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were cleared, and coach-making became a substantial trade.' Gosson has a rhymed arraignment in Pleasant Quippes for Vpstart Newfangled Gentlewomen (Hazlitt, 1866), p. 258. Strand. What is now a chief thoroughfare of London running east and west from Fleet Street to Charing Cross was a wretched street before 1532. It was paved in that year; by another half-century it had become one of the most fashionable parts of the town. Father Hubburd's Tales in Middleton's Works (ed. Bullen) 8. 77: "The lawyer embraced our young gentleman and gave him many riotous instructions how to carry himself: told him he must acquaint himself with the gallants of the Inns of Court, ... his lodging must be about the Strand,' &c.

38. China houses. These were places for exhibiting oriental goods which intercourse with China and Japan had lately brought to London. The wares, generally shown at first in private houses, were a matter of universal curiosity; the resorts became notorious, and the word 'China-house' came to signify a house of ill fame, a meaning which it kept until the eighteenth century. C. says they gradually changed their designation to that of India-shop, and that here were to be found teas, toys, ivories, shawls, India screens, cabinets, and various oriental cloths. From Dalrymple's Memoirs, Appendix, vol. 2. So, he draws the information that Motteux, the translator of Don Quixote, kept a famous one (India-shop) in Leadenhall Street, and Siam's in St. James' Street, was still better known. A

very curious scene took place between King William and his wife on the occasion of her visiting some of these places.' Exchange. Of the New Exchange in the Strand, Wh.-C. says: 'A kind of Bazaar of the south side of the Strand, was so called in contradistinction to the Royal Exchange; by James I it was named Britain's Burse. It was built on the site of the stables of Durham House, directly facing what is now Bedford Street, its frontage extending from George Court to Durham Street. ... The first stone was laid June 10, 1608; ... the building was opened Apr. II, 1609 ... in the presence of James I and his queen. ... It was long before the New Exchange attained to any great degree of favour or trade. London was not then large enough for more than one structure of the kind. Wh.-C. thinks that not until the Restoration did the Exchange in the Strand supplant the old one in the City, which was founded by Sir Thomas Gresham; the first stone was laid June 1566, and the building opened by Queen Elizabeth in person, Jan. 23, 1570-1.' The description of the shops, according to Howes, ed. 1631, p. 169, applies to either of the Exchanges: 'All the shops were well furnished according to that time; for then milliners or haberdashers in that place sold mouse-traps, bird-cages, shoeinghorns, lanthorns, and Jews' trumps, &c. There were also at that time that kept shops in the upper pawn of the Royal Exchange armourers that sold both old and new armour, apothecaries, booksellers, goldsmiths, and glass-sellers, although now (1631) it is as plenteously stored with all kinds of rich wares and fine commodities as any particular place in Europe, into which place many foreign princes daily send to be served of the best sort.' Dekker (1607) says of it: 'At euery turn a man is put in mind of Babel there is such a confusion of languages. There is a History of Three Royal Exchanges by J. G. White, London, 1896.

Act I. SCENE IIII. 2. honested. This word is used as a verb by Sir Henry Wotton, and in the same sense of conferring honor on'. Also by Roger Ascham: 'Surely you should please God, benefit your country, and honest your own name.'-C.

16. terrible boyes. N. E. D. under Boy 6, has: Riotous fellows of the time of Elizabeth and James I. Nares, quoting from Wilson's Life of James I: A set of young bucks who delighted to commit outrages and get into quarrels, divers sects of vicious persons, going under the title of roaring boys, bravadoes, roysters, &c., commit many insolencies: the streets swarm, night and day, with bloody quarrels, private duels fomented, &c.' The same sort of disorderly fellows were called Mohawks in the eighteenth century; they are described in the Spectator, and in The Mohawks, a novel by M. E. Braddon.

22. what's he. What is often used in the sense of 'of what kind or quality', where we should use who. Cf. Abbott, § 254 ; Epicane 2. 3. 84: What was that Syntagma, sir?' "What is he?'

also Hen. V 4. 3. 18, 2 Hen. IV 1. 2. 66. 25. animal amphibium, Jonson indulges in this joke again, S. of News 2. I, p. 204:

2.

6. 51;

MAD. I did ask him if he were Amphibion Broker.
SHUN. Why?
MAD. A creature of two natures

Because he had two offices.
Cf. note supra, p. 193, under 'Epicæne'; 1 Hen. IV 3. 3. 139(1597):

Host. Say, what beast, thou knave, thou?
Fal. What beast ! why, an otter.
PRINCE. An otter, Sir John! why an otter?

Fal. Why, she's neither, fish nor flesh; a man knows not where to have her. Selden, Table Talk, p. 69, echoes the same thing: "The Priour of St. John of Jerusalem ... was a kind of an Otter, a knight halfspiritual, and half-temporal.'

40-1. our coate Yellow. This motley coat of arms is a reminiscence of the garb worn by household fools in the days when they were part of aristocratic families. They were still to be seen in James's time, though they disappeared in the next generation. The coat of arms assigned to Sogliardo in Every Man Out 3. 1, P. 91, resembles La-Foole's.

