywhere. Due to its nature and wide distribution it poses a problem which is beyond the scope of a single firm or industry. All indications point to the need for an organized approach to the entire spectrum of Salmonella as it relates to feed and feed ingredients. Only by such procedure can the true significance and sources of Salmonella contamination be revealed and necessary preventative measures determined and established.

USDA is the best qualified agency to carry out work in this field. The very limited work to date of the ARS-ADE Branch has been most helpful and deeply appreciated. The investigations and review conducted to date have shed some light on a most complex subject. The industries involved have moved to implement those steps deemed advisable in view of this information. But further survey, study, and evaluation is essential. It is a problem on which action cannot be postponed in view of the public health implications and the dangers posed to our animal agriculture. There is a need to continue the surveillance type work. Information is needed by which the extent, nature, significance, and sources of Salmonella contamination may be fully determined and appropriate corrective measures undertaken.

We understand that whatever funds will be available to finance USDA's Salmonella work (aside from specific pullorum or other specific research projects) during fiscal 1966 will have to come from funds carried in the miscellaneous section of the budget. It is estimated that a sum of approximately $100,000 to $125,000 is necessary for this work. If the miscellaneous section in the budget is not sufficient to include this item, we strongly urge that it be appropriately increased to provide means of meeting the Salmonella threat which Dr. James H. Steele, Chief, Veterinary Public Health, Communicable Disease Center, U.S. Public Health Service, Atlanta, Ga., has described as one of the most pressing animal and human health problems confronting us today.

Thank you for the privilege of submitting this statement.
STATEMENT BY W. C. THEIS, FOR THE GRAIN AND FEED DEALERS NATIONAL

ASSOCIATION
Senator HOLLAND. I have received a statement from the Grain and
Feed Dealers' National Association. I ask that this statement be made
a part of the record at this point.

(The statement referred to follows:)

Mr. Chairman, members of the committee, I am Willis C. Theis, president of Simonds-Shields-Theis Grain Co., Kansas City, Mo. I am a director of the Grain & Feed Dealers National Association and chairman of a special research task force of the national association. It is in the latter capacity that I appear before your committee.

This national association has 1,800 dues-paying members which range in size from the smallest country elevators to the largest feed and grain complexes. In addition, we have 54 States and regional grain and feed associations which are closely affiliated with the national association. These affiliated associations have membership in excess of 17,000 business firms. Due to the press of time, these affiliated associations have not seen this statement. However, this project was approved by our board of directors which has repesentation from these associations. In addition I have letters from organizations endorsing this project and at the conclusion of my statement I will present these for the record.

During the past year, the task force, at the direction of our board of Directors, has been studying the problems involved in the grading of grain, looking toward equipment which will afford fast, reliable, and objective evaluation of the grading factors specified for U.S. grain standards. The grain trade and the U.S. Department of Agriculture have been attacking this problem on a piecemeal basis and it is our desire to have this committee make funds available to the U.S. Department of Agriculture for a research project which will obtain the desired results.

Grain must be sampled and graded in such a way that the established grade adequately represents the entire shipment. There are problems encountered in both the sampling and grading which impede trade. These problems have been created by technological changes and changes in the trade which have not been accompanied by improvements in sampling and grading techniques of a significant degree. Thus, the trade is hindered from reaching an efficiency which is necessary to carry on interstate and foreign commerce. Costly delays are in evidence every day and inaccuracies in determining grade result in serious trade losses.

These problems arise from a variety of reasons and a few will be mentioned briefly. Some of the equipment used today has been in use for several decades. The sampling and grading are subject to human error which can be eliminated only by improved equipment. Additionally, U.S. grain standards have been upgraded without improvements in the instruments with which to evaluate these more closely defined grades.

Our study indicates that a concentrated research project directed by the C.S. Department of Agriculture can develop suitable equipment to meet the demands of the consumer for grain products. This equipment would provide objective grain grading, reducing the possibility of human error to the minimum. I have copies of our preliminary report but would like to read into the record our conclusions (pp. 17 and 18):

"CAN MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT BE DEVELOPED ? “The development of more accurate and objective grain grading equipment is possible. Much work has been conducted in USDA on basic research pertaining to the development of improved inspection equipment. What is needed is support for consolidating the partial advances already made in advanced grading equipment. These partial advances are in the form of equipment, facilities, and grants. For instance, light transmittance and light reflectance equipment have been developed for color evaluation. Rapid colorimeter equipment and methods are available for measuring damage. Laboratories have been established and equipped with the most advanced instrumentation for odor analysis. A grant of $75,000 has been given for an exhaustive study and evaluation of available methods of measuring wheat hardness.

“Additional equipment such as vibrator-separators and indent cylinder cleaners-already used in other inspection work—may be adaptable to grain inspection. In total, over $625,000 has been expended by USDA in this basic work.

