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of determining whether many clauses of the siðdanclass do express the relation ex quo ; secondly, the fact that this determination of time is a mere special case of the determination of time by reference to an action which precedes that of the main clause.

The number of examples with this connective is not great, but they occur in texts ranging in date from BH. to Wulf. The only nouns of time I have noted are tid, dæg, and tima; the case is always the dative, of course.

I quote examples : BH. 52. 9 is sæd of þære tide þe hi danon gewiton oð to dæge, þæt hit weste wunige; Guth. 84. 20 Of þære tide be ic ærest mid þe on þisum westene eardode, ic þe gehyrde sprecan on æfenne and on æren-mergen ic nat mid hwæne; LS. 2. 292. 1193 Auitianus soðlice siðþan wæs mild-heortra of þam dæge @fre pe se deoful him fram wearð; Deut. 9. 7 Of þam dæge, be he eow ut alædde of Egipta lande oð þisne dæg, æfre ge fliton and wunnon ongean drihten. The Latin reads: Ex eo die, quo egressus es ex Aegypto; Wulf. 280. 5 and of þam timan wrest, þe se man fulluht underfeho, him wunað on se halga gast, gif he hine sylfne mid rihte gehealt.

NOTE 1. With this may be compared OHG. fon thiu: Tatian 92.4 Inti fragata sinan fater : uuuo michil stunta ist fon thiu imo thaz giburita ? For this the Latin is: quantum temporis est ex quo hoc ei accidit.

5 b. fram + obj. (noun of time) + De.

Since only four examples with this formula have been noted, I quote them all. No comment of a general nature in addition to what has been said in 5a is necessary. The nouns of time are gear, dæg, and tima; and the case is always the dative : 0. 62. 15 From þæm geare pe heo getimbred wearð, wæs hire anwald M wintra 7 C 7 LX 7 folnæh feower, ær hio hiere anwaldes benumen wurde; £. 1. 462. 29 Fram dam dæge be his apostol Bartholomeus hider com, ic eom mid byrnendum racenteagum dearle fornumen; LS. 1. 98. 158 we synd wraðe ge-swæncte and mid fyre fornumene for Julianes intingan æfre fram dam dæge pe ge hine ærest dræhton; Wulf. 15. 2 þa wæs agan geargerimes from þain timan, þe Adam ærest gescapen wæs, feower þusend and hunteontig and þreo und sixtig geare, þæs þe bec secgað.

NOTE 1. I have noted a parallel construction in Gothic, and cite illustrations : Colossians 1.9 Dubbe jah weis, fram þamma daga ei hausidedum, ni hweilaidedum faur izwis bidjandans jah aihtrondans ei fullnaiþ kunþjis wiljins is in allai handugein jah frodein ahmeinai; Nehemiae 5. 14 Jah fram þamma daga ei anabaub mis ei wesjan fouramaþleis izi in Judaia, &c. The Greek for the first passage follows: Διά τούτο και ημείς, αφ' ης ημέρας ηκούσαμεν, ου παυόμεθα υπέρ υμών προσευχόμενοι.

5c. fram ðæt.

This connective, common in Middle English, has been noted only once: Chron. 258. 26 þis wæs sægon 7 herd fram Ď he þider com eall þ lented tid on an to Eastren.

Note 1. I quote an illustration from Middle English: Richard Coeur de Lion? 213 Geve us leve to don her dwele, Fro that begynnes the gospelle, Tyll the messe be sungge and sayd.





This connective is, in origin, a comparative, and belongs to the main clause. But from this it soon develops conjunctival and prepositional functions, as many adverbs did.

1 Weber, Metrical Romances. Edinburg 1810.

It is difficult to say which arose first, its prepositional or conjunctival use. We find ær alone, as well as ær dam in early texts, so, for lack of evidence, the question must be left undecided.

The chief point of interest in connection with @r is its use with the optative; but as this will be discussed in the chapter on the mode of the temporal clause, we leave it for the present.

The simple ær is the most common of the connectives of the ær-class in all the texts, save in the writings of Ælfric, in which ar dan de predominates.

The comparative nature of ær is apparent in examples such as these: Lch. 1. 112. 20 Wið eagena sare ær sunnan upgange oðde hwene ær heo fullice gesigan onginne, ga to ðære ylcan wyrte proserpinacam; BH. 438. 21 Ær hwene du come, eode inn on þis hus to me twegen geonge men fægre 7 beorhte.

The examples which follow will illustrate the normal use of mode, etc. : Dial. 274. 2 ic þa gyt wæs wuniende in minum mynstre, ær ic þas biscopscire underfengce; L. 22. 16 Ic eow secge Þ ic heononforð ne ete, ær hyt sy on godes rice gefylled.

