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Four thousand]

S. MATTHEW. (miraculously fed. 29 And Jesus departed from thence, 33 And his disciples say unto him, and came nigh unto the sea of Galilee; Whence should we have so much and went up into a mountain, and bread in the wilderness, as to fill so sat down there,

great a multitude ? 30 And great multitudes came unto 34 And Jesus saith unto them, him, having with them those that How many loaves have ye? And they were lame, blind, dumb, maimed, said, Seven, and a few little fishes. and many others, and cast them 35 And he commanded the multidown at Jesus' feet; and he healed tude to sit down on the ground. them:

36 And he took the seven loaves 31 Insomuch that the multitude and the fishes, and gave thanks, and wondered, when they saw the dumb brake them, and gave to his disciples, to speak, the maimed to be whole, the and the disciples to the multitude. lame to walk, and the blind to see: 37 And they did all eat, and were and they glorified the God of Israel. filled : and they took up of the broken

32 Then Jesus called his disciples meat that was left seven baskets full. unto him, and said, I have compassion 38 And they that did eat were four on the multitude, because they continue thousand men, beside women and with me now three days, and have children. nothing to eat : and I will not send 39 And he sent away the multitude, them away fasting, lest they faint in and took ship, and came into the coasts

of Magdala. (H)

the way.

EXPOSITION-Chap. XV. Continued. (H) Ver. 21 - 39. The daughter of a stowed upon our children,-At first Jesus woman of Canaan healed, with sundry seems to turn a deaf ear towards ber, fol other miracles. This woman, though of " he answered her not a word.” This Canaan's accursed race (who, according however, did not dismay her : she exhibited to Lightfoot, occupied the country about that perseverance which our Lord had re Tyre and Sidon), was a remarkable modu commended in his sermon on the mount ment, not only of our Lord's miraculous She asks till she receives ; she seeks til power, but also of his saving grace ; and she finds; and she knocks till the door o in her was exhibited a specimen of that mercy is effectually opened. In short, she mercy promised to the Gentiles. It is ob wearies out the disciples (though she could servable, that though our Lord confined nut their master), and they beg him the ministry of his Apostles, during his life dismiss her by an answer of some kind of time, to the Jews, he did not so restrict his other, though they seem doubtful wha own ministrations ; but in one instance that should be, as they perceived that sh visited a Samaritan woman ; in another, was a Gentile. To them be replied, not t4 the servant of a Roman centurion; and in her, “I am not sent but to the lost sheep a third, this “outcast among the heathen;" of the house of Israel." Upon this, sha this Syro-phænician woman, his conduct pressed nearer to bim, till she fell dow1 towards whom appears most extraordinary, at bis feet and worshipped him, saying till explained by the sequel. Jesus was “ Lord, help me !" the language both now in the farther part of Galilee, on the anxiety and distress. The Lord now con very boundary of Judea, and she ran cry descended to speak to her; but not wit ing after him, “ Have mercy upon me, o his usual tenderness: " It is not met Lord :" and at the same time evinced her (said he) to take the children's bread an faith in him, by calling bim, “ the Son of to cast it unto dogs." At this word sli David," or the Messiah. She then ear- eagerly caught, “ Truth, Lord," said shi nestly implored mercy on herself, by the I am a Gentile dog, “yet the dogs eat healing of her daughter, who was griev. the cruinbs wbich fall fron their master ously vexed with a demon. On this we table." The Saviour appears now con may observe, by the way, that some of the pletely overcome with her importunity greatest mercies we receive, are those be- His bowels doubtless yearned over her (

NOTES-Chap. XV. Con. Ver. 32. Lest they faint - Camp. “Lest their hand-baskets, a different word from what is used strength fail.”

the preceding miracle, cbap. xiv. 20. Ver. 37, Baskels-Camp. “Maunds ; properly,

The signs}
CHAP, XVI,

(of the times.

heed and beware of the leaven of the CHAP. XVI.

Pharisees and of the Sadducees.

7 And they reasoned among themTHE Pharisees also with the Saddu- selves, saying, It is because we have

cees came, and tempting desired taken no bread. bim that he would shew them a sign 8 Which when Jesus perceived, he from heaven.

said onto them, 0 ye of little faith, 2 He answered and said unto why reason ye among yourselves, bethem, When it is evening, ye say, It cause ye have brought no bread ? meill be fair weather : for the sky 9 Do ye not yet understand, neiis red.

ther remember the five loaves of the 3 And in the morning, It will be five thousand, and how many baskets foul weather to-day: for the sky is ye took up? red and lowring. Oye hypocrites, 10 Neither the seven loaves of the ye can discero the face of the sky; four thousand, and how many baskets but can ye not discern the signs of the ye took up? times?