“The estimated cost of consolidating these partial advances and filling in the research gaps is $750,000. If this amount could be earmarked by Congress for the development of objective grain grading equipment, savings greatly in excess of this amount could be made each year in grain marketing. U.S. consumers and farmers would benefit through reduced grain marketing margins. The USDA expends nearly one-third of the requested $750,000 each year in the cost of Fed. eral appeals charged to USDA. The grain industry pays an additional amount equal to the entire $750,000 as their share of the Federal appeal cost.

“Additional costs resulting from inaccurate and subjective grain grades that must be reflected in marketing margins are many times the estimated cost of improved grading equipment.

"The cost of this development work in terins of total grain inspected is approximately 20 cents per inspection for 1 year. In terms of total grain marketed from U.S. farms, it represents less than 2 cents per 100 bushels for 1 year's crop.”

This leads us to the following conclusion: There are two main problems in determining the accurate grade of a lot of grain. The first is to obtain a sample of grain that is truly representative of the lot. The second is to develop equipment which will inspect and grade the grain as objectively as possible.

Real progress is being made with new automatic grain sampling equipment. The total cost of this development work to date is approximately $160,000, of which private industry has furnished $555,000. This work is continuing with additional expenditures being made by both USDA and industry.

We are asking congressional support for Government funds for the objective grain grading research and development because the producer and consumer will share heavily in the reduced grain marketing margin which will be made possible by more objective grading equipment.

The requested appropriation of $750,000 should be provided for the research and development of the advances already made in objective grading equipment and to fill in the gaps where additional equipment is needed to completely automate the grading of grain.

It is my firm belief that with the research development of machines and equipment for automated grain grading, the door shall be further opened to marketing-both domestically and internationally—through price reductions and a more accurate and reliable grade. Successful completion of this project promises great benefit for the entire American economy.

LETTER FROM AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF NURSERYMEN, INC. Senator HOLLAND. I have also received a letter from the American Association of Nurserymen, Inc. I ask that this letter be included in the record at this point.

(The letter referred to follows:)

AMERICAN ASSOCIATION OF NURSERYMEN, INC.,

Washington, D.C., May 4, 1965. Hon. SPESSARD L. HOLLAND, Chairman, Subcommittee on Agriculture and Related Agencies, Senate Appro

priations Committee, Washington, D.C. DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: When it is necessary, the American Association of Nurserymen has historically appeared before the Senate Agricultural Appropriations Subcommittee to request additional funds for specific programs. We have done so in the belief that it is a service for an association to point out to the Congress those areas where such sums could be put to valuable use. This association has never requested additional funds when it did not have a specific proposal in mind. This year, Mr. Chairman, we would like to support requests for funds by the Department of Agriculture in a number of areas. We do not, however, have any requests for additional funds at this time.

First, may we draw your attention to a request for funds to upgrade the present physical plant of the ornamental plants section at Beltsville, Md. This installation, constructed in 1940, is in need of extensive repairs and modernization. Certainly with the President's Beautification program we can expect a great deal of emphasis in years to come on research projects which will aid producers of floricultural and horticultural products in meeting quantity and quality requirements. Millions of dollars will be spent on plant products as a part of the President's program. The Beltsville ornamental plants research program backed up by other horticultural and floricultural research projects across the country, will become more and more important as needs for plant materials grow. We urge the committee's serious consideration of future research needs in the horticultural and floricultural field.

May we call your attention to the shade tree and ornamental plants labora of the Agricultural Research Service in Delaware, Ohio. We have asker

a larger appropriation for this laboratory for a number of years. Last year it received increased funds as a result of the supplemental appropriations bill: for research in the pesticides field. Certainly this facility, which is critically understaffed and not fully equipped, should receive careful study by the Congress in an effort to appropriate sufficient money to obtain a return on the rather substantial investment already made in it.

One serious insect problem facing a number of Southern States, which could be solved through immediate attention, is the imported fire ant. We strongly support efforts within the Congress to appropriate funds to continue imported fire ant suppression and eradication programs. It is our understanding that a recent development in this field shows every sign of being safer and less expensive than chemicals previously used and may very well, if pursued, lead to final eradication of this spreading pest.

May we at this time thank your committee, Mr. Chairman, for its efforts in keeping open research laboratories and projects such as the Cheyenne (Wyo.) Horticultural Research Station and European chafer research program in Geneva, N.Y., which are earmarked for closing by the Department of Agriculture. These are important projects. We are grateful to the Congress for recog. nizing this and doing everything within its power to keep them in existence.

In closing, may we respectfully remind the committee that horticultural and floricultural research has become more important than ever as a result of the anticipated increase in consumption of horticultural and floricultural materials in the President's beautification program. We hope that next year all concerned departments of the Federal Government will present to Congress a concrete program of expanded research in this field.

