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98–9. giue verses ... buy 'hem. Dekker told his gull that purchase was an excellent way to obtain poetry for one's own composition. Cyn. Rev. 3. 1, p. 259, Amorphus advises Asotus, who fears that the ladies may ask him for verses: “Why, you must prove the aptitude of your genius; if you find none, you must hearken out a vein, and buy; provided you pay for the silence as for the work, then you may securely call it your own.'

100-2. be frequent in the mention of quarrels, though you be staunch in fighting. "Though you should really be a brave man, and therefore not naturally inclined to boast of your valours; yet, to please your mistress, you may often make it the subject of your discourse'--so runs Gifford's lengthy paraphrase of a not very complicated passage. In relation to his own satire it is amusing to hear Pyrgus say of Jonson, Poet. 4. 5, p. 464: Horace is a man of the sword. And in Satiromastix Dekker repeats the phrase: 'Holds, Capten, 'tis known that Horace is valliant, and a man of the sword.'

To be sure, Jonson had proved his personal valor in duel, as well as in the army.

102–3. leaping ouer stooles. A form of exercise often derided. Cf. Every Man Out 3. 3, P. 118 :

Fast. By this hand, I'd spend twenty pound my vaultinghorse stood here now, she might see me do but one trick.

Mac. Why, does she love activity ? 2 Hen. IV 2. 4. 265:

Dol. Why does the prince love him so, then?

Fal. Because their legs are both of a bigness, and a' plays at quoits well, and ... drinks off candles' ends for flap-dragons, and jumps upon joined stools.

104. learned counsell. Cf. Dekker's list of tradesmen necessary to a gallant, Guls Horn-Booke, ch. 8: Your Tailor, Mercer, Haberdasher, Silkeman, Cutter, Linen-Draper, or Sempster stand like a guard of Switzers about your lodging.' your french taylor comes in for much ridicule from the pamphleteers and Dekker, Deuils Answer to Pierce Pennylesse, Pr. Wks. 1. 114: ‘France, where the Gentlemen, to make Apes of Englishmen, whom they took dayly practising all the foolish tricks of fashion after their Monsieur-ships, with yards instead of leading Staues, mustred all the French Taylors together; who, by reason they had not their haire, wore thimbles on their heads instead of Harnesse caps, euery man being armed with his sheeres and pressing Iron, which he calls there his goose (many of them being in France): Al the crosse caperers being plac'd in strong rankes, and an excellent oration cut out and sticht together, perswading them to sweat out their very braines, in deuising new french cuts, new french panes in honour of Saint Dennys, onely to make the giddy-pated Englishman consume his reuenues in wearing the like cloathes.' Cf. ibid. Seuen Deadly Sinnes 59. As early as 1580 Harrison writes: Neither was it merrier with England, than when an Englishman was knowne abroad by his owne cloth, and contented himselfe at home with his fine carsie hosen, and a meane slop:... without such cuts and gawrish colours as are worne in these daies, and neuer brought in but by the consent of the French, who thinke themselues the gaiest men, when they haue most diuersities of iagges and change of colours about them.'

116. cherries ... or apricots. Cherries were a very common but favorite fruit with the English. Venders sold them everywhere in the market streets. "May dukes, white heart, black heart, Kentish', all these with their luscious names were to be bought in season of the street-sellers from three- to sixpence a pound, of the shops at a price always from two- to threepence a pound higher. Apricots were grown in England early in Elizabeth's · reign; in 1571 the queen sent the French ambassador a basket full of fine ones to show him what good fruit England produced (Corres. dipl. de Fenelon, Paris, 1840). As presents fruit was given by subjects to the queen herself, for Nichols quotes in Progresses 2. 104 ff., a list of gifts, one being “Mrs. Morgan a box of cherryes, and one of aberycocks'.

118. Cheap-side. It had been the chief market-place of the city since the time of Edward I, growing from a place of scattered markets and fairs to the street of Stow's day (Survey 3. 49), 'a very stately spacious street, adorned with lofty buildings; well inhabited by Goldsmiths, Linen-drapers, Haberdashers, and other great dealers '. To-day Cheapside is the central east and west thoroughfare of London, but no longer a fashionable shopping district.

120. riddles. The invention of riddles Jonson enumerates among other foolish occupations of the pen. In his Execration upon Vulcan, vol. 8. 400, he denies that he ever

Spun out riddles, or weav'd fifty tomes
Of Logographes, or curious Palindromes,

Or pump'd for those hard trifles, Anagrams. 120-1. great one. W. has a note to the effect that Jonson used here a stage term, where a less principal character acting in subordination to the first, and forwarding all his designs, was said secundes partes agere'. But the word was common in the sense of person of position: e.g. Dekker, Belman of London, Pr. Wks. 3. 71: 'Art thou a tyrant and delightest in the fall of Great


148. the best philtre i’ the world. Cunning women and quack-doctors encouraged belief in potions of this sort. Shakespeare speaks of such when he has Brabantio say, Oth. 1. 3. 59:

She is abus'd, stolen from me, and corrupted

By spells and medicines bought of mountebanks.
Cf. Burton, Anat. of Mel. 546 ff., and Gay, Shepherd's Week 4. 123 ff.:

Strait to the 'pothecary's shop I went,
And in love powder all my money spent;
Behap what will, next Sunday after prayers,
When to the alehouse Lubberkin repairs,
These golden flies into his mug I'll throw,

