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da stands at the beginning of a clause, and may be translated by then, the verb generally precedes its subject; if it is to be translated by when, the subject generally precedes the verb.'

SEQUENCE OF TENSES. As in all other languages, the general principle is the familiar one of Latin Grammar-principal tenses depend upon principal tenses, and historical upon historical.

But this fact is to be explained by the logical relation of the action of the two clauses, and not by any influence of the verb of the main clause on that of the dependent clause. Indeed, Professor Hale 1 showed that this is true for Latin, for which the doctrine of the sequence of tenses has been taught religiously for centuries. We are not surprised to note, then, occasional violations of sequence in OE. I quote only one example to illustrate: 0. 220. 10 ponne hie from gesælgum tidum gilpað; þonne wæron þa him selfum þa ungesælgestan.

NEGATIVE. The negative of the temporal clause is ne or na, or both.

1 The Sequence of Tenses in Latin (Am. Jou

Phil. 7. 8).

CONCLUSION. In closing this study, it may be desirable to recapitulate some of the most obvious results arrived at:

1. The surprising number and variety of the connectives used to introduce the temporal clause.

2. The fact that da, the most common of the connectives, is used only with the preterite tense of the indicative mode.

3. The fact that certain connectives, or groups of connectives, are found, for the most part, only in a definite group of writings.

4. That Ælfric seldom omits de from the conjunctional formula.

5. That the syntax of the temporal clause is essentially the same throughout the OE. period, save that different writers, in the same period as well as in different periods, use different connectives.

6. That ær and its variants have the indicative in about one-fourth of the cases in which they occur.

7. That ær, when used with the indicative, usually occurs in narratives of fact in past time, and that the mode has the effect of emphasizing the actual occurrence of the action of the clause.

8. That the indicative is the prevailing mode in all clauses, save in the ar-clauses.

9. That the occurrence of the optative in clauses other than those of the ær-type is usually due to peculiarity of the main clause (the presence of an imperative, &c.), and that hypothetical or indefinite character in some measure leads to the use of the optative in such cases. 1

i Cook, A First Book in Old English, p. 104.

10. That the use of the optative does not decrease perceptibly in the later period of OE., so far as the temporal clause is concerned.

11. That the so-called modal auxiliaries mugan, sculan, motan, willan have their full verbal content, and are not used as a mere paraphrase for the optative.

12. That these auxiliary verbs take the optative under precisely the same circumstances that ordinary verbs do.

13. That the use of the auxiliaries does not increase noticeably in the later period of OE.

14. That sculan and willan, though preserving their full independent meaning, show a tendency to pass over into the use of tense auxiliaries.

15. That the position of the temporal clause is free, save that the of (Jet)-clause always follows the main clause.

m

APPENDIX I.

INDEX-LIST OF CLAUSES (8861).

A. CLAUSES DENOTING TIME WHEN (5760).

1. Index-List of da-Clauses (1641). OET. (4) indic. 177. 3; 178. 36: without da in the main clause; Vesp. Psalms (psalm and verse.) 118. 32: indeter. 177. 16.

Chron. (90) indic. 2. 10, 11, 12; 5. 8, 12; 30. 4, 18; 33. 7; 37. 10; 87. 6; 88. 1, 23; 91. 5; 103. 5; 112. 29; 124. 30; 127. 27;

129. 29; 133. 4; 134. 19; 135. 28; 138. 24; 139. 1, 8, 20; 141. 7; 142. 1; 143. 4, 26; 146. 13; 147. 28; 164. 28; 169. 6; 172. 17, 18, 20; 174. 26; 175. 7; 176. 17; 180. 3; 190. 2; 196. 6, 10, 15, 18, 22, 28; 203. 13; 207. 7, 13; 223. 28; 224. 31 ; 229. 22; 245. 7, 13; 259. 20; 262. 34; 263. 32; 267. 18, 21; 268. 23, 25: without da in the main clause; 84. 34; 85. 16; 86. 31; 97. 19; 128. 19; 200. 9; 209. 35: indeter. 30. 10; 86. 11; 95. 9; 97. 17; 136. 21; 144. 4; 148.5; 151. 7; 178. 39; 180. 15; 181. 38; 196. 6; 204. 23; 207. 26; 208. 22; 216. 6; without da in the main clause; 18. 18; 215. 33; 234. 3; 237. 35.