We request that this letter be made a part of the record of hearings before your committee. Respectfully yours,

ROBERT F. LEDERER. (The following information is pursuant to the request on p. 41.)

MALTING BARLEY IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION,

Milwaukee, Wis., April 29, 1965. Mr. RAYMOND L. SCHAFER, Senate Subcommittee on Agricultural Appropriations, Washington, D.C.

DEAR MR. SCHAFER: I wish to express my appreciation to you for the arrangements you made which gave us the privilege to testify before the Subcommittee on Agricultural Appropriations last Monday.

As requested by the chairman, we attach for inclusion in the records an itemization of the research grants made by this association to various institutions for Malting barley research. Trusting that this information is satisfactory and with many thanks, I am, Sincerely yours,

ANDY LEJEUNE, Director.

BARLEY RESEARCH GRANTS MADE BY MALTING BARLEY IMPROVEMENT ASSOCIATION,

1964-65

USDA National Barley and Malt Laboratory, Madison, Wis.

$42, 100.00 North Dakota State University, Fargo: Department of Agronomy;

Department of Plant Pathology ; Department of Cereal Techno logy ; and Department of Soils

55, 595, 00 University of Minnesota, St. Paul : Department of Agronomy & Plant

Genetics; Department of Plant Pathology; and Department of
Biochemistry---

36, 055, 00 Montana State College, Bozeman: Department of Plant & Soil Science --

11, 730.00 University of California, Davis: Department of Agronomy

10,000.00 Michigan State University, East Lansing : Department of Crop Science

6,000.00 University of Wisconsin, Madison : Department of Agronomy-

4, 800.00 Washington State University, Pullman: Departnient of Agronomy-- 4, 312.00) Oregon State University, Corvallis: Department of Farm Crops--- 3, 380.00 University of Idaho, Moscow: Department of Plant Science--

3,000.00

South Dakota State University, Brookings: Department of
Agronomy--

$1,500.00 University of Illinois, Urbana : Department of Agronomy

315.00 Iowa State University, Ames : Department of Agronomy.

300. 00 Total.

179, 117, 000 Senator HOLLAND. I have received a letter from Senator Hartke urging inclusion of $295,000 in the agricultural budget for study of the virus disease attacking corn, maize dwarf mosaic. I ask that Senator Hartke's letter be inserted in the record at this point. (The letter follows:)

U.S. SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON Post OFFICE AND CIVIL SERVICE,

May 5, 1965.
Hon. SPESSARD L. HOLLAND,
Chairman, Senate Subcommittee on Agriculture Appropriations,
Washington, D.C.

DEAR MR. CHAIRMAN: I urge that the Subcommittee on Agriculture Appropriations consider favorably the inclusion of $295,000 for the study by the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, of the control of the virus disease, maize dwarf mosaic, which is attacking our Midwest cornfields. As I understand it, this is creating damage in the Southern States as well.

It would seem to me, Mr. Chairman and members of the committee, that in view of corn production figures of 2,892,156,000 bushels (December 1964, U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates) in the Midwest valued at $3,228,470,000 and Indiana production at $337,752,000 bushels at $371,527,000 value, $295,000 is a small amount in comparison to control this disease which has reduced yields of infected fields by as much as 40 percent. The object of the Agricultural Research Service study would be to cross resistant strains with the good inbreds currently in production in order to transfer this resistant characteristic. Only 5 percent of these now resistant inbreds are being used in the United States today.

A preliminary study indicates that the maize dwarf mosaic virus attacks certain grassy weeds. The disease is then transferred to healthy corn plants by aphids. Result of the infection is a dwarfing of the corn plant and a failure to produce ears. The control of aphids, I understand, is too great a task to underdertake. Agriculture specialists feel their best approach is the development of good inbreds which are resistant to the disease.

Indiana, the Midwest, and the rest of the Nation's production is gravely threatened by this virus, which has become widespread since 182. It is my sincere wish that my colleagues on the subcommittee will agree with me and move to help the Nation's farmers in this crisis. Sincerely,

VANCE HARTKE. NATIONAL GRANGE

STATEMENT OF HARRY L. GRAHAM, LEGISLATIVE

REPRESENTATIVE

FISCAL YEAR 1966 USDA BUDGET REQUEST Senator HOLLAND. Mr. Graham, if you will come over and testify or if you just you may put your statement in the record.

Mr. GRAHAM. I will just file the statement and make a few comments, if I may.

Senator HOLLAND. All right, Mr. Graham, you may proceed.

Mr. GRAHAM. As I indicated, Mr. Chairman, and Senator Young, I am going to file this statement. It is the same one which we have made to the House yesterday so we will have a chance of getting it in the record.

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