The double comparative, as it were, æror, stands in the main clause, correlative with ær, in this example: LS. 2. 276. 919 Martinus him cwæð to þæt he ne mihte na gan aror to cyrcan ær se þearfa wäre gescryd ; Int. Sig. 50. 490 God afandað þæs mannes, na swilce he nyte ælces mannes heortan, or he his fandige, ac he wyle þæt se man geþeo on þære fandunge; Wulf. 150. 8 ne mæg se preost ænigum synfullum men wel dædbote tæcan, ær he gehyre his synne, Þe ma, þe ænig læce mæg ænigne untrumne mann wel lacnjan, ær he hæbbe þæt attor ut aspiwen þe him oninnan bið.

All the following have the indicative: Chron. 82. 17 Earnulf cyning gefeaht wið dæm ræde here ær þa scipu cuomon; O. 64. 33 hie mid nanum þinge ne mehton gesemede weorþan, ær þara Romana wif mid heora cildum iernende wæron gemong dæm gefehtun; CP. 385. 15 nolde he deah on eorðan bion monna lareow, ær he wæs Gritiges geara eald; John 17. 24 fordam þu lufodest me, ær middan-eard gesett wæs; ÆH. 2. 96. 7 Se apostol Petrus hæfde wif and cild, and eac sume da oðre apostolas, ær hi to Cristes lareowdome gecyrdon; BIH. 243. 17 We witon forþon þe ær he on þæs earfoðnesse com he ure wæs wealdend.

Note 1. Probably ær is as common in the poetry as in the prose. I quote an example: Christ 315 Wende swiðe þæt ænig ælda æfre [ne] meahte swa fæstlice forescyttelsas on ecnesse o inhebban, oppe dæs ceasterhlides clustor onlucan, ær him Godes engel, þurh glædne gebonc, þa wisan onwrah.

Note 2. In Middle English ær usually appears as er, and its use is frequent. Examples follow: Brut 1. 67. 17 þu most swiþer fehten, er we heonne iwenden; Chaucer's Knyghtes Tale 182 Er it were day, as was hir wone to do, She was arisen, and al redy dight.

NOTE 3. In Modern English ere is confined largely to poetry, or archaic language. I cite an example from Skakespeare: 2 Henry IV. V. 5 Ere this year expire, We bear our civil swords and native fire As far as France.

NOTE 4. In OS. we find er used much as ær in OE. I quote examples for comparison : Heliand 4954 ni let ina the portun ward folgon is frohon, er it at is friunde abad Johannes at enumu Judeon, that man ina gangan let forð an thena frid-hof. We find er in OHG. also. I quote: Tatian 5.7 Christes cunni uuas so: Mit thiu uuas gimahalit thes heilantes muoter Maria Josebe, er thiu zisamane quamin, uuas siu fundan so scaffaniu fon themo heilagen geiste; Otfrid 2. 7.65 Irkanta ih thino quati ju manageru ziti, er er thik thes gibeitti, thaz er thik hera le-itti.

1b. ær er.

This doubled form of the connective occurs only three times, and all of these are in Bo. It is probable that the first ær belongs to the main clause, since we frequently find a correlative ær so employed. This correlative ær happens to stand at the end of the main clause, and the two practically form one conjunction.

In the following example the first ær is better regarded as still belonging to the main clause: CP. 141. 10 sua sindon da loccas to sparienne dæm sacerde dæt he da hyd behelien, & deah ðæt he hie forceorfe ær, ær hie on da eagan feallen.

The examples of ær ær follow: Bo. 128. 17 Se foreþonc is sio godcunde gesceadwisnes; sio is fæst on þæm hean sceppende þe eall fore wat hu hit geweorðan sceall, ær ær hit geweorde; Bo. 128. 28 Swa swa ælc cræftega dencð 7 mearcað his weorc on his mode, ær ær he hit wyrce; Bo. 144. 29 swa swa good scipstiora ongit micelne wind on hreore sæ ær er hit geweorde.

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In a considerable number of cases we find an adverbial or in the main clause correlative to with the conjunction.

In one instance this adverbial correlative stands at the end of the main clause, and so in immediate juxtaposition with the connective. In this way, doubtless, the form ær ær is to be accounted for. The example in question is as follows: CP. 141. 10 sua sindon da loccas to sparienne dæm sacerde dæt hi da hyd behelien, & Geah dæt he hie forceorfe or, ær hie on da eagon feallen.

Here follow the examples of er ... er with the

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