Cart. (27) indic. vol. 1: 80. 25; 429. 10; vol. 2: 176. 16, 18, 25; 177. 10; 236. 24; 237. 4; vol. 3 : 283. 22; 284. 17: without da in the main clause; vol. 2: 236. 20; vol. 3: 370. 33; 371. 26; 372. 11; 390. 11; 536. 21; 630. 6; inteder. vol. 2: 236. 16, 80; 237. 15, 18; vol. 3: 329. 14; donne in the main clause; vol. 2: 179. 9: without da in the main clause; vol 2: 282. 26; vol. 3: 215. 6; 369. 29; 372. 11.

Laws. (7) indic. without da in the main clause; 42. 17; 140. 22; 181. 33; 210. 37; 220. 26: indeter. without da in the main clause; 114. 21 : with ða in the main clause 214. 25. PPs. (40) (psalm-number and verse) indic. 29. 7: (page and line) 5. 12; 22. 1; 23. 23; 24. 24; without da in the main clause; (psalm-number and verse) 9. 6; 34. 8; 37. 11: (page and line), 5. 14, 15; 7. 5, 6; 9. 3; 10. 16; 14. 16, 17; 20. 10, 11, 14; 22. 5; 27. 1, 3, 6; 28. 12; 42. 19; 52. 15, 16; 55. 23; 65. 6; 82. 1, 5; 109. 6; 115. 14: indeter. (psalmnumber and verse) 30. 26: without da in the main clause; (page and line) 10. 12, 13; 13. 1; 42. 21; 49. 18; 101. 12.

0. (179) indic. 38. 30; 40. 15; 48. 5; 56. 30; 60. 12; 62.7; 64. 29; 66. 35; 68. 21; 84. 27; 88. 30; 100. 4; 112. 34; 118. 4; 128. 5; 130. 25; 132. 29, 134, 10; 138. 8, 21; 140. 20; 144. 27; 146. 19; 150. 11; 154. 10; 160. 10; 166. 22, 33; 168. 15; 170. 17, 22; 174. 2, 24, 29; 178. 21; 180. 17, 28; 194. 17; 196. 9; 198. 30; 204. 33; 206. 15; 216. 29; 218. 31; 222. 1; 230. 22; 238. 6; 240. 13; 246. 23, 29, 32; 252. 10; 254. 13; 256. 10, 18; 258. 33; 286. 31; 288. 26; 294. 21, 30: without da in the main clause; 3. 23; 44. 17; 62. 26; 64. 9; 66. 6, 10, 31; 76. 6; 78. 10; 80. 14; 82. 12, 24; 92. 29; 94. 11. 13; 98. 5; 104. 11; 110. 20, 24; 122. 34; 134. 26, 27; 136. 11, 22; 138. 21, 24; 140. 30; 148. 22; 156. 26, 34; 174. 15; 176. 18; 184. 2; 186. 10; 188. 27; 192. 28; 194. 10, 19; 198. 15, 21; 200. 18; 206. 27; 208. 34; 212. 3,5; 214. 12; 218. 10, 11; 222. 21 ; 224. 13, 34; 228. 9; 240. 4; 244. 3, 9; 248. 6; 256. 15; 258. 18, 19; 262. 3; 288. 8, 21; 290. 11; 294. 9: with donne in the main clause; 142. 27: indeter. 19. 24; 52. 6; 66. 33; 68. 25; 78. 29; 118. 32; 143. 26; 148. 14, 16; 152. 4, 33; 156. 1; 160. 8; 164. 29; 166. 30; 182. 29; 186. 22; 194. 4; 202. 1, 24; 204. 27; 206. 1; 222.

224. 11; 228. 18; 230. 19; 236. 8; 240. 31; 242. 4, 30; 246. 20; 254. 13, 25; 282. 7. 10; 284. 32; 286. 17; 290. 18, 25; 294. 4: without da in the main clause; 18. 9; 40. 19; 52. 30; 74. 31 ; 76. 10, 21; 84. 19; 112. 11; 122. 32; 172. 8, 26; 186. 28; 196. 23; 242. 18; 288. 17.

BH. (155) indic. 38. 2; 46. 12; 118. 6; 120. 17; 126. 8; 156. 31; 166. 28; 176. 6, 10; 178. 23; 180. 2, 29; 188. 13; 192. 20; 204. 2; 222. 26; 236. 18; 242. 13; 246. 28; 248. 18; 252. 10; 260. 22; 276. 5; 282. 28; 284. 9; 296. 21; 306. 6; 308. 8, 18; 318. 5; 326. 14; 328. 28; 334. 30; 336. 3; 340. 4;

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