11 How is it that ye do not under4 A wieked and adulterous genera- stand that I spake it not to you contion seeketh after a siga; and there cerning bread, that ye should beware shall no siga be given unto it, but the of the leaven of the Pharisees and of sige of the prophet Jonas. And he the Sadducees? left them, and departed.

12 Then understood they how that 5 And when his disciples were he bade them not beware of the leaven come to the other side, they had of bread, but of the doctrine of the forgotten to take bread.

Pharisees and of the Sadducees. (1) 6 Then Jesus said unto them, Take 138 When Jesus came into the coasts

2

EXPOSITION. led those of Joseph when he spake roughly of hunger and fatigue, and our Saviour fed to his brethren), and he exclaimed, * ó them by a miracle, so similar to that in the Woman! great is thy faith: be it unto preceding chapter, that we need not dwell thet according to thy word!"

on it; yet so varied in its circumstances as Truth, Lord,” we were Gentile doge. to demonstrate it was not the same. (See “Lord, how should we (Christians) bless ch. xvi. 9.) The disciples, however, reatby name, that we of dogs are made chil soned and acted as if they had totally for. dren! How sbould we fear thy justice, gotten the preceding event; which would since thine ancient people are become dogs! appear the more remarkable, if we were not Olet us not be high-minded, but tremble. ourselves equally prone to forget providenIf they were cut off who crucified thee in tial appearances and supplies. thine hambled state, what may we expect who crucify thee daily in thy glory?" (Bp.

CHAP. XVI.

(1) Ver. 1-12. The Pharisees require a After the cure of this Gentile's daughter, sign, and are refused: the disciples cautioned our Lord, as he was wont, went up into the against their doctrines.-On a former occaside of a mountain, where he was speedily sion (chap. xii. 38), certain Scribes and Enrrounded with bearers, and with proper Pharisees had required a sign from heaven, sabjects for the exertion of his miraculous and were refused: another party of Phari. power; and when the multitude saw the sees now come, and bring certain of the Wonders which Jesus wrought, they were Sadducees with them, who probably imaSot only struck with admiration, but “ glo- gined they might be able to elicit from rified the God of Israel."

our Saviour what the others could not. As After three days (or on the third day), they proposed the same question, they rethe peuple probably discovered symptoms ceived the like answer ; with a reproof, at

NOTES, CHAP. XVI. Ver. 3. It nill be foul to day- Ver. 4. A wicked and adulterous generation.Dod. "Tempestuous.”— The sky is red. The See ch. xii. 38, 39.

2 eins were observed by the heathen, and are Ver. 13. Cesarea Philippi.-Philip the Tetrarch Sented by ourselves, even in this climate, and to called the chief city of this tract of land (Gennesaret)

Cæsarea Philippi, in honour of Tiberius Cæsar, as

Le reuni daz.

Christ's enquiry]
S. MATTHEW.

[of Peter. of Cesarea Philippi, he asked his dis. Elias; and others, Jeremias, or one of ciples, saying, Whom do men say the prophets. that I, the Son of man, am?

15 He saith unto them, But whom 14 And they said, Some say that say ye that I am ? thou art John the Baptist : some 16 And Simon Peter answered and

EXPOSITION-Chap. XVI. Continued. the same time, for their want of discern- rewards and punishments, from which ment and of candour, in not appreciating some of his disciples inferred, that none the evidences of his mission, with which were to be expected ; and hence the sect they were surrounded. Upon this, our Sa- degenerated into infidelity, and denied, not viour left them, without any farther reply, vnly the resurrection of the body, but also and again entering a small vessel, departed the being of angels, or spirits, and conseto the other side of the lake. When they quently a future state. (Acts xxiii. 8.).... arrived, he began to caution his disciples It has been said, that they rejected all the to “ beware of the leaven of the Pharisees sacred writings but those of Moses; and it and of the Sadducees.” Upon this, they is probable that some did so, but this was were at first confounded, taking our Lord's not universally the case. It is certain that words literally, as if he had spoken of they rejected the traditions of the elders, bread; whereas our Lord had before used and paid little attention to any religious the term in respect of doctrine, in speaking forms.” But they were, however, very of his new dispensation (chap. xiii. 33). strict in the administration of justice. In Jesus, therefore, reproved the dulness of their philosophy they were Epicureans, or their apprehension, and gave them to un materialists, but by no means Necessarians. derstand that he referred to the doctrines There was another sect, called Essenes, of these Jewish sects, on which this seems mentioned by Josephus, but not in the New the proper place to offer a few remarks. Testament. This may be accounted for,