44–5. antiquitie is not respected now. James I was subjected to unlimited criticism for the new aristocracy that filled his court, especially in regard to the lately knighted Scotch gentlemen. A slur cast upon them in Eastward Ho, a play written chiefly by Marston and Chapman, caused these two dramatists, together with Jonson, temporary imprisonment. Cf. Gifford's Memoir, Jonson's Works 1. 71. 45 ff. a brace of fat Does ... phesants ... godwits.

Sir Epicure Mammon does not disdain to enumerate these among the delicacies, Alchem. 2. I, p. 55: 'My foot-boy shall eat pheasants, calvered salmons, knots, godwits, lampreys.' Jonson, Epig. 101, Inviting a Friend to Supper, vol. 8. 204:

I'll tell you of more, and lie, so you will come:
Of partridge, pheasant, woodcock, of which some

May yet be there; and godwit if we can. Gervase Markham, English House-Wife, pp. 100–1 (1683), describes as follows a humble feast for the entertainment of his true and worthy friend'. There should be, he advised, sixteen full dishes, that is, dishes of meat that are of substance, and not empty, or for shew—as thus, for example; first, a shield of brawn with mustard;

secondly, a boy'ld capon; thirdly, a boyʻld piece of beef; fourthly, a chine of beef rosted; fifthly, a neat's tongue rosted; sixthly, a pig rosted; seventhly, chewets bak’d; eighthly, a goose rosted ; ninthly, a swan rosted; tenthly, a turkey rosted; the eleventh, a haunch of venison rosted; the twelfth, a pasty of venison; the thirteenth, a kid with a pudding in the belly; the fourteenth, an olive pye ; the fifteenth, a couple of capons; the sixteenth, a custard or dowsets. Now to these full dishes may be added sallet fricases, quelque choses, and devised paste, as many dishes more which make the full service no less than two and thirty dishes, which is as much as can conveniently stand on one table, and in one mess; and after this manner you may proportion both your second and third course, holding fulness on one half of the dishes, and shew in the other, which will be both frugal in the splendor, contentment to the guest; and much pleasure and delight to the beholder.'

58. gentleman-vsher. A gentleman-usher was originally an officer of the court, but private persons made his employment a fashion, and the office degenerated into that of an upper unliveried servant, whose chief duty was to wait upon the ladies. Some of the characteristics naturally acquired by these men are excellent subjects for satire : e.g. Broker in S. of News, and Ambler in D. A.

58-9. knighted in Ireland. This is perhaps glancing again at the 'Plantation in Ulster' by English landlords in 1605.

60. gold ierkin. La-Foole's gold-embroidered jerkin was probably his doublet, as Fairholt's assertion that the garments were identical seems borne out by such allusions as the following; Rowland, Knave of Hearts:

Because we walk in jerkins
Without an upper garment, cloak,

We must be tapsters running up and down.
Two G. of V. 2. 4. 18:

THURIO. And how quote you my folly?
VAL. I quote it in your jerkin.

THURIO. My jerkin is a doublet. Appended to the lines from Two G. of V. Knight has this note : *The jerkin, or jacket, was generally worn over the doublet; but occasionally the doublet was worn alone, and in many instances is confounded with the jerkin. Either had sleeves or not, as the wearer pleased.' The extravagance of these garments is often a subject of satire. Chatillon in King John 2. 1. 69 describes the English youth as men who :

Have sold their fortunes at their native homes,

Bearing their birthrights proudly on their backs. 61. Iland-voyage or at Caliz. Sir Francis Drake, as admiral of twenty-one ships, sailed to the West Indies in 1585, took St. Jago, St. Augustine, Cartagena, and St. Domingo. Upon Hispaniola's (St. Domingo's) largest town, St. Domingo, he levied a tribute of 25,000 ducats. It was on his return voyage that he carried home from Roanoke Island the discouraged settlers sent out by Raleigh to found the first English colony in America. Lord Admiral Howard sailed with a fleet of 150 vessels against Cadiz, and the Earl of Essex commanded the land forces. On June 21 the Spanish ships defending the town were entirely defeated. Essex was the first to leap on shore, and the English troops took the city. Motley, Hist. of the United Netherlands, vol. 3, ch. 32: “The king's navy was crippled, a great city was destroyed, and some millions of plunder had been obtained. But the permanent possession of Cadiz, which, in such case, Essex hoped to exchange for Calais, ... would have been more profitable to England. That the gallant adventurers in such expeditions as these were extravagantly dressed, and were in search of gold as well as honor, historical accounts of the voyages prove-e.g. Hakluyt; Purchas, Pilgrims; Fox Bourne, British Seamen under the Tudors.

Concerning Jonson's spelling Caliz, it is significant to find that Dekker spells it so throughout The Rauens Almanacke, Pr. Wks. 4. Cf. Introd. p. xvi.

64. tooke their money. Contemporary satirists complained in like manner of land-owners who considered that the only item in their list of relations with tenants, Brathwait, English Gentleman (ed. 1633), p. 332: 'How blame-worthy then are these Court-comets, whose onely delight is to admire themselves ... Whither are these great ones gone? To the Court; there to spend in boundlesse and immoderate riot, what their providant ancestors had so long preserved, and at whose doores so many needy soules have beene comfortably releeved.' Stubbes, Anat. of Ab., p. 116: ‘Land lords make merchandise of their pore tenants, racking their rents, raising

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