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study of medicine, gave an impulse to pharmaceutical chemistry, and was the originator of a theosophic system of philosophy, but his name is associated as well with conjuring and necromancy, in which he showed interest.

70. Haue a lecture read vpon me. With this fantastical punishment Corvino threatens Celia, Volp. 2. 3, p. 219:

I will make thee an anatomy,
Dissect thee mine own self, and read a lecture

Upon thee to the city.
Dissection of the human body had not been allowed until Elizabeth
granted the privilege in 1564.

83-4. Raynard the foxe ... call'd Dones philosophie. Of course Sir Amorous is wrong to say the Reynard story was called Done's Philosophy-a very old and popular epic originating in Æsop, and coming into English as early as June 1481, when Caxton printed his translation The History of Reynard the Fox. For detailed information cf. Froude, Short Studies in Great Subjects ; W. J. Thomas, The History of Reynard the Fox (Percy Soc. 1844). Arber in English Scholar's Library has a reprint of Caxton's. On this latter work G. has the note : "There was a very old collection of Oriental apologues called Calilah u Dumnah (better known as the Fables of Pilpay), which was translated about the middle of the eleventh century, out of the Persian or Arabic into Greek, by Simeon Seth: it was afterwards turned into Latin, and subsequently into Italian, by one Doni. This last was rendered into English by Sir Thomas North, 1605, under the title of Doni's Moral Philosophy.'

94. you discommended them. This unusual word I find again Four PP, Haz.-Dods. 1. 343 : 'I discommend your wit.'

101. put her to me. This is said of placing a servant in one's charge, as Beaum. and Fletch., Philasler 3. 2. 97:

ARETHUSA. He was your boy, and you put him to me, And the loss of such must have a mourning for.

106. Sick-mans salue. Thomas Bacon, a Calvinist divine (1511-67), published this tract in 1561. It was kept in print by the Stationers' Company until the seventeenth century, and was for many years the butt of jokes. His works have been reprinted by the Parker Society. Beaum. and Fletch. Philaster 4. 1: He

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looks like a mortified member as if he had a sick man's salve in 's mouth. In Eastward Ho 5. 2, Quicksilver could 'speak you all the Sick Man's Salve without book'. Cf. i Sir John Oldcastle 4. 2.

106–7. Greene's groats-worth of wit. Robert Greene's last pamphlet, written just before his death, reads-Greens Groatsworth of wit, bought with a Million of Repentaunce. | Describing the follies of youth, the falshoode of makeshift | flatterers, the miserie of the negligent, and mischiefes , of deceiving Courtezans. Written before his death, and published at his | dying request. | Fælicem fuisse infaustum, | Vir esset vulnere veritas. | London | Printed by Thomas Creede, for Richard Oliue | dwelling in long Lane and are there | to be solde. 1596 |’ This work of Greene is not famous for its story, which is rather a poor tale of two unloving brothers, but for the fact that it records the first literary reference to Shakespeare, of whose rising fame the dying author was frankly envious, and for whom he had no wiser epithet than that of the upstart crow', 'the only Shake-scene in a country'.

118. Preach folke asleepe. C. thinks this story suggested by one in Latimer's Syx te Sermon, 12 Apr. 1549: 'I had rather ye should come as the tale is by the gentlewoman of London. One of her neyghbours mette her in the streate, and sayde, “ Mestres, whether go ye?” Mary”, says she, “I am goynge to S. Thomas of Acres to the sermon. I could not slepe all thys laste nyght, and I am goynge now thither. I never fayled of a good nap there”; and so I had rather ye should go a napping to the sermons, than not to go at all. Mayne, City Match 4. 2: AUR. One that preaches the next parish once a week

Asleep for thirty pounds a year. 119–20. An old woman that was their physitian. Cunningwomen were commonly consulted as physicians. Stubbes, Anat. of Ab., part 2.53 : 'Now a daies euerie man, tagge and ragge, of what insufficiencie soeuer, is suffered to exercise the misterie of physick, and surgerie, and to minister both the one and the other, to the diseased, and infirmed persons; but to their woe, you may be sure. Yes, you shall haue some that know not a letter of the books (so farre are they from being learned or skilful in the toongs, as they ought to be that should practise these misteries) both men and women, yoong and old, that, presuming vpon experiences forsooth

(for that is the greatest skill) will arrogate great knowledge to themselues, and more than the learnedest doctor vpon the earth will doe,' p. 54: 'I would wish that euery ignorant doult, and especially women, that haue as much knowledge in physick or surgery as hath Iackanapes . . . should be restrained from the public use thereof.' William Clowes, A short and profitable treatise, gc. (London, 1579), speaking of poor doctors says: Yet I do not mean to speak of the old woman at Newington, beyond St. Georges Fields, unto whom people resort as unto an oracle ; neither will I speak of the woman on the Bankside, who is as cunning as the horse at the Cross Keys; nor yet of the cunning woman in Seacole Lane.' There is satire in plenty against the medical profession in general: Edward Hake, News out of Paul's Churchyard, satires 3, 4; Joseph Hall, Virgidemiarum, bk. 2, sat. 4.