The Pharisees were esteemed the most from their living in a kind of monkish orthodox sect among the Jews, and held in community, and never attending the Jewish the highest respect. Their name, (from festivities, or the temple service. They the Hebrew Pharosh) implies separation; believed in the immortality of the soul, not that they separated from commupion but not in the resurrection of the body with the Sadducees, or other sects, but They were moral, abstemious, and recluse they professed an extraordinary degree of and in their interpretations of the Scrip moral and ritual purity, and the highest tures they were highly mystical and alle veneration for the traditions of the elders. gorical. They disapproved of vatbs and They also avowed their belief in the doc- war, and wholly rejected the traditions a trines of a future state, and the resurrec- the elders. (For farther accounts, the tion. (See Acts xxiii.3; xxiv. 15.) “ It writer takes the liberty to refer to hi is somewhat doubtful, however, what the “ Dictionary of all Religions," 3d Ed., and Pharisees meant by the last doctrine. Ac the authorities there named.) cording to Josephus, it was no more than a There is no difficulty in ascertainin Pythagorean resurrection; that is, a re- which of these doctrines were here intende surrection of the soul, by its transmigra- as their leaven. The leaven of the Phari tion into another body, and being born sees was their hypocrisy and superstition anew with it. From this resurrection, he the leaven of the Sadducees, licentiousnes says, they excluded all who were notori- and infidelity: but wbat was the leaven a ously wicked, being of opinion, that the Herod, (which the evangelist Mark add souls of such persons were transmitted into ch. iii. 6) is not so clear. The Herodian a state of everlasting woe. As to inferior however, appear to have been rather a pa crimes, they held, that they were punished litical party, which supported Herod in the bodies wbich the souls of those who family, and was willing to fatter hinn i committed them were next sent into." all bis measures, than a religious sec (Allusions to these principles inay be found Sycophancy and Aattery, therefore, seei in Jobo ix. 2; Matt. xvi. 6, 14; and in the to be the leaven of the Herodians; an Apocrypha, Wisd. viji. 20.)

such are the vices against which our Lor · The Sadducees, another Jewish sect, are here cautions his disciples. And the unis said to have originated with one Sadoc, in of these discordant sects against Chris the third century before Christ. This man shows that their enmity against him w “ inculcated a pure and disinterested priu. greater than their enmity against eat ciple of obedience to God, independent of other.

NOTES-Chap. XVI. Con. another Cæsarea (Acts viij. 40) had been thus named Ver. 16. The Son, &c. - In a preceding chapi in honour of Augustos. Doddr,

when Jesus bad walked upon the sea, and quiet

Peter's noble]
CHAP. XVI.

[confession. said, Thou art the Christ, the Son of 19 And I will give unto thee the the living God.

keys of the kingdom of heaven : and 17 And Jesus answered and said whatsoever thou shalt bind on earth unto him, Blessed art thou, Simon shall be bound in heaven : and whatBar-jona : for flesh and blood hath not soever thou shalt loose on earth shall revealed it upto thee, but my Father be loosed in heaven. which is in heaven.

20 Then charged he his disciples 18 And I say also unto thee, That that they should tell no man that he thou art Peter, and upon this rock I was Jesus the Christ. (K) will build my church ; and the gates of 214 From that time forth began hell shall not prevail against it.

ainst it.

Jesus to shew unto his disciples, how

EXPOSITION. (K) Ver.13–20. Simon Peter's confes- ples, and now puts to us : “ Whom say ye

, and our Lord's inference therefrom.- that I am ?" Peter answered for the rest Our Lord elicits the opinion of Péter and May he answer for us also ? Do we believe his fellow disciples, by first enquiring the that Christ the Son of man is also the Son opinion of others : « Wbom do men say of the living God? It is true that this that, the Son of man, am ?" The answer name is sometimes used as synonymous setus to refer to the Pythagorean notion, with the Son of man (comp. ver. 13 and 16); mentioned in the preceding section, that But it is also true that it implies something the soul of John the Baptist, or one of the more : it implies a participation of the diprophets, was returned to animate the body vine nature; and hence, when Jesus himof cur Saviour,“ But whom say ye that self answered to that designation, “ Then I am " is the pointed and interesting ques. the high priest rent bis garments, saying, too, which be then put to his own disci. He hath blasphemed :" (ch. xxvi. 63-65.)