And soon the swain with fervent love shall glow. 149–50. madame Medea, or Doctor Foreman. Medea is the greatest magician of the Greek myth. She helped Jason win the Golden Fleece from Colchis, slew by strategy Pelias, king of Iolchos, and then, in revenge for Jason's abandonment of her, slew his bride with a poisoned garment, and the father by fire. Dr. Simon Foreman (1552-1611) was the famous London quack believed to be Jonson's model for Subtle in the Alchemist. He was connected with the infamous Essex affair and Sir Thomas Overbury's death. His life is fully treated by Mr. Hathaway in the Introduction to his edition of the Alchemist, pp. 97 ff. Other sources of information concerning him are Nashe, The Rise of Conjurers; Lilly, Life and Times; and Foreman's Journal, published by Halliwell. Jonson speaks of him D. A. 1. 2, p. 16:

Ay, they do now name Bretnor, as before

They talk'd of Gresham, and of doctor Foreman.
Richard Nichol, Overbury's Vision :

Foreman was that fiend in human shape
That by his art did act the devil's ape.

151. the mounte-bank. This quack-doctor made his first appearance in England some three and a half centuries ago. He sold medicines, making pompous orations to the public, sometimes acting as juggler, &c., to gather a crowd and dispose of his wares. He seldom performed alone, and Strutt quotes from an old ballad entitled Sundry Trades and Callings:

A mountebank without his fool

Is in a sorrowful case. Cf. Dekker, Lanthorne and Candle-Light, Pr. Wks. 3; and Volp. 2. I, p. 203.

Act IIII. SCENE II. This scene is a parody on bear-baiting ; its noisy fun must have been highly amusing to an audience accustomed to the rough sport of the Bear Garden. Hentzner, Travels (1590), thus describes the game: “The bulls and bears , .. are fastened behind, and then worried by great English bull-dogs; but not without great risque to the dogs from the horns of the one and the teeth of the other; and it sometimes happens they are killed upon the spot. Fresh ones are immediately supplied in the place of those that are wounded or tired. To this entertainment there often follows that of whipping a blinded bear, which is performed by five or six men, standing circularly with whips, which they exercise upon him without any mercy.' Cf. the account of Ordish, London Theatres, pp. 237 ff., drawn from the Alleyn Papers. There is an advertisement in the Dulwich Catalogue, p. 83, and quoted by Wh.-C.: Tomorrowe beinge Thursdaie shalbe seen at the Bear-garden on the banc-side a great mach plaid by the gamesters of Essex, who hath challenged all comers whatsoever to plaie v dogges at the single beare for v pounds, and also to wearie a bull dead at the stake; and for your better delight shall have plasent sport with the horse and ape and whiping of the blind beare. Vivat Rex'. Naturally there was much inveighing against a game of such brutality, but it had its noble advocates; cf. Gentleman's Magazine, 1816, vol. 86, part 1, p. 205, where is reprinted a MS. of 1606 in defence of the game. Complaint against Bear-baiting as a Sunday diversion grew so strong that in 1625 James (Act 1, Cor. 1, ch. 1) forbids Bearbaiting ... Bullbaiting, Enterludes, common Playes, or other unlawful exercises or pastimes' on the Sabbath. The sport was made illegal in 1642. With what favor it was revived in Charles II's reign we find from Pepys, Diary, Aug. 14, 1666: After dinner with my wife and Mercer to the Bear-garden; where I have not been, I think, of many years, and saw some good sport of the bull's tossing of the dogs: one into the very boxes. But it is a very rude and noisy pleasure.' (Cf. also May, 1667; Sept. 9, 1667; Apr. 12, 1669.) Evelyn, Diary, June 16, 1670: 'I went with some friends to the Bear Garden, where was cock-fighting, dog-fighting, beare and bull baiting, it being a famous day for all these butcherly sports or rather barbarous cruelties. The bulls did exceedingly well, but the Irish wolfe-dog exceeded, which was a tall greyhound, a stately creature indeed, who beat a cruel mastif ... Two poor dogs were killed: and so all ended with the ape on horseback and I most heartily weary of the rude and dirty pastime, which I had not seen I think in twenty years before.'

4. bull, beare, and horse. The cups which Otter designated by the fanciful names of the Bear Garden were doubtless of varying sizes, perhaps shaped or painted to represent the bull, bear, or horse. Cf. 4. 2. 139.

18. Saint George, and saint Andrew. This was a significant invocation, because, until James I joined the kingdoms, George of England and Andrew of Scotland had little real friendship for each other. Dekker, Wonderfull Yeare, Pr. Wks. 1.97: 'S. George and S. Andrew that many hundred yeares had defied one another, are now sworn brothers. And in his Kings Entertainment through the City of London (Mar. 15, 1603) he plans the following: 'St. George and St. Andrew (the Patrons of both Kingdomes) hauing along time lookt vpon each other, with countenance rather of meere strangers then of such neare Neighbours, vpon the present aspect of his Maiesties approach toward London, were (in his sight) to issue from two seuerall places on horsebacke, and in compleate Armour, their Brestes and Caparisons suited with the armes of England and Scotland ... to testifie their leagued combination, and new sworne Brotherhood.' St. George was a Cappadocian soldier who attempted to convert Diocletian, and was put to death Apr. 23, 303. The dragon was a late addition to his history. He was very popular in the Middle Ages, and Richard

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