138. ladanum ? or opium ? Ladanum must here be used as a synonym of the tincture of opium, laudanum; it cannot mean ladanum, the modern word for a stomachic made from certain plants grown in Spain, Crete, Syria, &c. Opium is the inspissated juice of Papaver somniferum, a poppy cultivated from early antiquity for the sake of its medicinal property, which was known to the Greeks, but was not made efficient use of until the seventeenth century. It is at present the most important of all medicines (Cent. Dict.).

148–9. some diuine ... or canon-Lawyer. The divine could advise from a purely theological point of view; the canon-lawyer would know the ecclesiastical law in the case. Phillimore, Eccles. Law of the Church 1. 548 ff., states that marriage was controlled by civil law under Justinian. The Church made the ceremony public; St. Augustine gave it a more religious significance, and in the ninth century the civil and ecclesiastical law of marriage became one. Roman canon law was applicable in England until 'other civil regulations interfered'. At the Reformation, marriage was determined to be no longer a sacrament, but it · retained those rules of the canon law which had their foundation not in the sacrament or in any religious view of the subject, but in the natural and civil contract of marriage'. Ibid. 1. 638 : 'Till the passing of the 20 & 21 Vict. c. 85 (1857) English ecclesiastical courts had jurisdiction in all cases of marriage. By that Act ... [it] was vested in the Court of Divorce and Matrimonial causes.' This court is now merged in the High Court of Justice.

158. Is that his keeper. Haughty's query emphasizes the possibility of Morose's madness, and shows in what uncomplimentary terms she speaks of Dauphine. Contrast her conduct toward him in Act 5. 2.

166. set me i' the nicke. Subtle prophesies that Dapper shall win at all games, Alchem. I. I, p. 29:

If I do give him a familiar,
Give you him all you play for; never set him :

For he will have it.
Nice Wanton, Haz.-Dods. 2. 171:

INIQ. Here, sirs, come on; seven-[They set him.]
Eleven at all-

Ism. Do you nick us?
Middleton, Blurt, Master-Constable 2. 2:

The masque dogg'd me, I hit it in the nick;

A fetch to get my diamond, my dear stone. Scott, Fortunes of Nigel, ch. 23: 'If honest Jack Hildebrod puts you not in the way of nicking them all, may he never cast doublets.'

167. primero. Drake thinks it the most ancient game of cards'. Nares gives: Mr. Daniel Barrington, in the Archaeologi, vol. 8. 132: “Each player had four cards dealt to him, one by one; the seven was the highest card in point of number that he could avail himself of, which counted for 21; the six counted for 18; the five for 15; and ace for the same; but the two, three, and four for their respective points only. The knave of diamonds was commonly fixed upon for the quinola, which the player might make what card or suit he thought proper; if the cards were of different suits, the highest number was the primero (or prime); but if they were all of one colour, he that held them won the flush.Perhaps the game of Prime mentioned by Sir John Harrington in his satirical descriptions of court games is the same. However great was its early popularity, it was so much out of fashion by 1680 that it is not included in the Compleat Gamester of that year. Despite the many references attesting its popularity and its special use among gamblers, all points concerning it as a game are not clear. There is an epigram on Primero in Dodsley, 1. 168. M. W. of W. 4. 5. 104: 'I never prospered since I foreswore myself at primero. In Henry VIII 5. 1. 7, the king and the Duke of Suffolk play at primero. In Pappe with an Hatchet it is said: 'If you had the foddring of the sheep you would make the Church like Primero, foure religions in it, and nere one like another.' Cf. Dekker, Belman of London, Pr. Wks. 3. 125; and Taylor, History of Playing Cards, 1865, p. 267.

192. cast of kastrils. These hawks were the sort allotted by law for servants to use when hawking. Nashe, Lenten Stuffe (Harl. Misc.) 6. 170 : ‘Kistrilles or windsuckers, that filling themselues with winde, fly against the wind euermore. Cf. note, 1. 4. 77 oni windsucker. Hawking grew to the zenith of its popularity under James I, who pursued it with much pleasure, and made it one of the most splendid amusements of the court. Strutt, Sports and Past. 31, writes: "The practise of hawking declined from the moment the musket was brought to perfection... At the commencement of the seventeenth century it was in the zenith of its glory. At the close of the same century the sport was rarely practised, and a few years afterwards hardly known.' There are many old treatises on the subject: Treatise on Hawking, Dame Juliana Barnes (Wynkyn De Worde), 1496; The Booke of Faulconrie, or Hawking, George Tuberville, Gentleman, 1575; Gentlemen's Academie, Gervase Markham, 1595; Jewel for Gentrie, 1614; Country Contentments, Gervaise Markham, 1619; Hawks and Hawking, Edmund Best, 1619.


18. an execution to serue vpon 'hem. An execution is the means whereby the sentence of the law is put in force. It was in the form of a writ, or order, generally directed to the sheriff, and served by him upon the party. The writ capias ad satisfaciendum commanded the sheriff to take the party's body into custody, and is the one jocularly referred to here ; cf. Blackstone, Comm. bk. 3, ch. 26, § 415.

29. Doe you obserue this gallerie. T structure of the early theatre was exceedingly simple. The uncurtained stage projected

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