NOTes. pestthe whole ship's crew adored him, as against the church shall be rendered abortive, and Sab of God. (cbap. xiv. 33.) But the critics remarks, that it was considered in the same light by

barked, that in that case the emphatic arti Chrysostom, the most eloquent of the Greek fathers.

viating in the Greek original and even But, Dr. Campbell, who follows Grotius, here and saport himself translates it, “ Thou art A Son of always explains it in reference to the state of the God;"er* the Son of God, but this bas the em dead in general, considering death as the gate to the ertele-The Son of the living God!"

invisible world, and be regards the expression as Ver. 1. Siksa Bar-jong-or the sou

equivalent to saying, the church shall never die, or E. Tkom art Peter. - The Catholics, as men become extinct.-On the word Hades, see Note on

near Exposition, explain the name PATER Ps. xvi. 10. G. Petral

Prfraa) to mean a rock, but a learned Lexico. Ver. 19. I will give unto thee the keys, &c.-Keys Papher of the 17th century (Edw:

were the emblems of office, and in some coses were Petras (ie. Peter) always signities a stone, so large as to be carried on the shoulder. Isa. ix. 6: er arack;" hich is confirmed by another learned xxii. 20. And according to the nature of the key, waa, Grerrille Sharp, Esq., who appeals to the was the authority. The key of the house (or palace)

ta of Scapula, Schrevelius, Dawson, Park of David, implied great influence and authority, as et ke. to wbieb might be added, many others of we see in the passage just quoted. we highest literary agthority. The Syro-Chaldaic. lbid. The keys of the kingdom.-The doctrine of C s, also simply means a stone. See John the Church of Rome on this subject, is too gross

kearts on an important Passage," &c. and absurd to be admitted into our Exposition, or bud. En this rock-It must be acknowledged, to require an answer; but we shall give a short au Cyril, Allary. Basil. and otber Fathers in com specimen from the Rhemish expositors, already reEphed with the church of Rome, did sometimes ferred to. The keys; that is, (say they) “The aagh not uniformly explain this rock of Peter; authority, or chair of doctrine, knowledge, judg

it is also true that Hilary, Theophylact, and ment, and discretion between true and false doc. berostora (a puch greater man), explain the trine, the height of government, the power of making

di Pets confession. So the latter (Chrysos lans," &c. &c. Whatsoever thou shalt bind. 4, "Oa this rock, not u pon Peter, for be did not All kind of discipline and punishment of offenders.

his chored upon the man, but upon his faith :") either spiritual or corporal. .... is comprised under Siste elsewhere expresses i

esses it, “ his confession."
n

the word BIND; of which sort be excommunications, table defence of the Protestant Religion. anathemas, suspensions, degradations, and other eerse of Lectures by the Rev. Jos. Fletcher

censures and penances enjoined, either in the sacra. L o Stepper. 8vo. Leet.

ment of penance, or in the exterior courts of the Was been remarked, that this passage contains a church, for punishment of other crimes, and specially Forssamaria, or play of words, such as is not untre. of heresy, and rebellion against the church, and the et in the Hebrew language : "Thou art Peterchief pastors thereof."

Peros), a stone : and upon this rock (Petra) Here is the true source of all papal persecution ! I build ay cherch. ke. See Note on Micabili. Here are the claws of the Apocryphal beast! Rev, xiii. ibd. The act of 2 Gr. Hades. This phrase Ver. 20. Jesus-wanting in many MSS, and some s prently explained. Schleasner, who, in bis ancient versions, and the sense seems clearer with,

Dean, represents hades as sometimes meaning out it.

e place of punisment, here understands Ver. 21. From that time forth-that is, at differ. reby, the violence and power of the devil, and of ent times after this, as opportunity permitted. * Save adversaries of Christ, whose efforts

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its the church and other Fathers hedged,

Jesus foretells]
S. MATTHEW.

[his sufferings. that he must go unto Jerusalem, and killed, and be raised again the third suffer many things of the elders and day. chief priests and scribes, and be 22 Then Peter took him, and began

EXPOSITION-Chap. XVI. Continued. and hence our Lord concluded that this 69_-72), the church must have fallen with was not revealed to Peter by any of his fel. him. low disciples, nor even by his own natural But our Lord also gave the keys of powers, but by the Father only : for Peter the kingdom of heaven" to Peter; by seems to have been the first disciple that which we understand, that it was his properly understood the true character of special privilege to open the new dispensa his Master; though perhaps he did not yet tion, by first preaching the gospel to the fully understand the “ good confession" Gentiles, as we have already remarked he that he had now made.

did. He opened the kingdom of heaven The following words “ Thou art Peter, to all nations, and freely invited them to and upon this Rock will I build my church," enter : he also opened the sacred mysterie are of peculiar importance in our contro of the types and prophecies, and showed versy with the church of Rome, which his hearers somewhat of the glory of bi founds thereon the primacy of st. Peter, Master in all the institutions of Moses ; ir who is the foundation of their church, all the buds and blossoms of Aaron's rod though not of ours. Thus the Rhemish Thus, as an able minister of the New Tes: translators explain the words, “ Christ tament, did he open and explain the gos foretold and appointed (John i. 42) that pel. But he bound also; and as his open this man, named Simon, should afterwarding was expository, so was his binding de be called Cephas, or Petrus, that is to say, clarative. This was in perfect accordance a rock; not then uttering the cause, but with the language of the prophets, whe now expressing the same, viz. (as St. Cyril were said to set up," or " pull down' writeth). For that upon him (Peter), as states and kingdoms, when they were di upon a firm rock, his church should be rected prophetically to announce the de huilded.'” It is also the avowed doctrine crees of God respecting them. (Jer. i. 10. of the Catholic church to this day, “ that This explanation of binding and loosing, a our Lord did make St. Peter the chief pastor declarative and expository, is also, accordi of the church, giving him a name that im- ing to Dr. Lighifoot, quite in harmony plied no less than being a rock, or founda- with the language of the ancient Rabbins tion stone, declaring that upon this rock he who used them in the sense of teaching would build his church." (Bp. Chaloner's what was right, and probibiting what wa Grounds of the Old Religion, sect. i.) Now wrong. Connecting this passage with th in answer to this, 1. Protestants deny that preceding, Mr. Prebendary Townsend thu Peter signifies“ a rock," and say it signi- judiciously parapbrases them, in consist fies a stone only; or, at most, a fragment ency with this idea. “ I am about to build of a rock. 2. They contend Peter bimself a Gentile church," saith Christ," and was not the foundation rock here spoken thee, O Peter, do 1 give the keys of th of, but only one of the chosen stones laid kingdom of heaven, that then thou mayeg on that rock, on which the church was first open the door of faith to them: but built. (Ephes. ii. 20; Rev. xxi. 14.) 3. They thou askest by what rule that church is t believe that Peter's noble confession (ver. be governed, when the Mosaic rule ma 16), or ratber, Christ himself, the subject seem so improper for it, thou shalt be s of 'that confession, is the Rock both of the guided by the Holy Spirit, that wbatsoeve church and of every individual believer of the law of Moses thou shalt forbid them (1 Cor. iii, 11); and that the title (Rock) is shall be forbidden; whatsoever thou grant indeed an evidence of our Lord's divinity; est them shall be granted, and that unde for “ Who is a rock, save our God ?!” Je- a sanction made in heaven." Mr. T. her hovah was the Rock of Israel (Deut. xxxii. instances, in the opening the gate of th 30, 31): and the Apostle Paul explains gospel to the Gentiles, and in the permis that rock to signify (not Peter, but) Christ sion of food previously forbidden as un himself. (1 Cor. x. 4.) Lastly, they add, clean. (New Test. Arr. vol. i. p. 285, 286, that if Peter had been that rock, when he As to St. Peter's and the Pope's supre fell, by denying his Master (chap. xxvi. macy, it is so far from being founded o

NOTES-Chap. XVI. Con. Ver. 22. To rebuke him-this implies great pre. Lord!" The use of this expression in the LXX, at sumption in Peter, and our Lord's answer shows swers to “ God forbid and is go translated I Sau that it was so considered by his Master. Be it xiv. 45; 1 Chron. xi. 19; also 1 Mac. ij. 21. Se far from theel-Marg. “ Pity thyself ;” but others Campbell. render it, still more literally, Mercy on thee,

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